Counter visits from more than 160  countries and 1400 universities (details)
Puro Chile the memory of the people
Project for the First People's Century

Be an Effective Agent for Change! a post-graduate course in Education for Sustainability

On Planning for Development:   Poverty
rural development - agrarian policies - agribusinessland grab - food - migration - globalization

From Economic and Political Weekly
April 1, 2006
Vol. XLI, no. 13 (pp.1241-6)

Poverty and Capitalism
Barbara Harriss-White - 2006
University Professor of Development Studies; Director of the School of Interdisciplinary Area Studies programme - Faculty of Oriental Studies - University of Oxford

The 21st century has witnessed an impoverishment of the concept of development.

From its start as a project of capitalist industrialisation and agrarian change, the political direction and social transformation that accompany this process – and the deliberate attempt to order and mitigate its necessary ill effects on human beings and their habitats – development has been reduced to an assault on poverty, apparently driven by international aid, trade and financial agencies and festooned in targets. At the same time, the concept of poverty has been enriched by being recognised as having many dimensions – monetary/income poverty, human development poverty, social exclusion and poor peoples’ own understandings developed through participatory interactions [Laderchi et al 2003].

While it may be possible to mitigate poverty through social transfers, it is not possible to eradicate the processes that create poverty under capitalism.

Eight such processes are discussed: the creation of the preconditions; petty commodity production and trade; technological change and unemployment; (petty) commodification; harmful commodities and waste; pauperising crises; climate-change-related pauperisation; and the unrequired, incapacitated and/or dependent human body under capitalism. Ways to regulate these processes and to protect against their impact are discussed.

From The Washington Post Blogs - 08/01/2014

Everything you need to know about the war on poverty

By Dylan Matthews Fifty years ago today, President Lyndon Johnson declared "unconditional war" on poverty. Depending on your ideological priors, the ensuing effort was either "a catastrophe" (Heritage's Robert Rector) or "lived up to our best hopes as a people who value the dignity and potential of every human being" (the White House's news release on the anniversary). Luckily, we have actual data on these matters which clarify what exactly happened after Johnson's declaration, and the role government programs played. Here's what you need to know.

From The Washington Post Blogs - December 10, 2013

Here’s how the safety net has — and hasn’t — reduced poverty in the U.S.

By Brad Plumer

It's been almost half a century since Lyndon Johnson launched the "war on poverty" in his 1964 State of the Union address. So how is that all going?

One in three Americans slipped below the poverty line between 2009 and 2011

By Brad Plumer - January  8, 2014

How many people in the United States are poor? It’s a surprisingly tricky question.

From BBC News - 15 April 2011
Poverty hitting pupils' learning, survey suggests

Many pupils living in poverty come to school hungry, tired and in worn-out clothes, a survey by the ATL teachers' union has suggested.
More than three-quarters of 627 primary, secondary and college teachers in England, Wales and Northern Ireland who responded to the survey believed they taught pupils living in poverty.
And about 40% said the problem had increased since the recession
The government said it was targeting investment at the poorest families.
More than 85% of the teachers who responded to the survey said they believed that poverty had a negative impact on the well-being of pupils they taught.

The Republic of Uganda
National Development Plan (2010/11 - 2014/15)
Vision: A transformed Ugandan society from a peasant to a modern and prosperous country within 30 years
Theme: Growth, employment and socio-economic transformation for prosperity
International Monetary Fund - May 2010
IMF Country Report No. 10/141 March, 2010
Uganda: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper
Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) are prepared by member countries in broad consultation with stakeholders and development partners, including the staffs of the World Bank and the IMF. Updated every three years with annual progress reports, they describe the country’s macroeconomic, structural, and social policies in support of growth and poverty reduction, as well as associated external financing needs and major sources of financing. This country document for the Republic of Uganda, dated March 2010, is being made available on the IMF website by agreement with the member country as a service to users of the IMF website.
Copies of this report are available to the public from International Monetary Fund · Publication Services
700 19th Street, N.W. · Washington, D.C. 20431
Telephone: (202) 623-7430 · Telefax: (202) 623-7201
E-mail: Internet:
International Monetary Fund - Washington, D.C.
U.K. House of Commons
International Development Committee
Urbanisation and Poverty
Volume I - 2009

Some of DFID’s work to address urban poverty is impressive and is making a noticeable contribution towards meeting the Millennium Development Goal 7 target on slum upgrading. However, the Department needs to sharpen and refine its approaches to urban poverty. The last five years have seen rapid urbanisation, almost all of it within developing countries, yet DFID—along with other donors—has downgraded its support to urban development over this period. This process should be reversed.

The Department overwhelmingly focuses its efforts to address urban poverty in Asian, rather than African, countries. This balance needs to be redressed. Africa is the world’s fastest urbanising region and it has the highest proportion of slum dwellers. Without a new and comprehensive approach to urban development in Africa, a number of cities could face a humanitarian crisis in as little as five years’ time, given the huge expansion of their urban populations. Addressing urban poverty offers the opportunity to tackle wider development issues such as: unemployment and crime; social exclusion; population growth; and climate change and the environment.

From the World Bank, August 2008
The developing world is poorer than we thought, but no less successful in the fight against poverty
by Chen Shaohua and Martin Ravallion

The paper presents a major overhaul to the World Bank's past estimates of global poverty, incorporating new and better data. Extreme poverty-as judged by what "poverty" means in the world's poorest countries-is found to be more pervasive than we thought. Yet the data also provide robust evidence of continually declining poverty incidence and depth since the early 1980s. For 2005 we estimate that 1.4 billion people, or one quarter of the population of the developing world, lived below our international line of $1.25 a day in 2005 prices; 25 years earlier there were 1.9 billion poor, or one half of the population. Progress was uneven across regions. The poverty rate in East Asia fell from almost 80 percent to under 20 percent over this period. By contrast it stayed at around 50 percent in Sub-Saharan Africa, though with signs of progress since the mid 1990s. Because of lags in survey data availability, these estimates do not yet reflect the sharp rise in food prices since 2005.
Collection Title: Policy Research working papers

World Bank’s $1.25/day poverty measure- countering the latest criticisms
M. Ravaillon - January 2010

(Reply to Angus Deaton’s paper, “Price Indexes, Inequality and the Measurement of World Poverty”)
Since its 1990 World Development Report (WDR) on Poverty, the World Bank has anchored its international poverty lines to the national poverty lines used in the poorest countries. The original “$1 a day” line was a typical line amongst low-income countries in the data available at the time of the 1990 WDR. This is acknowledged to be a frugal line; naturally richer countries have higher national poverty lines. One could hardly argue that the people in the world who are poor by the standards of the poorest countries are not in fact poor. This gives the global poverty line a salience in focusing on the world’s poorest that a higher line would not have. Even so, the Bank has never insisted on using just one line; indeed, in its work with specific developing countries, the Bank uses the national poverty line considered most appropriate in each country.
Naturally there is now much more data available than was the case in 1990. The original data set on national poverty lines covered only 22 developing countries, all for the 1980s and mainly drawn from academic studies. This sample had particularly weak coverage of Africa and the lines were sometimes only for rural areas and some excluded non-food needs. Since then, there has been a large expansion in the number of countries that have set their own national poverty lines. In its latest update, the Bank has used national poverty lines for 75 developing countries.

World Bank Working Paper May - 2008
Global Poverty and Inequality: A Review of the Evidence
Francisco H.G. Ferreira and Martin Ravallion

Drawing on a compilation of data from household surveys representing 130 countries, many over a period of 25 years, this paper reviews the evidence on levels and recent trends in global poverty and income inequality. It documents the negative correlations between both poverty and inequality indices, on the one hand, and mean income per capita on the other.
It points to the dominant role of Asia in accounting for the bulk of the world’s poverty reduction since 1981. The evolution of global inequality in the last decades is also described, with special emphasis on the different trends of inequality within and between countries. The statistical relationships between growth, inequality and poverty are discussed, as is the correlation between inequality and the growth elasticity of poverty reduction. Some of the recent literature on the drivers of distributional change in developing countries is also reviewed

From the International Institute for Environment and Development - December 2009 - IIED, CLACC

Climate change and the urban poor. Risk and resilience in 15 of the world's most vulnerable cities

Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya, Bangladesh, Benin, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Sudan, Nepal, Zimbabwe, Uganda, Zambia, Malawi
Urban, Climate Change

"This report outlines lessons learnt regarding the principal effects of climate change on 15 cities
in low-income countries, and what makes them vulnerable to these effects. Coastal cities are susceptible to a rise in sea level and are made vulnerable by the low-lying land they are often built on, while dryland cities suffer from scarce water resources due to extended periods of climate change-induced drought. In these and other inland cities, the level of poverty, the rapid pace of urbanization and a lack of education about climate change increase vulnerability and aggravate the effects of climate change. Innovative urban policies and practices have shown that adaptation to some of these effects is possible and can be built into development plans. These include community-based initiatives led by organizations formed by the urban poor, and local governments working in partnership with their low-income populations".

28 March 2007
From The World Bank on financial and private sector development
The Next 4 Billion: Market Size and Business Strategy at the Base of the Pyramid - March 2007
Four billion people who live in relative poverty have purchasing power representing a $5 trillion market, according to a report by the IFC, the private sector arm of the World Bank Group, and World Resources Institute (WRI).
The report is the first to measure the size of markets at the base of the economic pyramid using income and expenditure data from household surveys. The analysis is complemented by an overview of business strategies from successful enterprises operating in these markets.

E. Aryeetey, 2005
Globalization, employment and poverty in Ghana
Globalization has definitely created opportunities for various parts of the economy to gain access to larger pools of resources as well as markets. While this may generally be perceived to have impacted positively on the beneficiaries, there are also indications that globalization has introduced new risks to environments that were hitherto closed to those risks. The increased risk may, in some cases, have accentuated poverty and worsened income distribution in parts of the country.
M. Nissanke and E. Thorbecke, 2005
The impact of globalization on the World's poor: transmission mechanisms
This process of globalisation is one of the most critical developments affecting the evolution of national economies. Globalization offers participating countries new opportunities for accelerating growth and development but, at the same time, it also poses challenges to, and imposes constraints on policy makers in the management of national, regional and global economic systems. While the opportunities offered by globalization can be large, a question is often raised as to whether the actual distribution of gains is fair, in particular, whether the poor benefit less than proportionately from globalization – and could under some circumstances actually be hurt by it.
United Nations University
WIDER Conference on
Spatial Inequality in Asia
UNU Tokyo, 28-29 March 2003
Themes addressed by the conference:
- Spatial inequality in China
- Inequality and conflict
- Poverty and inequality in India
- Poverty in Asia
- Location and Migration
- Trade and inequality
- Spatial inequality in Asia
- Spatial inequalities in Former Soviet Union
From The Globalist - March 15 2006
Poverty Traps and Global Development
Is global poverty today the fault of the poor or part of a vicious cycle?
By Stephen C. Smith
More than 800 million across the world suffer from chronic hunger. Is it their fault? No, says Stephen C. Smith, the author of “Ending Global Poverty: A Guide to What Works.” Instead, these people are trapped in a vicious cycle. He examines 12 common poverty traps and argues that sometimes traps are deliberately set by the rich to ensnare the poor — while the rich reap the financial benefits.

Asia — A Vision for 2015
Despite substantial growth, what needs to be done to reduce poverty in Asia?
By Matthew Hulbert

How to Help the Poor Out of Poverty
Will aid initiatives help the poor overcome poverty or only lead to a worsening of the situation?
By Stephen C. Smith

Currently, the world is governed by one-dollar-one-vote, giving control to rich country donors. Ultimately, the structure of World Bank decisionmaking will have to give way to a more people-friendly formula.

From The World Bank
Voices of the Poor Volume 1 -2000
Can anyone hear us? by Deepa Narayan, Raj Patel, Kai Schafft, Anne Rademacher and Sarah Koch-Schulte

The World Bank on poverty: the point of view of market fundamentalists
World Development Report 1990: Poverty
"This Report is about poverty in the developing world -in other words, it is concerned with the poorest of the world's poor. It seeks first to measure poverty, qualitatively as well as quantitatively. It then tries to draw lessons for policy from the experience of countries that have succeed in reducing poverty. It ends with a question that is also a challenge: what might be achieved if governments in rich and poor countries alike made it their goal to attack poverty in this closing decade of the twentieth century?"...
R. Kanbur (1990)
Poverty and Development: The Human Development Report and the World Development Report, 1990
1. Introduction
2. Measuring Poverty
3. Evolution of Poverty in the Developing World
4. Policies and Poverty
4.1 Who are the poor, and how can they be helped?
4.2 What does country experience tell us?
4.3 Public Expenditures, Targeting and Poverty Alleviation
4.4 Stabilization, Adjustment and Poverty
5. Conclusion
6 September 2005
Capitalist Social Terrorism

Note by Róbinson Rojas: Capitalist market work concentrating capital in the hand of a minority and creating  capitalist economic terrorism (as I defined it elsewhere)  because capital concentration give also overwhelming political power to the big capitalists and their political servants. From the above capital social terrorism arises, which dramatically polarizes society. United States is the best example of this capitalist social terrorism in action which Hurricane Katrina uncovered for the whole world to see. In United States like in any modern capitalist society creation of wealth goes parallel to creation of inequality and poverty. The readers below, taken from The Washington Post and The New York Times, are a useful description of the main features of capitalist social terrorism. (6 September 2005)
From The New York Times - 8 September 2005
Macabre Reminder: The Corpse on Union Street
By Dan Barry
NEW ORLEANS, - In the downtown business district here, on a dry stretch of Union Street, past the Omni Bank automated teller machine, across from a parking garage offering "early bird" rates: a corpse. Its feet jut from a damp blue tarp. Its knees rise in rigor mortis. Six National Guardsmen walked up to it on Tuesday afternoon and two blessed themselves with the sign of the cross. One soldier took a parting snapshot like some visiting conventioneer, and they walked away. New Orleans, September 2005.
From The Washington Post - 6 September 2005
The Lagging Poor
 "The Census Bureau's annual report on income, poverty and health insurance in the United States is not alarming -- but neither is it cheering, or even reassuring. Rather, the numbers underscore the lagging and uneven nature of the economic recovery since the 2001 recession. According to the new data, 4 million more people were living in poverty in 2004 than in 2001, and 4.6 million more people lacked health insurance."
From The New York Times - 6 September 2005
The Larger Shame

The wretchedness coming across our television screens from Louisiana has illuminated the way children sometimes pay with their lives, even in America, for being born to poor families.

From The Washington Post - 5 September 2005
Disaster Cleanup

Halliburton Subsidiary Taps Contract For Repairs
By Lolita C. Baldor
An Arlington-based Halliburton Co. subsidiary that has been criticized for its reconstruction work in Iraq has begun tapping a $500 million Navy contract to do emergency repairs at Gulf Coast naval and Marine facilities damaged by Hurricane Katrina.
From The Washington Post - 3 September 2005
Kanye West's Torrent of Criticism, Live on NBC
"I hate the way they portray us in the media. You see a black family, it says, "They're looting." You see a white family, it says, "They're looking for food." And, you know, it's been five days [waiting for federal help] because most of the people are black."
By Lisa de Moraes

From The Washington Post - 3 September 2005
Oil Firms Turn Katrina Into Profits, Clinton Says
N.Y. Senator Criticizes Lack of National Leadership, Freedom From Imports
By Dan Balz

From The New York Times - 3 September 2005

Katrina's Assault on Washington
Do not be misled by Congress's approval of $10.5 billion in relief for the Hurricane Katrina victims. That's prompted by the graphic shock of the news coverage from New Orleans and the region, where the devastation catapults daily, in heartbreaking contrast with the slo-mo bumblings of government.
From The New York Times - 3 September 2005
United States of Shame
By Maureen Dowd
Stuff happens. And when you combine limited government with incompetent government, lethal stuff happens. America is once more plunged into a snake pit of anarchy, death, looting, raping, marauding thugs, suffering innocents, a shattered infrastructure, a gutted police force, insufficient troop levels and criminally negligent government planning. But this time it's happening in America.

From The New York Times - 2 September 2005
They Saw It Coming
By Mark Fischetti
THE deaths caused by Hurricane Katrina are heart-rending. The suffering of survivors is wrenching. Property destruction is shocking. But perhaps the most agonizing part is that much of what happened in New Orleans this week might have been avoided.
From The New York Times - 2 September 2005
From Margins of Society to Center of the Tragedy
By David González
The scenes of floating corpses, scavengers fighting for food and desperate throngs seeking any way out of New Orleans have been tragic enough. But for many African-American leaders, there is a growing outrage that many of those still stuck at the center of this tragedy were people who for generations had been pushed to the margins of society
From The New York Times - 2 September 2005
Cameras Captured a Disaster but Now Focus on Suffering

By Alessandra Stanley
A woman in a wheelchair, her face and body covered by a plaid blanket, dead, and left next to a wall of the New Orleans convention center like a discarded supermarket cart. There were many other appalling images from Hurricane Katrina on Thursday, but that one was a turning point: after three days of flood scenes, television shifted from recording a devastating natural disaster to exposing human failures.
The New York Times - 10 June 2005
Losing Our Country
By Paul Krugman
"The middle-class society I grew up in no longer exists. Working families have seen little if any progress over the past 30 years. Adjusted for inflation, the income of the median family doubled between 1947 and 1973. But it rose only 22 percent from 1973 to 2003, and much of that gain was the result of wives' entering the paid labor force or working longer hours, not rising wages.
But the wealthy have done very well indeed. Since 1973 the average income of the top 1 percent of Americans has doubled, and the income of the top 0.1 percent has tripled."
18 March 2005
Development and Security

By The Globalist
Is too much emphasis put on the military dimension of security today? And how does global poverty factor into the equation? These are the issues explored by Horst Köhler — now Germany’s President and previously the Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund. In this Read My Lips feature, Mr. Köhler argues that the world needs a broader interpretation of the term “security.”
From The World Bank Group
On Poverty and Environment (1994 - 2004)
Structural Adjustment Participatory Review Initiative (SAPRIN):
The Policy Roots of Economic Crisis and Poverty. Full report
A multi-country participatory assessment of structural adjustment.
Executive Summary


The World Bank Group acknowledges the dramatic social and economic damage caused by its economic policies (mainly structural adjustment programmes) imposed on developing societies in the last 30 years, and launches a new neo-liberal recipe called "development policy lending". Of course, being The World Bank Group the "visible hand" of the big international capital, its new development policy lending looks very much the same old wine in new bottles. Below are the official press releases and papers by the World Bank Group. See below.
(Dr. Róbinson Rojas) (August 2004)
Aug 09, 2004 From Adjustment Lending to Development Policy Lending: An Evolution
Aug 09, 2004 Why Development Policy Lending’s Time Has Come
Aug 06, 2004 Development Policy Lending Replaces Adjustment Lending

Development Gateway
Fighting against poverty (16-12-2004)
Reflect and ICT Project
This DFID-funded project is exploring potential applications of ICTs for poor and marginalised people, linking to existing Reflect groups in Uganda, Burundi and India.
During the first year (2003), participating groups were encouraged to analyse issues around their own access to and control of information relating to their livelihoods: looking at the value of information to their own lives, the control of information resources, existing sources of information and communication mechanisms

ICT for Development: empowerment or exploitation?
Learning from Reflect ICTs project

By Hannah Beardon et al
March 2005
The end of poverty
Economic possibilities for our time

by Jeffrey D. Sachs
News Release - March 1, 2005:
"Extreme poverty can be ended, not in the time of our grandchildren, but our time." Thus forecasts Jeffrey D. Sachs, director of The Earth Institute at Columbia University, whose twenty-five years of experience observing the world from many vantage points has helped him shed light on the most vital issues facing our planet: the causes of poverty, the role of rich-country policies, and the very real possibilities for a poverty-free future. Deemed "the most important economist in the world" by The New York Times Magazine and "the world's best-known economist" by Time magazine, Sachs brings his considerable expertise to bear in the landmark The End of Poverty: Economic Possibilities for Our Time, his highly anticipated blueprint for world-wide economic success — a goal, he argues, we can reach in a mere twenty years

13 December 2004 - OXFAM
Poor are paying the price of rich countries' failure
45 million more children will die between now and 2015
247 million more people in sub-Saharan Africa will be living on less than $1 a day in 2015
97 million more children will still be out of school in 2015
53 million more people in the world will lack proper sanitation facilities.

Monitoring Poverty and Social Exclusion
This site monitors what is happening to poverty and social exclusion in the UK and complements our annual monitoring reports. The material is organised around 50 statistical indicators covering all aspects of the subject, from income and work to health and education.
The indicators and graphs can be viewed by age group or by subject. All data is from official sources and is the latest available. All graphs and text will be updated whenever new data becomes available. Finally, there is a comprehensive set of links to other relevant documents and sites on the Internet.
Social Watch Annual Reports:
2004:Fear and Want. Obstacles to Human Security
2003: The Poor and the Market
2002: The social impact of globalisation in the world
2001: Much ado...
2000: From the summits to the grassroots
1999: From the summits to the grassroots
1998: Equity and social development
1997: From the summits to the grassroots
1996: Women and citizenship in Latin America
World Bank Group:
World Development Report 2004
Making Services work for poor people
Background papers
July 6, 2004 - IMF
Report on the Evaluation of Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) and the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF)
Oxfam, 2004
From "Donorship" to ownership?
Moving towards PRSP Round Two

Critical voices on the World Bank and IMF
Bretton Woods Project
The World Bank Group
Poverty Reduction and Equity
World Development Report 2005 Draft
Improving the investment climate for growth and poverty reduction

The World Bank: B-SPAN. Webcasting for Development
UNDP: Choices for the poor
UNDP: Definitions, measurement and analysis of poverty

UNCTAD: The Least Developed Countries Reports
2004 - Linking International Trade with Poverty Reduction
2002 - Escaping the Poverty Trap
2000 - Aid, Private Capital Flows and External Debt: The Challenge of financing Development in the LDCs
1999 - Marginalization, Productive Capacities and the Least Developed Countries
1998 - Trade, Investment and the Multilateral Trading System
1997 - Agricultural Development and Policy Reforms in Least Developed Countries
1996 - Selected Issues in the Context of Interdependence

The state of food insecurity in the world reports on global and national efforts to reach the goal set by the 1996 World Food Summit: to reduce by half the number of undernourished people in the world by the year 2015.
FAO has the mandate to monitor progress in hunger reduction based on accurate, reliable and timely methods that measure the prevalence of hunger, food insecurity and vulnerability and that also illustrate changes over time.
Full SOFI report 2003
 SOFI 2003 summary in pdf (95 K)
 News Story (1)
Full SOFI report 2002
 SOFI 2002 summary in pdf (159 K)
News Stories (1)  (2)
 International Year of the Mountains
Full SOFI report 2001
  Press release
Full SOFI report 2000
 Full SOFI report 2000 in pdf (1 MB)
 SOFI 2000 summary in pdf (376 K)
 FAO Focus on SOFI
 News and Highlights
 Press release
Full SOFI report 1999 in pdf (1 MB)
 SOFI  1999 summary in pdf (328 K)
 FAO Focus on SOFI 1999
 Press release

World Bank :
Global Economic Prospects 2004
Realizing the Development Promise of the Doha Agenda

R. Kanbur: Economic policy, distribution and poverty: the nature of disagreements
Rural Poverty Report 2001.- IFAD
Global Poverty Report .-G8 Okinawa Summit.-July 2000
The popular coalition to erradicate hunger and poverty

The University of Texas Inequality Project
Inequality, Poverty, and Socio-Economic Performance
Poverty Trends and the Voice of the Poor .- World Bank
World Development Report 2000/1. Attacking poverty
Voices of the Poor. Defining poverty.-World Bank
World Bank: Country information sheets on health, nutrition, population, and poverty
World Bank 2000: Rethinking Development. Challenges and Opportunities. Globalization with a human face
World Bank: "Globalization, Growth and Poverty: Building an inclusive world economy", 2002
The Poverty Monitoring Database
DATA ON POVERTY from the OECD, U. N. and the World Bank
Poverty (World Bank)
2000 World Bank Conference on Evaluation and Poverty Reduction
Papers for the 1999 World Bank Conference on Evaluation and Poverty Reduction,
Wahington, June 14-15 1999:
J. Tendler/R. Serrano, "The rise of social funds: what are they a model for?", MIT, 1999
A. Figueroa, "Social Exclusion and Rural Development", Catholic University of Peru, 1999
A. Shepherd, "Evaluation of DFID Support to Poverty Reduction", The University of Birmingham, 1999
P. Dasgupta, "Poverty reduction and non-market institutions", The University of Cambridge, 1999
"Development effectiveness in health, nutrition, and population" , Document of the World Bank, 1999
R. Sartorius, "Participatory monitoring and evaluation systems: improving the performance of poverty reduction programs and building capacity of local partners", Social Impact, 1999
E.T. Jackson, "The strategy choices of stakeholders: examining the front-end costs and downstream benefits of participatory evaluation", Carleton University, 1999
M. Lustig/ A. Legovini, "Economic crisis and social protection of the poor: the Latin American experience", Inter-American Development Bank, 1999
S. Benjamin, "Land, productive slums, and urban poverty", MIT, 1999
"World faiths development dialogue. A different perspective on development and poverty", Comment on the World Development Report 2000, 1999
M. Cohen (USAID) and J. Sebstad (MSI), "Microfinance impact evaluation: going down market", 1999
E. Thorbecke, "Evaluation of Poverty - Alleviation Impact of Alternative Development Strategies and Adjustment Responses in Africa and Asia", Cornell University, 1999
S. Feldman, "Rural-Urban linkages in South Asia: contemporary themes and policy directions", Cornell University, 1999
F. Stewart, "Crisis Prevention: tackling horizontal inequalities", 1999
R. Gunatilaka, "Rural infrastructure programmes for poverty reduction: policy issues from the Sri Lankan experience", IPS, Colombo, 1999
D. Gunewardena, "Urban poverty in South Asia", University of Peradeniya, 1999
S. Ahmed, "NGOs and evaluation: the BRAC experience", 1999
S. Sharma, "Land tenure and poverty in Nepal", 1999
M. Mujeri, "Institutional arrangements for promoting poverty reduction in South Asia. The Bangladesh case", CIRDAP, 1999
B. K. Pradhan and A. Subramanian, "Structural adjustment, education and poor households in India: analysis of a sample survey", 1999
P. Malaney, "Demographic change and poverty reduction", 1999
K. Ezemenari, A. Rudqvist, and K. Subbarao, "Impact evaluation: a note on concepts and methods", 1999
Poverty reduction and the World Bank: progress in fiscal 1998
Social Crisis in Asia (World Bank)
R. van der Hoeven: Poverty and Structural Adjustment. Tradeoffs between equity and growth
CEPAL: Panorama Social de America Latina. 1998. Sintesis
CEPAL: Panorama Social de America Latina. 1998. Presentacion
Social Watch on poverty eradication and gender equity
1.- Poverty Perspectives (UN)
2.- Poverty and Development. An (Im)balance Sheet (UN)
3.- Poverty: Casting long shadows (UN)
4.- The faces of poverty (UN)
5.- The geography of poverty (UN)
6.- Analysis of Income and Poverty Data (1959-1993) (U.S.A.)
6.1 Poverty Status of Persons, by Family Relationship, Race,and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 1993 (U.S.A.)
6.2 Per capita money income, by race and Hispanic origin
U.S.A.) (1970-1993)
6.3 Income 1996. United States
6.4 Poverty 1996. United States
UNCTAD: Globalization and Liberalization: Effects of International economic relations on Poverty
UNCTAD: The Trade and Development Report, 1997 (press release 1)
UNCTAD: The Trade and Development Report, 1997 (press release 2)
UNDP: Human Development Report 1996 (excerpts)
UNDP: Poverty Eradication: A Policy Framework for Country Strategies
U.N.: Report of the Secretary General -1998
U.N.: Describing poverty: 61 ways
Anup Shah: Global Issues that Affect Everyone: POVERTY
Comparative Research Programme on Poverty
ELDIS: Poverty
International Labour Organisation
World of Work -The magazine of the ILO
R. Ruffin: Le logement social, entre pénurie et ségrégation (Nov. 2003)
K. Watkins: The Oxfam Poverty Report, 1995 (excerpts)
K. Watkins: Globalization and Liberalization: Implications for poverty,
distribution and inequality, 1997
Amei Zhang: Poverty alleviation in China: commitment, Policy and Expenditures, 1997
O. Altimir: Growth, Human Development in Latin American countries -long-term Trends, 1996
M.ul Haq: Human Development in a changing world, 1992
R.Rojas: The dynamics of unequal social relations: gender, race, income
Foreign Policy IN FOCUS
Drug Control
Human Rights
U.S. Agencies
Financial Flows
Food and Farm
Global Governance
State of the World's Children 1998:
Chapter I

Malnutrition: Causes, consequences and solutions
Chapter II
Statistical tables
1 Basic indicators
2 Nutrition
3 Health
4 Education
5 Demographic indicators
6 Economic indicators
7 Women
8 The rate of progress
Measuring human development
Regional summaries country list
1 Vitamin A supplements save pregnant women's lives
2 What is malnutrition?
3 Stunting linked to impaired intellectual development
4 Recognizing the right to nutrition
5 Growth and sanitation: What can we learn from chickens?
6 Breastmilk and transmission of HIV
7 High-energy biscuits for mothers boost infant survival by
50 per cent
8 UNICEF and the World Food Programme
9 Triple A takes hold in Oman
10 Celebrating gains in children's health in Brazil
11 Rewriting Elias's story in Mbeya
12 Women in Niger take the lead against malnutrition
13 BFHI: Breastfeeding breakthroughs
14 Tackling malnutrition in Bangladesh
15 Kiwanis mobilize to end iodine deficiency's deadly toll
16 Indonesia makes strides against vitamin A deficiency
17 Making food enrichment programmes sustainable
18 Zinc and vitamin A: Taking the sting out of malaria
19 Protecting nutrition in crises
20 Progress against worms for pennies
21 Child nutrition a priority for the new South Africa
Ten steps to successful breastfeeding
Vitamin A
Fig.1 Malnutrition and child mortality
Fig.2 Trends in child malnutrition, by region
Fig.3 From good nutrition to greater productivity and beyond
Fig.4 Poverty and malnutrition in Latin America and the
Fig.5 Causes of child malnutrition
Fig.6 Inadequate dietary intake/disease cycle
Fig.7 Intergenerational cycle of growth failure
Fig.8 Better nutrition through triple A
Fig.9 Iodine deficiency disorders and salt iodization
Fig.10 Progress in vitamin A supplementation programmes
Fig.11 Measles deaths and vitamin A supplementation
Fig.12 Zinc supplementation and child growth (Ecuador, 1986)
Fig.13 Maternal height and Caesarean delivery (Guatemala, 1984-1986)
Press Kit
Summary: Malnutrition: Causes, consequences and solutions
Fact Sheet: Summing up malnutrition's shame
Fact Sheet: Malnutrition: Causes
Fact Sheet: Micronutrients
Feature: Child malnutrition and women's rights
Feature: In Burundi camps, the spetre of malnutrition looms
Feature: Malnutrition in industrialized countries
The Progress of Nations 1997:
1. Foreword by Kofi A. Anan, Secretary-General United Nations
2. Charting progress for children: Introduction by Carol Bellamy, UNICEF Executive Director
3. Water and Sanitation
Commentary - The Sanitation gap: Development's deadly menace
3.1 Sanitation League Table
3.2 Water/sanitation gap widening
3.3 79% of all guinea worm cases occurring in Sudan
3.4 Grading school sanitation: Few high marks
3.5 Making ORT a household habit
4. Nutrition
Commentary - Putting babies before business
4.1 Nutrition League Table
4.2 Exclusive breastfeeding: A chance for survival
4.3 One in five babies too small at birth
4.4 Stunting: A scar and a wound
4.5 Slow starters catching up in salt iodization
5. Health
Commentary - Fighting AIDS together
5.1 Gauging AIDS' terrible toll
5.2 Health League Table
5.3 Pneumonia: K=Little progress on a big killer
5.4 52 countries falling short on immunization goal for DPT
5.5 Neonatal deaths: 5 million each year
5.6 Malaria's death toll: A child every 30 seconds
6. Education
Commentary - Quality education: One answer for many questions
6.1 Doing more with less
6.2 Girls' education: Commitment or neglect?
6.3 Maths and science: Some developing countries score high
6.4 Do teachers make the grade?
6.5 Rural kids short-changed
7. Women
Commentary - The intolerable status quo: Violence against women and girls
7.1 Women's League Table
7.2 Outlawing violence against women: A first step
7.3 Risk of death in childbirth can be as high as 1 in 7
7.4 A bill of rights for women, but with reservations
7.5 Help wanted: Skilled birth attendants
8. Special Protections
Commentary - No age of innocence: Justice for children
8.1 Old enough to be a criminal?
8.2 Over 7 million children are refugees
8.3 Hidden killers
8.4 The cost of war: Billions for development diverted to emergencies
9. Industrialized Countries
Commentary - Healthy cities, healthy children
9.1 Youth unemployment rate highest in Spain, lowest in Austria and Switzerland
9.2 Teens at risk: Drinking and bullying
9.3 Sharing the wealth? Aid at lowest level in 45 years
10 Statistical Tables
Social Indicators for Less Populous Countries
Statistical Profiles for 149 countries
The age of the data
Statistical tables are available at the UNICEF website
Conference on Hunger and Poverty: A popular coalition for action
I. Introduction
II. Nature and Dimensions of the Problems of Hunger and Poverty.Incidence of Hunger by Region (table)
III. Forty Years of Development Practice
IV.The Search for a New Paradigm -- Civil Society: Development from the Roots Up
V. Priority Areas for the Conference   
Empowerment of the Hungry and the Poor
      (a) Participation in Decision-making  
(b) Command Over Productive Resources  
Technology Generation and Transfer
Poverty and Environmental Degradation    
Beyond Emergency Relief
VI. Summary and Conclusion                
Discussion Paper 1: Empowerment of the poor
Discussion Paper 2: Enhancing technology generation and diffusion
Discussion Paper 3: Combating environmental degradation
Discussion Paper 4: Preventing disaster and reducing its impact on the poor
Related themes:
- Inequality/social exclusion - Poverty - Informal sector - Microfinance - Aid - PRSP
- U.S. economic inequality, poverty, social exclusion and corruption
- Economic inequality, poverty, and social exclusion in Latin America
- Economic Inequality, Poverty, Social Exclusion and Corruption in China

2 March 2005
Redistributing Global Inequality.
A thought experiment
by Jozsef Borocz
The United Nations proclaimed the period 1997-2006 as the ‘First United Nations Decade for the Eradication of Poverty’. The 1995 UN resolution recognised the existence of global inequalities that have deepened over time and assigned different tasks to donor (wealthy) nations and developing countries to ensure a greater equity among nations. This article focuses on the fiscal feasibility of a plan for global inequality reduction, a project that can be defined as a large-scale historic social process of social change aiming to diminish ‘oligarchic wealth’ in favour of a less extremely unbalanced structure of distribution, that is, ‘democratic wealth’. The project proposes global collective action to reduce interstate inequality in per capita economic performance. A successful implementation of such a project would, however, require the construction of social and political institutions leading to political action by a majority of humankind.

From the Chronic Poverty Research Centre
The Chronic Poverty Reports are the flagship policy engagement publications of the Chronic Poverty Research Centre around the world.

Chronic Poverty Report 2004-05
The first major international development report to focus on chronic poverty. This report examined the dimensions of chronic poverty - the number of people who suffer it, where they live, who they are and why chronic poverty exists.  

Chronic Poverty Report 2008-2009: Escaping Poverty Traps:

The second report looks in more depth at possible solutions for chronic pverty. It identifies five main traps which create chronic poverty, and sets out key policy responses. The publication of this Report is accompanied by Policy Briefs, highlighting key arguments and policy points in a shorter format; and fifty Background Papers offering a wealth of extra detail and research.

National Chronic Poverty Reports
CPRC Partners around the world also publish national Chronic Poverty Reports, looking at the dimensions of chronic poverty, and possible policy responses, in their countries or regions.

From the Center for Economic and Policy Research
The Scorecard on Globalization 1980-2000
Twenty Years of Diminished Progress

M. Weisbrot, D. Baker, E. Kraev and J. Chen - July 11, 2001

Poor Numbers: The Impact of Trade Liberalization on World Poverty
M. Weisbrot, D. Rosnik, and D. Baker - November 18, 2004

Going Down with the Dollar: The Cost to Developing Countries of a Declining Dollar
M. Weisbrot, D. Rosnick, adn D. Baker - September 20, 2004 --
M. Dulic, August 24, 2004
Is decentralisation vital for poverty reduction?
In a series of development paradigms, decentralization that carries the premises of democracy is one of the latest development strategies to reduce poverty. According to the glossary (KIT Information and Library Services, ILS, 2002), "decentralization is the gradual process of transforming power and resources from central government to the lower level of government, such as the regions, provinces, districts and municipalities." Although this definition does not explain how decentralization can reduce poverty, empirical evidence indicates that decentralization provides better accountability and responsiveness. When a society is decentralized, social capital has a better chance to sustain itself and participation at different local levels gives a community a role of a direct client and controller over the society's own needs (Katsiaouni, 2003).
World Development Report   2000/2001: Attacking Poverty

External review

"A Critical Review of the WDR" by the Comparative Research Programme on Poverty

Related links

WDR 2005: Improving the Investment Climate for Growth and Poverty Reduction
More WDRs

Background Materials


Discussion papers from the World Institute for Development Research:

DP2004/07 Ruut Veenhoven:
Subjective Measures of Well-being (PDF 250KB)
DP2004/06 Des Gasper:
Human Well-being: Concepts and Conceptualizations (PDF 291KB)
DP2004/05 Stephan Klasen:
Gender-Related Indicators of Well-Being(PDF 253KB)
DP2004/04 Erik Thorbecke:
Conceptual and Measurement Issues in Poverty Analysis(PDF 211KB)
DP2004/02 Bart Capéau and André Decoster:
The Rise or Fall of World Inequality: A Spurious Controversy?(PDF 233KB)
DP2004/01 Anthony Shorrocks and Guanghua Wan:
Spatial Decomposition of Inequality (PDF 200KB)

DP2003/90 Simon Appleton:
Regional or National Poverty Lines? The Case of Uganda in the 1990s (PDF 204KB)
DP2003/74 Stanislav Kolenikov and Anthony Shorrocks:
A Decomposition Analysis of Regional Poverty in Russia (PDF 326KB)
DP2003/73 Javier Escobal and Máximo Torero:
Adverse Geography and Differences in Welfare in Peru (PDF 3120KB)
DP2003/70 Luc Christiaensen, Lionel Demery and Stefano Paternostro:
Reforms, Remoteness and Risk in Africa: Understanding Inequality and Poverty during the 1990s (PDF 281KB)
DP2003/67 Ruslan Yemtsov: Quo Vadis?
Inequality and Poverty Dynamics across Russian Regions (PDF 439KB)
DP2003/65 Michael Förster, David Jesuit and Timothy Smeeding:
Regional Poverty and Income Inequality in Central and Eastern Europe: Evidence from the Luxembourg Income Study (PDF 251KB)
DP2003/57 Jed Friedman:
How Responsive is Poverty to Growth? A Regional Analysis of Poverty, Inequality, and Growth in Indonesia, 1984-99 (PDF 655KB)
DP2003/36 Krćn Blume, Björn Gustafsson, Peder J. Pedersen and Mette Verner:
A Tale of Two Countries: Poverty among Immigrants in Denmark and Sweden since 1984 (PDF 242KB)
DP2003/25 Kym Anderson:
Trade Liberalization, Agriculture, and Poverty in Low-income Countries (PDF 224KB)
DP2003/08 Stefan Dercon and John Hoddinott:
Health, Shocks and Poverty Persistence (PDF 156KB)

In this paper we review the evidence on the impact of large shocks, such as drought, on child and adult health, with particular emphasis on Zimbabwe and Ethiopia. Our focus is on the impact of shocks on long-term outcomes, and we ask whether there are intrahousehold differences in these effects. The evidence suggests substantial fluctuations in body weight and growth retardation in response to shocks. While there appears to be no differential impact between boys and girls, adult women are often worse affected by these shocks. For children, there is no full recovery from these losses, affecting adult health and education outcomes, as well as lifetime earnings. For adults, there is no evidence of persistent effects from transitory shocks in our data.

DP2002/121 Cecilia Ugaz:
Consumer Participation and Pro-Poor Regulation in Latin America (PDF 180KB)
DP2002/58 Gisele Kamanou and Jonathan Morduch:
Measuring Vulnerability to Poverty (PDF 285KB)
DP2002/53 Tilat Anwar:
Unsustainable Debt Burden and Poverty in Pakistan: A Case for Enhanced HIPC Initiative (PDF 239KB)
DP2002/52 Era Dabla-Norris, John M. Matoovu, and Paul Wade:
Debt Relief, Demand for Eductaion, and Poverty (PDF 257KB)
DP2002/43 Andrew McKay:
Assessing the Impact of Fiscal Policy on Poverty (PDF 207KB)
DP2002/37 Christiana E.E. Okojie:
Gender and Education as Determinants of Household Poverty in Nigeria (PDF 337KB)
DP2002/33 Steve Kayizzi-Mugerwa:
Fiscal Policy, Growth and Poverty Reduction in Uganda (PDF 152KB)
DP2002/17 Tilat Anwar:
Impact of Globalization and Liberalization on Growth, Employment and Poverty: A Case Study of Pakistan (PDF 231KB)
DP2002/24 Christopher B. Barrett, Stein Holden and Daniel C. Clay:
Can-Food-for-Work Programmes Reduce Vulnerability? (PDF 316KB)
DP2002/23 Jerry Skees, Panos Varangis, Donald Larson and Paul Siegel:
Can Financial Markets be Tapped to Help Poor People Cope with Weather Risks? (PDF 297KB)
DP2002/22 Stefan Dercon:
Income Risk, Coping Strategies and Safety Nets (PDF 335KB)
DP2002/21 Rasmus Heltberg:
The Poverty Elasticity of Growth (PDF 229KB)
DP2002/20 Peter G. Warr:
Poverty Incidence and Sectoral Growth: Evidence from Southeast Asia (PDF 204KB)
DP2002/19 George Fane and Peter Warr:
How Economic Growth Reduces Poverty: A General Equilibrium Analysis for Indonesia (PDF 1441KB)
DP2002/15 M.H. Suryanarayana:
Poverty in India: Misspecified Policies and Estimates (PDF 273KB)
DP2002/05 Hulya Dagdeviren, Rolph van der Hoeven and John Weeks:
Redistribution Does Matter. Growth and Redistribution for Poverty Reduction (PDF 655KB)

Recent development literature has placed priority on poverty reduction, and on possible growth enhancement from a more equal distribution of assets and income. At the same time, empirical work consistently shows that economic growth is no more than distribution neutral. In that context, this paper explores the relationship among growth, inequality and poverty, and demonstrates the following general conclusions:
1) a redistributive growth path is always likely to be superior to a distribution neutral path (‘trickle down’) for reducing poverty;
2) a redistributive growth path is always superior if a country’s per capita income and inequality are relatively high; and
3) a static redistribution from the rich to the poor is superior to a redistributive growth path in its effect on poverty for most countries, but not for all.
The paper then considers policy that might be used to make growth more equitable.

DP2002/04 Oliver Morrissey:
Making Debt Relief Conditionality Pro-Poor (PDF 236KB)


The Least Developed Countries Report 2004 assesses the relationship between international trade and poverty within the LDCs, and identifies national and international policies that can make trade a more effective mechanism for poverty reduction in these countries.
The Report argues that international trade can play a major positive role in reducing poverty in the LDCs. However, in practice, this is not happening in many of them. In some, this failure is due to a weak trade performance, but most LDCs achieved higher export growth in the 1990s than in the 1980s. The failure of trade expansion to allow poverty reduction has been related to weak linkages between trade and economic growth. Moreover, there is a tendency for export expansion in economies with mass poverty and major financial gaps to generate exclusionary rather than socially equitable economic growth. Civil conflicts, in some LDCs, have been closely associated with impoverishing trade.

A. Deaton, July 2004
Measuring Poverty
Research Program in Development Studies, Princeton University

Research Program in Development Studies

Working Papers

Hard copies of working papers from 1988 to the present can be requested by writing to Lillian Anderson, Program Coordinator, 329 Wallace Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, or sending an e-mail to Lillian Anderson.

Selected working papers are highlighted in Research Briefs:

Date Author(s) Title of Paper Publication Information Paper No.
01/10 A. Case and C. Paxson Causes and Consequences of Early Life Health NBER Working Paper No. 15637  
01/10 A. Deaton Price indexes, inequality, and the measurement of world poverty forthcoming, American Economic Review, March 2010  
11/09 A. Deaton and O. Dupriez Purchasing power parity exchange rates for the global poor    
11/09 A. Deaton and A. Heston Understanding PPPs and PPP-based national accounts NBER Working Paper No. 14499 (new version, original Nov. 2008)  
03/09 A. Case and C. Paxson The impact of the AIDS pandemic on health services in Africa: Evidence from demographic health surveys NBER Working Paper No. 15000, forthcoming, Demography  
01/09 A. Deaton Instruments of development: randomization in the tropics, and the search for the elusive keys to economic development Proceedings of the British Academy, 2008 Lectures, Vol. 162, Oxford University Press, 2009. Pp. 123-160  
12/08 A. Deaton, J. Fortson, and R. Tortora Life (evaluation), HIV/AIDS, and death in Africa    
11/08 A. Deaton Maximum Prophet: Review of Common Wealth, by Jeff Sachs, and Reinventing Foreign Aid, by Bill Easterly The Lancet, November 2008  
10/08 A. Deaton, C. Bozzoli, and C. Quintana-Domeque Adult height and childhood disease October 2008, forthcoming Demography  
05/08 A. Case,
C. Paxson, and
M. Islam
Making Sense of the Labor Market Height Premium: Evidence from the British Household Panel Survey May 2008, NBER Working Paper: 14007  
04/08 A. Deaton, and
J. Drčze
Nutrition in India: Facts and Interpretations April 2008  
02/08 A. Case and
C. Paxson
Height, Health and Cognitive Function at Older Ages May 2008, American Economic Review, vol. 98, iss. 2, pp. 463-467  
01/08 C. Ardington,
A. Case and
V. Hosegood
Labor supply responses to large social transfers: Longitudinal evidence from South Africa May 2008, American Economic Review, vol. 98, iss. 2, 468-474  
01/08 A. Deaton Height, health, and inequality: the distribution of adult heights in India May 2008, American Economic Review, vol. 98, iss. 2, pp. 468-474  
01/08 A. Deaton Price trends in India and their implications for measuring poverty Economic and Political Weekly, February 9, 2008, v. 43, iss. 6, pp. 43-49  
01/08 A. Case and
C. Paxson
Height, Health and Cognitive Function at Older Ages May 2008, American Economic Review, vol. 98, iss. 2, pp. 463-467  
01/08 A. Case and
C. Paxson
Additional Materials for “Height, Health and Cognitive Function at Older Ages” May 2008, American Economic Review, vol. 98, iss. 2, pp. 463-467  
10/07 A. Case,
D. Lee and
C. Paxson
The Income Gradient In Children's Health: A Comment On Currie, Shields And Wheatley Price NBER WP 13495, Oct 2007, Journal of Health Economics, , v. 27, iss. 3, pp. 801-807  
10/07 A. Case and
A. Menendez
Sex Differences In Obesity Rates In Poor Countries: Evidence From South Africa Economics and Human Biology, iss. 7, vol. 3, pp. 271-282  
10/07 C. Ardington,
A. Case and
V. Hosegood
Labor supply responses to large social transfers: Longitudinal evidence from South Africa September 2007, NBER Working Paper: 13442  
9/07 A. Deaton Height, health, and development Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, August, 2007, v.104 iss. 33, pp. 13232 - 13237  
8/07 A. Deaton Income, aging, health and wellbeing around the world: Evidence from the Gallup World Poll Journal of Economic Perspectives, Spring 2008  
6/07 A. Tarozzi and
A. Deaton
Using Census and Survey Data to Estimate Poverty and Inequality for Small Areas Review of Economics and Statistics, forthcoming  
3/07 C. Bozzoli,
A. Deaton and
C. Quintana-Domeque
Child mortality, income and adult height

March 2007, replaced by Adult height and childhood disease, October 2008, above

9/06 A. Deaton Global patterns of income and health: facts, interpretations, and policies WIDER Annual Lecture, Helsinki, September 2006  
9/06 A. Deaton Purchasing Power Parity Exchange Rates for the Poor: Using Household Surveys to Construct PPPs September 2006  
8/06 A. Case and
C. Paxson
Stature and status: Height, ability, and labor market outcomes Journal of Political Econony 116(3), June 2008  
5/06 A. Case,
C. Paxson and
T. Vogl
Socioeconomic Status and Health in Childhood: A Comment on Chen, Martin and Matthews NBER Working Paper 12267, Forthcoming. Social Science & Medicine, 2006  
1/06 A. Case and
A. Deaton
Health and Wellbeing in Udaipur and South Africa Forthcoming, Developments in the Economics of Aging, David Wise, editor, University of Chicago Press, 2006  
12/05 D. Cutler,
A. Deaton and
A. Lleras-Muney
The Determinants of Mortality Journal of Economic Perspectives, 20(3), Summer 2006  
8/05 A. Deaton and V. Kozel Data and Dogma: The Great Indian Poverty Debate The World Bank Research Observer, August 2005 231
4/05 A. Case, A. Menendez, C. Ardington Health Seeking Behavior in Northern KwaZulu-Natal   238
4/05 A. Deaton The Great Escape: A Review Essay on Fogel's The Escape from Hunger and Premature Death, 1700-2100 Journal of Economic Literature, XLIV (March), 2006 237
3/05 C. Paxson and N. Schady Cognitive Development Among Young Children in Ecuador: The Roles of Wealth, Health and Parenting   236
12/04 C. Paxson and N. Schady Child Health and Economic Crisis in Peru   235
12/04 A. Case, V. Hosegood, and F. Lund The Reach and Impact of Child Support Grants: Evidence from KwaZulu-Natal  Development Southern Africa, October 2005,
22(4), 467-482
02/06 A. Case and C. Ardington The Impact of Parental Death on School Enrollment and Achievement: Longitudinal Evidence from South Africa   233
12/04 A. Deaton and A. Case Health and Wealth Among the Poor: India and South Africa Compared American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings, May 2005; Revised 4/05 232
7/04 A. Deaton Measuring Poverty   230
4/04 A. Case and C. Paxson Sex Differences in Morbidity & Mortality Demography, May 2005,
v. 42(2), pp. 189-214
4/04 A. Deaton Health in an Age of Globalization  Brookings Trade Forum, April 2004; Revised 7/04 228
2/04 A. Deaton, J. Friedman, and V. Alatas Purchasing Power Parity Exchange Rates from Household Survey Data Revised 5/04 227
1/04 A. Case, I. Le Roux, and A. Menendez Medical Compliance and Income-Health Gradients American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings, May 2004, v. 94, iss. 2, pp. 331-335. 226
12/03 A. Banerjee, A. Deaton, E. Duflo Wealth, Health, and Health Services in Rural Rajasthan American Economic Review, May 2004 225 
10/03 A. Case, V. Hosegood, and F. Lund The Reach of the South African Child Support Grant: Evidence from KwaZulu-Natal Revised 12/03 224
8/03 A. Deaton Regional Poverty Estimates for India, 1999-2000   223
6/03 A. Deaton "Measuring Poverty in a Growing World" (or "Measuring Growth in a Poor World") July 2003, NBER Working Paper: 9822; Revised 2/04 222
2/03  A. Deaton "How to monitor poverty for the Millennium Development Goals" Journal of Human Development, 2003, v. 4, iss. 3, pp. 353-378 221
11/02 E. Field "Entitled to Work: Urban Property Rights and Labor Supply in Peru"   220 
11/02 D. Karlan "Social Capital and Group Banking"   219
11/02 D. Karlan "Using Experimental
Economics to Measure Social Capital and Predict Financial Decisions"
7/02 A. Case, C. Paxson, and J. Ableidinger "Orphans in Africa: Parental Death, Poverty, and School Enrollment" Demography, August 2004, v. 41, iss. 3, pp. 483-508 217
10/01 K. Anderson, A. Case, and D. Lam "Causes and Consequences of Schooling Outcomes in South Africa: Evidence from Survey Data" Social Dynamics, 2001, v. 27, iss. 1, pp. 37-59 216
7/02 A. Deaton and J. Dreze "Poverty and Inequality in India: a Reexamination" Economic and Political Weekly, September 7, 2002, pp. 3729-3748 215
5/02 A. Tarozzi "The Indian Public Distribution System as Provider of Public Security: Evidence from Child Anthropometry in Andhra Pradesh"   214
5/02 A. Tarozzi "Estimating Comparable Poverty Counts from Incomparable Surveys: Measuring Poverty in India"   213
7/02 A. Case and A. Deaton "Consumption, Health, Gender, & Poverty"   212
2/98 J. Morduch "Does Microfinance Really Help the Poor? New Evidence of Flagship Programs in Bangladesh"   211
12/01 A. Deaton "Prices and poverty in India,
Economic and Political Weekly, Jan 25, 2003, pp. 362-368 210
11/01 A. Deaton "Adjusted Indian poverty estimates for 1999-2000" Economic and Political Weekly, Jan 25, 2003, pp. 322-326 209
6/02 A. Deaton and G. Laroque "A model of commodity prices after Sir Arthur Lewis" Journal of Development Economics, August 2003, v. 71, iss. 2, pp. 289-310 208
5/02 C. Paxson Comment on Krueger and Maleckova, “Education, Poverty, Political Violence and Terrorism: Is There a Causal Connection?”   207
2/02 A. Deaton and D. Lubotsky

"Mortality, Inequality and Race in American Cities and States"


Social Science and Medicine, v. 56, iss. 6, pp. 1139-1153 205
8/01 A. Case "Does Money Protect Health Status? Evidence from South African Pensions" October 2001, pp. 17, NBER Working Paper: 8495 204
6/01 A. Case "The Primacy of Education" Revised 7/04 203
5/01 A. Case "Health, Income and Economic Development" Annual World Bank Conference on Development Economics, 2001/2002, pp. 221-241 202
4/01 J. Vere "Education, Technology and the Wage Structure in Taiwan, 1979-1998"   201
8/02 A. Deaton "Health, Inequality, and Economic Development" Journal of Economic Literature, March 2003, v. 41, iss. 1, pp. 113-58 200
2/01 M. Rozada and A. Menendez "Public University in Argentina: Subsidizing the Rich" Economics of Education Review, August 2002, v. 21, iss. 4, pp. 341-51 199
2/01 M. Wittenberg "Conflictual Intra-household Allocations"   198
8/00 A. Deaton "Counting the World's Poor: Problems and Possible Solutions" World Bank Research Observer, Fall 2001, v. 16, iss. 2, pp. 125-47 197
8/00 A. Deaton and A. Tarozzi "Prices and Poverty in India"   196
8/00 D. Lubotsky  "Chutes or Ladders? A Longitudinal Analysis of Immigrant Earnings"  August 2000, pp. 39, Princeton University, Industrial Relations Section Working Paper: 445 195
6/00 D. Clark and C. Hsieh "Schooling and Labor Market Impact of the 1968 Nine-Year Education Program in Taiwan"   194
1/00 M. Gonzalez and A. Menendez "The Effect of Unemployment on Labor Earnings Inequality: Argentina in the Nineties" Economics of Education Review, August 2002, v. 21, iss. 4, pp. 341-51 193
10/99 A. Deaton and S. Zaidi "Guidelines for Constructing Consumption Aggregates for Welfare Analysis" 2002, pp. xi, 104, Living Standards Measurement Study Working Paper, no. 135. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank 192
9/99 A. Deaton and M. Grosh "Consumption" Grosh and Glewwe (eds.), Designing Household Survey Questionnaires for Developing Countries: Lessons from Ten Years of LSMS Experience, 2000, Chapter 5, pp. 91-133 191
9/99 A. Case and M. Yogo "Does School Quality Matter? Returns to Education and the Characteristics of Schools in South Africa" October 1999, pp. 23,
NBER Working Paper : 7399
7/99 J. Baraka "Does Type of Degree Explain Taiwan's Gender Gap?"   189
7/99 J. Baraka "The Gap Remains: Gender and Earnings in Taiwan"   188
7/99 J. Baraka "Returns to Education in Taiwan: A Cross-Sectional and Cohort Analysis"   187
12/98 A. Deaton "Commodity Prices and Growth in Africa" Journal of Economic Perspectives, Summer 1999, v. 13, iss. 3, pp. 23-40 186
A. Deaton and G. Laroque "Housing, Land Prices, and the Link between Growth and Saving" Journal of Economic Growth, June 2001, v. 6, iss. 2, pp. 87-105 185
11/98 A. Case "Income Distribution and Expenditure Patterns in South Africa"   184
05/98 A. Deaton and C. Paxson "Growth, Demographic Structure and National Saving in Taiwan" Population and Development Review, Supplement 2000, v. 26, iss. 0, pp. 141-73 183 
02/98 A. Deaton and C. Paxson "Saving and Growth Among Individuals and Households" (previously named "Saving and Growth: Another Look at the Cohort Evidence") Review of Economics and Statistics, May 2000, v. 82, iss. 2, pp. 212-25 182
01/98 A. Deaton and C. Paxson "Aging and Inequality in Income and Health" American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings, May 1998, v. 88, iss. 2, pp. 248-53 181
11/97 A. Deaton "Saving and Growth" Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel and Luis Servén (eds.), The Economics of Saving and Growth: Theory, evidence and implications for policy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999, Chapter 3, pp. 33-70 180
11/97 A. Deaton and C. Paxson

"Poverty Among Children and the Elderly in Developing Countries"


11/97 A. Deaton and C. Paxson "Economies of Scale, Household Size, and the Demand for Food" Journal of Political Economy, October 1998, v. 106, iss. 5, pp. 897-930
04/97 A. Case

"Election Goals and Income Redistribution: Recent Evidence from Albania"


European Economic Review, 45, March 2001, v. 45, iss. 3, pp. 405-423 177
04/96 A. Case and A. Deaton "Large Cash Transfers to the Elderly in South Africa" Economic Journal, September 1998, v. 108, iss. 450, pp. 1330-1361 176
01/95 A. Deaton and
C. Paxson

“Saving, Inequality and Aging: An East Asian Perspective”

Asia-Pacific Economic Review, (inaugural issue) 1995, v. 1, iss. 1, pp. 7-19  
05/94 A. Deaton and S. Subramanian "The Demand for Food and Calories" Journal of Political Economy, February 199, v. 104, iss. 1, pp. 133-162 175
05/94 T. Besley and A. Case "Diffusion as a Learning Process: Evidence From HYV Cotton"   174
04/94 S. Chaudhuri and C. Paxson "Smoothing Consumption Under Seasonality: Buffer Stocks vs. Credit Markets"   173
08/93 A. Deaton "Data and Econometric Tools for Development Analysis" In J. Behrman and T.N. Srinivasan (eds.), Handbook of Development Economics, North-Holland: Amsterdam and New York, 3A, 1995, pp. 1785-1882 172
07/93 T. Besley "The Role of Informal Finance in Household Capital Accumulation: Evidence from Taiwan" Economic Journal, January 1996, v. 106, iss. 434, pp. 39-59 171
04/93 T. Besley "Property Rights and Investment Incentives: Theory and Micro-evidence from Ghana" Journal of Political Economy, October 1995, v. 103, iss. 5, pp. 903-37 170 
03/93 T. Guinnane and R. Miller "The Limits to Land Reform: The Land Acts in Ireland, 1870-1909" Economic Development and Cultural Change, April 1997, v. 45, iss. 3, pp. 591-612 169
02/93 A. Deaton and C. Paxson "Intertemporal Choice and Inequality" Journal of Political Economy, 1994, v. 102, iss. 3, pp. 437-467 168
02/93 T. Besley "Savings, Credit and Insurance" Handbook of development economics. Volume 3A, 1995, pp. 2123-2207, Handbooks in Economics, vol. 9. Amsterdam; New York and Oxford: Elsevier Science, North Holland,
12/92 A. Deaton "International Commodity Prices, Macroeconomic Performance, and Politics in Sub-Saharan Africa" Princeton Studies in International Finance, 79, Princeton, NJ; Princeton University; International Finance Section 166
11/92 T. Guinnane "A Failed Institutional Transplant: Raiffeisen's Credit Cooperatives in Ireland, 1894-1914"  Explorations in Economic History, January 1994, v. 31, iss. 1, pp. 38-61 165
07/92 H. Alderman and C. Paxson "Do the Poor Insure? A Synthesis of the Literature on Risk and Consumption in Developing Countries" In Bacha (ed.) Economics in a Changing World: Volume 4: Development, Trade and the Environment, London: MacMillan Press, 1994 164
07/92 T. Besley, S. Coate, and G. Loury "On the Allocative Performance of Rotating Savings and Credit Associations" Quarterly Journal of Economics, May 1994, v. 109, iss. 2, pp. 491-515 163
07/92 T. Besley "How Do Market Failures Justify Interventions in Rural Credit Markets?" World Bank Research Observer, 9(1), January 1994, 22-47 162
06/92 A. Deaton and C. Paxson "Saving, Growth, and Aging in Taiwan" In D. Wise (ed.) Studies in the Economics of Aging, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994, pp. 331-357 161
07/92 A. Banerjee, T. Besley, and T. Guinnane "Thy Neighbor's Keeper: The Design of a Credit Cooperative with Theory and a Test"   160
05/92 T. Besley "Monopsony and Time-Consistency: Sustainable Pricing Policies for Perennial Crops" Review of Development Economics, February 1997, v. 1, iss. 1, pp. 57-70 159
03/92 T. Guinnane and R. Miller "Bonds without Bondsmen: Tenant-Right in Nineteenth-Century Ireland" Journal of Economic History, March 1996, v. 56, iss. 1, pp. 113-42 158
01/92 T. Besley, S. Coate, and G. Loury "The Economics of Rotating Savings and Credit Associations" American Economic Review, September 1993, v. 83, iss. 4, pp. 792-810 157
01/92 A. Deaton "Saving and Income Smoothing in Côte d'Ivoire" Journal of African Economies, 1992, v. 1, iss. 1, pp. 1-24 156
11/91 J. Hoddinott and L. Haddad "Household Expenditures, Child Anthropometric Status and the Intrahousehold Division of Income: Evidence from the Côte d'Ivoire"   155
11/91 A. Deaton and G. Laroque "Estimating the Commodity Price Model" November 1991, pp. 40, ENSAE/INSEE Unite de Recherche Document de Travail: 9131 154
08/91 A. Deaton "Household Saving in LDC's: Credit Markets, Insurance, and Welfare" Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 94(2), 1992, 253-273 153
06/91 T. Besley and S. Coate "Group Lending, Repayment Incentives and Social Collateral" Journal of Development Economics, February 1995, v. 46, iss. 1, pp. 1-18 152
02/91 A. Deaton and F. Grimard "Demand Analysis for Tax Reform in Pakistan"   151
01/91 C. Paxson "Consumption and Income Seasonality in Thailand" Journal of Political Economy, February 1993, v. 101, iss. 1, pp. 39-72 150
05/90 T. Besley, S. Coate, and G. Loury "The Economics of Rotating Savings and Credit Associations" American Economic Review, September 1993, v. 83, iss. 4, pp. 792-810 149
05/90 A. Deaton and C. Paxson "Patterns of Aging in Thailand and Côte d'Ivoire" In D. Wise (ed.), Topics in the Economics of Aging, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992, pp. 163-206 148
04/90 A. Deaton and S. Subramanian "Gender Effects in Indian Consumption Patterns" Sarvekshana, 1991, v. 14, iss. 4, pp. 1-12 147
10/89 T. Besley "Targeting Taxes and Transfers: Administrative Costs and Policy Design in Developing Economies" The economics of rural organization: Theory, practice, and policy., 1993, pp. 374-405, Oxford; New York; Toronto and Melbourne: Oxford University Press for the World Bank 146
07/89 A. Deaton and G. Laroque "On the Behavior of Commodity Prices" Review of Economic Studies, January 1992, v. 59, iss. 1, pp. 1-23 145
03/89 A. Deaton "Saving in Developing Countries: Theory and Review" World Bank Economic Review, Proceedings of the World Bank Annual Conference on Development Economics, 1989, pp. 61-96 144
12/88 J. Azam and T. Besley "General Equilibrium with Parallel Markets for Goods and Foreign Exchange: Theory and Application to Ghana" World Development, December 1989, v. 17, iss. 12, pp. 1921-30 143
10/88 T. Besley and S. Coate "Workfare versus Welfare Incentive Arguments for Work Requirements in Poverty-Alleviation Programs" American Economic Review, March 1992, v. 82, iss. 1, pp. 249-61 142
11/88 H. Jacoby "A Shadow Wage Approach to Estimating a Labor Supply Model for Peasant Households: An Application to the Peruvian Sierra" Dissertion 1989 141
11/88 D. Benjamin "Household Composition, Labor Markets, and Labor Demand: Testing for Separation in Agricultural Household Models" Econometrica, March 1992, v. 60, iss. 2, pp. 287-322 140
07/88 A. Deaton "Household Survey Data and Pricing Policies in Developing Countries"
(formerly "New Approaches to Household Survey Data from Developing Countries")
World Bank Economic Review, 1989, v. 3, iss. 2, pp. 183-210 139
05/88 A. Deaton "Price Elasticities from Survey Data: Extensions and Indonesian Results" Journal of Econometrics, 1990, v. 44, pp. 281-309 138
02/88 C. Paxson "Using Weather Variability to Estimate the Response of Savings to Transitory Income in Thailand"
(formerly "Household Savings in Thailand: Responses to Income Shocks")
American Economic Review, March 1992, v. 82, iss. 1, pp. 15-33 137
02/88 A. Deaton  "Agricultural Pricing Policies and Demand Patterns in Thailand" Published under the title "Rice Prices and Income Distribution in Thailand: A Non-parametric Analysis," Economic Journal, Supplement 1989, v. 99, iss. 395, pp. 1-37 136

Human Development Report 2000. Human rights and human development
World Investment Report 2000
The World Bank: Financial structure and economic development
The World Bank: Can Africa Claim the 21st Century?
World Development Reports
World Economic Outlook. April 2000
World Economic Outlook. Oct. 2000
Key Reference Tables
World Development Indicators 1999
World Development Indicators 2000
The Progress of Nations 1999
Global Development Finance 1998 Volume I
Global Development Finance 1999 Volume I
Global Development Finance 1999 Country Tables
Global Development Finance 2000 Volume I
Global Development Finance 2000 Country Tables
Global Economic Prospects and the Developing Countries 2000
The State of Food Insecurity in the World 1999
The State of Food and Agriculture 1998
World Resources 1998-99: Data Tables
World Resources 1998-99: Global Trends
World Resources 1996-97: Database
World Data Center for Human Interactions in the Environment
Human Development Report Indicators
Economic Literacy
Action Literacy
Marx, K. Capital, volumen 1
Marx, K. Capital, volumen 2
Marx, K. Capital, volumen 3
Marx, K. Grundisse
Marx, K. Production, Consumption, Distribution, Exchange
Marx, K. Wage-labour and capital
Marx, K./Engels, F. Bourgeois and proletarians(1848)
Marx/Engels Library
WCC: Ecumenical Reflexions on Political Economy (1988)
UNDP: Growth as means to human development (1996)
UNDP: Ten years of Human Development (1990-1999)
UNDP: Human Development Reports 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990
R. Rojas: Sustainable development in a globalized economy? The odds. 1999
R. Rojas: Sustainable development in a globalized economy. 1997
R. Rojas: Making sense of development studies
R. Rojas: Notes on the philosophy of the capitalist system
R. Rojas: Notes on economics: assuming scarcity
R. Rojas: Notes on economics: about obscenities, poverty and inequality
R. Rojas: Notes on structural adjustment programmes
R. Rojas: Agenda 21 revisited (notes)
R. Rojas: 15 years of monetarism in Latin America: time to scream
R.Rojas: Latin America: a failed industrial revolution
R.Rojas: Latin America: the making of a fractured society
R.Rojas: Latin America: a dependent mode of production
S. Saumon: The IMF and the World Bank, tools of "Development Diplomacy"?
S. Saumon: From state capitalism to neo-liberalism in Algeria: the case of a failing state
S. Saumon: External domination via domestic states: the case of Francophone Africa
S. Saumon: French neo-colonialism in Francophone Africa? The role of the state in processes of foreign domination

Index and Conversion Factors
Introduction to economics
Introduction to macroeconomics

From The World Bank Poverty Net
On empowerment
Statistics of the Human Development Reports

You can access statistical data from the Human Development Report (HDR) and resources to help you better understand this data. You will also find helpful information about the human development index (HDI) and other indices, links to other background materials, data resources and on-going debates and discussions on human development statistics
Human Development statistical tools

Explore the world through  animations and various online tools that transform the data behind the concept of Human Development into intuitive visual presentations. HDI calculators, animated graphs and a statistical tables building application are  available

Education for Sustainability
Postgraduate courses on
Environment and
Development Education at
London South Bank University

- Part time distance learning
- Full time at the University

- Come visit us at

- Notes for lectures
- Notes and papers

- Global Value Chains
- Integrated International

- International Division of

- Transnational Corporations
- The Triad ( U.S.A, Japan, E.U.)

- Dependency Theory
- Planning for Development
- The Developmental State
- The Neo-liberal State
- Development Economics
- The future of development

- Foreign Direct Investment
- Factor Payments to Abroad
- The New Economy in

- International Trade

Back to Global Economic Prospects for Developing Countries

--World Investment Reports
---(the complete series)

--World Investment Reports
---(selected statistics)

-- Planning for Development

UNCTAD areas of work:
Globalization and Development
Development of Africa
Least Developed Countries
Landlocked Developing Countries
Small Island Developing States
International Trade and

Services Infrastructure
Investment, Technology and
Enterprise Development

The following databases on-line are available:
Commodity Price Statistics
Foreign Direct Investment
Handbook of Statistics
ICT Statistics
Millennium Indicators

Digital Library:
-- News
-- Main publications
-- UNCTAD Series
-- Basic documents
-- Issues in Brief
-- Newsletters
-- Statistical databases
-- Globalization and
----- Development Strategies

-- Economic Development in
----- Africa

-- International trade
-- Dispute Settlement - Course
----- Modules

-- Investment, Technology and
-----Enterprise Development

-- Services Infrastructure for
--- Development and Trade
----- Efficiency

-- Monographs on Port
----- Management

-- Technical Cooperation
-- Discussion papers
-- G-24 Discussion papers
-- Prebisch Lectures
-- Transnational Corporations
----- Journal

-- Publications Survey 2006-

World indicators on the environment

World Energy Statistics - Time Series

Economic inequality

Other related themes:
- Aid
- Bureaucracy
- Debt
- Decentralization
- Dependency theory
- Development
- Development Economics
- Economic Policies
- Employment/Unemployment
- Foreign Direct Investment
- Gender
- Human Rights
- Human Development
- Hunger
- Inequality/social exclusion
- Informal sector
- Labour Market
- Microfinance
- Migration
- Poverty
- Privatization
- State/Civil Society/

- Sustainable Development
- Transnational Corporations
- Urbanization

- Complete list of development themes

Puro Chile la memoria del pueblo
Proyecto para el Primer Siglo Popular
Informes Control Ciudadano:
2004: Miedos y miserias. Obstáculos a la seguridad humana
2003: Los pobres y el mercado
2002: El impacto social de la globalización en el mundo
2001: La distribución de la riqueza
2000: Políticas nacionales contra la pobreza
1999: La globalización no está beneficiando a quienes más la necesitan
1998: La equidad
1997: La pobreza
1996: La pobreza
Otras publicaciones
Ministerio de Planificación y Cooperación, Chile, agosto 2004
Caracterización Socioeconómica Nacional CASEN 2003
Estudio sobre pobreza y distribución del ingreso 1990-2003


Puro Chile la mémoire du peuple
Projet pour le Premier Sičcle Populaire