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    Editor: Róbinson Rojas Sandford
On Planning for Development: dependency theory
Rapid Spread of Crisis Reflects Close Global Economic Ties
By Stephan Danninger, Ravi Balakrishnan, Selim Elkdag, and Irina Tytell - 
IMF Research Department

April 16, 2009
IMF research shows financial stress can spread rapidly to emerging economies
Financial links with advanced economies are a key channel
Coordinated policy response by advanced, emerging economies needed
Emerging economies are now so closely integrated with advanced economies that financial stress transmits rapidly and forcefully, with financial linkages a key channel of transmission, according to new IMF research.
But the decline in capital flows to emerging economies following a crisis may be protracted, given the solvency problems faced by banks in the major industrialized economies that provide significant financing to emerging markets.
Róbinson Rojas, 2001
International capital: a menace to human dignity and life on planet earth
Notes on globalisation and its effects on developing societies as explained by structuralism and dependency theory
"Increasing globalisation, which appears as if it was the only way societies can develop in modern times, points to the continuing relevance of structuralist theory as posed by ECLAC since the 1950s, and dependency theory as developed from the early 1960s, in Chile. Both theories view the problems of underdevelopment and development within a global context, as interconnected economic, political and social processes. Dependency theory forecasted that the world system will tend to concentrate production in the hands of relatively few transnational corporations, making of the world market an oligopoly market."

Andre Gunder Frank - 2002
...on everything...including dependency theory
An explanation may be due to my many personal and political friends and some political foes around the world who again and again raise two questions about whether or not I have changed my mind about dependence and about capitalism, and if so how and why. The questions have been raised at innumerable professional meetings in their formal sessions and informally in hallways and restaurants. They are raised also by many people in their own professional papers and/or other venues. Moreover, thanks to the internet, I receive an average of at least one inquiry each week from mostly students whom I do not know all around the world about dependence and what I now think of it and about capitalism, does it exist and if not what does? Both questions arise out of their real life importance and the public policy stands that I have taken to them, which seem curious to those who have accompanied - and also to the many who by reasons of age have not- my half century public and active engagement with these vital issues.
Kenneth Surin - 1998
Dependency Theory's reanimation in the era of financial capital

In this paper I examine the claim, advanced in many quarters and in several versions, that the most recent forms of capitalist development have effectively discredited theories of uneven or dependent development, and this because these theories hinge crucially on conceptions that are no longer plausible theoretically and which have been sidelined by recent historical events. Thus, the ending of the 'Golden Age' ensued in a radical restructuring of world capitalism that saw the emergence of new regimes of international competition. These new regimes have caused many so-called Third World countries to lurch into protracted recession and the associated problems of chronic debt and current account imbalances.
Róbinson Rojas - 1989
Notes on development and dependency

If we are going to address the problem of development in Third World societies some clarification is necessary:
---the environment is one where the capitalist system of production, that is, a particular socio-economic system, is forced from outside into largely rural economies, pre-capitalist economies (not that they were at an "early" stage leading to capitalism, rather they "were not capitalist" and, probably, wouldn't have developed capitalist relations of production from within)..."

Róbinson Rojas - 1971
The Chilean Armed Forces: a political organization

...The definitive decline of the class of large landowners began ( a decline that will culminate this year, 1971, with Popular Unity's land reform ), the industrial bourgeoisie grew, and the strength of the bureaucratic bourgeoisie was born under the shadow of the development of the state. They governed in collusion with oligarchic financial and commercial sectors, while imperialism's control, aided by the Second World War, became more general and solid. At the same time, contradictions between industrial bourgeois sectors and imperialist consortiums acting in Chile began to increase. The state served these dominant classes and Yankee imperialism...
Róbinson Rojas - 1992
Dependent capitalist development: Chile (notes)

"Chile is a capitalist country, dependent on the imperialist nations and dominated by bourgeois groups who are structurally related to foreign capital and who cannot resolve the country's fundamental problems -problems which are clearly the result of class privilege which will never be given up voluntarily."
"Moreover, as a direct consequence of the development of world capitalism, the submission of the national monopolistic bourgeoisie to imperialism daily furthers its role as junior partner to foreign capital, increasingly accentuating its dependent nature."(UP political programme)

Osvaldo Sunkel - 1985
The Transnational Corporate System

This paper summarizes the conceptualization of a world economy dominated by transnational corporations, creating an international political and economic environment where less developed societies are pushed to "modernize" as dependent capitalist economies. This notion is, of course, the cornerstone of dependency theory as created and developed in Santiago, Chile, during the 1960s. I include Sunkel's text in this section to contribute to the understanding of the basic tenets of what is known as  integrated international production systems.
(Róbinson Rojas, 1990)

Róbinson Rojas - 1992
The Chilean way to socialism: Popular Unity

By 1970, a large sector of the Chilean population was openly advocating a revolution. The prevailing revolutionary ideology was one based in the enormous economic power of the "mobilising state". This ideology posed the strategy of "making the revolution from inside the state", gaining the government, that is. That was the basis for the political programme presented by the Popular Unity (Unidad Popular) for the presidential elections in 1970
Fernando H.Cardoso - 1972
Dependency and Development in Latin America

Latin America from the beginning was somewhat different in its links to the imperialist process. It is true that this process of colonialistic penetration obtained with respect to some countries (mainly the Caribbean nations). Yet throughout most of Latin America, the imperialistic upsurge occurred by way of a more complex process, through which Latin American countries kept their political independence, but slowly shifted from subordination to an earlier British influence to American predominace.
Fernando H. Cardoso/Enzo Faletto - 1969
Comprehensive Analysis of Development

 In purely economic terms, the degree of development of a production sector can be analyzed through a group of variables -the relation between the number of workers and capital, industrial output per added capital, and so forth- that reflect the process of structural diversification of the economy. Using this analysis as a base, the structure of society is deduced principally from the pattern of income distribution and the structure of employment. However, this strictly economic analysis can only be related to political and social development by looking beyond the social structure to its process of formation and to the social forces exerting pressure to maintain or change it.
Theotonio Dos Santos - 1970
The Structure of Dependence

We attempt to demonstrate that the dependence of Latin American countries on other countries cannot be overcome without a qualitative change in their internal structures and external relations. We shall attempt to show that the relations of dependence to which these countries are subjected conform to a type of international and internal structure which leads them to underdevelopment or more precisely to a dependent structure that deepens and aggravates the fundamental problems of their peoples.
Salvador Allende
Speech to the UN General Assembly, 4th Dec. 1972

Salvador Allende's speech is a historical document which scholars should read when trying to understand what kind of reality is faced by societies struggling for development in a context where national strategies are brutally constrained by "international forces". These forces being grouped under banners like "defense of the democratic system" during the Cold War, or "market forces"/ "globalization" in the post-Cold War era. In this excerpts of Salvador Allende's speech the "international forces" are very well individualized...there is no difference between those forces in 1972 and now, in the 1990s... (Robinson Rojas - 1997)
Chile - 1969
The Popular Unity's Programme (Alternative Development)

This political programme, in 1970, represented an alternative way for development, based on ECONOMIC GROWTH WITH EQUAL ACCESS TO ECONOMIC RESOURCES AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT WITH EQUAL ACCESS TO POLITICAL RESOURCES for the Chilean population. Students of development should take a close look to this text, because, today, more than thirty years since the murderers led by the White House and the Chilean generals killed Salvador Allende, still is a valid and consistent "programme for sustainable development" alternative to the capitalist model which exclude a large portion of society from the fruits of economic growth, and which also unleashes environmental destruction and unhuman development.
(Róbinson Rojas, 2003)

U.S. Senate - 1975
Covert Action in Chile 1963-1973

Was the United States DIRECTLY involved, covertly, in the 1973 coup in Chile? The Committee has found no evidence that it was. However, the United States sought in 1970 to foment a military coup in Chile; after 1970 it adopted a policy both overt and covert, of opposition to Allende; and it remained in intelligence contact with the Chilean military, including officers who were participating in coup plotting.
Eduardo Galeano - 1970
Latin America and the Theory of Imperialism

"Centralized" capitalism can afford the luxury of creating and believing its own myths of opulence, but myths cannot be eaten, and the poor nations that constitute the vast capitalist "periphery" are well aware of this fact. Imperialism has "modernized" itself in its methods and characteristics, but it has not magically turned into a universal philanthropic organisation. The system's greed grows with the system itself.
Foreign Policy IN FOCUS
From Journal of World-Systems Research, Volume 10, Summer 2004:
Mini-Symposium: Peter Gowan & The "Capitalist World-Empire"
Peter Gowan: Contemporary Intra-Core Relations and World Systems Theory
John Gulick: A Critical Appraisal of Peter Gowan’s "Contemporary Intra-Core Relations and World-Systems Theory": A Capitalist World-Empire or U.S.-East Asian Geo-Economic Integration?
Terry Boswell: How Can Anti-Imperialism Not Be Anti-Racist? The North American Anti-Globalization Movement
Giovanni Arrighi: Spatial and Other "Fixes" of Historical Capitalism

Amechi Okolo - 1983
Dependency in Africa: stages of African political economy

The process of Western incursion and domination of Africa can be divided into the following five phases:
1. Barbarian domination
2. Imperialist domination
3. Colonial domination
4. Neo-colonial domination
5. Dependency domination
Each phase was manifested both in the Western nations and in Africa; every capitalist transformation in the West was reflected in the political economy of Africa.

Róbinson Rojas - 1992
Notes on ECLAC's structuralism and dependency theory

Dependency basic point of view was as follows:
-ECLA's structuralist reading of Latin American (and probably the rest of former colonies) societies as economically "fractured" was correct.
-ECLA's assumption that international trade could take a "fairer" shape within conditions of capitalist monopolic capital was incorrect.
-ECLA economic theories and critiques were not based on:
----- an analysis of social process
----- an analysis of imperialist relationships among countries
----- an analysis of the asymmetric relations between classes
-Import-substitution strategies, carried out in conditions of capitalist relations of production dominated by the economic empires led by United States was a recipe for further "colonization", "domination", and  "dependency".
-Old fashioned export-led strategies will have the same results, though faster.
-There is no possibility of becoming independent, free nation-states in a world dominated by the capitalist economic-political empires, if our societies don't create an alternative system of production...

Fernando H. Cardoso/Enzo Faletto - 1979
Capitalist development and the State

The more developed countries of Latin America are attempting to define foreign policy objectives that take advantage of contradictions in the international order and allow these countries some independent policy- making. But these countries remain dependent and assure an internal social order favorable to capitalist interests and consequently fail to challenge one of the basic objectives of American foreign policy. Multinational enterprises continue to receive support from the foreign policies of their countries of origin, as well as from local states.
G. Palma - 1978
Dependency: A formal theory of underdevelopment or a methodology
for the analysis of concrete situations of underdevelopment?

May one talk of a 'theory of dependency'? If so, what general implications does it have for contemporary development strategy? Do we find under the 'dependency' label theories of such a diverse nature that it would be more appropriate to speak of a 'school of dependency'? Is it even correct to describe as theories the different approaches within that school? And if so, what general implications might each one have for contemporary development strategy?
Róbinson Rojas - 1984
Latin America: a failed industrial revolution

By late XVIII century the Latin American mode of production was in its final stage of consolidation. In Western Europe the industrial revolution was in its mid-way to completion. In Latin America there existed a self-sufficient economic structure shifting vigorously from mining to agricultural economy.
This development changed colonial Latin America from being outpost for Spanish and Portuguese plunder to a social formation being plundered by the force of two alien colonial powers. Thus, a society was being plundered by another society, and part of the colonial ruling class wealth was being removed by the Iberian ruling classes. Therefore, unlike earlier times, even the ruling class in Latin America (the white creoles) was being submitted to an external power, and the struggle to get rid of that submission became more and more apparent.

Róbinson Rojas - 1984
Latin America: the making of a fractured society

The concept combining production, distribution, exchange and consumption as "members of a totality, distinctions within a unity" is a basic analytical tool within the marxian theory of modes of production. It gives us a basis for dealing with the mutual interaction between economics and society, ie, the definite relations between a system of production and its social structure. To my thesis, this concept is basic for explaining the internal dynamics of Latin American society
Róbinson Rojas - 1984
Latin America: a dependent mode of production

In the XIX-XX centuries there occurred a second "collision". This time, between the Latin American mode of production and the capitalist mode of production. In this process, the colonial social structure succeeded in adapting capitalist relations of production (absorbing them gradually), and creating a system of production that suited the needs of the colonial social structure to remain in the same state with only marginal modifications. Therefore, in this phase of development, this non-capitalist social structure placed boundaries (limits) within which capitalist relations of production could develop in the system of production in the region.
Róbinson Rojas - 1984
Latin America: on the effects of colonization

Consequently, I focus on the origin, development and internal mechanisms of the reproduction of Latin America's social structure, arriving at a number of major conclusions; for example: that U.S. imperialist domination in the region is not a cause, but an effect of the social and economic structure of the region; that imperialist domination, underdevelopment, underindustrialization, and dictatorships are not a "sickness" in the continent, but instances of the reproduction of a particular social structure, as reflections of the articulation between capitalist relations of production and a pre-capitalist social structure, which leads to the conclusion that Latin America's social structure itself is the cause of underdevelopment, and the barrier to development.

Walden Bello - 1998
Speculation, Foreign Capital Dependence and the Collapse of the Southeast Asian Economies

But the agenda of U.S. economic authorities goes beyond the currency question to include the accelerated deregulation, privatization and liberalization of trade in goods and services.
Formerly, the economic clout of the Southeast Asian countries enabled them to successfully resist Washington's demands for faster trade liberalization. Indeed, they were able to derail Washington's rush to transform the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) into a free trade area. But with the changed situation, the capacity to resist has been drastically reduced and there is virtually no way to prevent Washington and the IMF from completing the liberalization or structural adjustment of the economies where the process was aborted (with the significant exception of financial liberalization) in the late eighties owing to the cornucopia of Japanese investment.

Jose Carlos Mariategui - 1924
History of the world crisis

In this lecture -- let us call it conversation rather than lecture -- will limit myself to laying out the course’s program, as well as some thoughts on the need to spread knowledge of world crisis among the proletariat. Unfortunately, in Peru there is a lack of an educating press which will follow the development of this great crisis with attentiveness, intelligence, and an ideological filiation; likewise, there is a lack of university professors, of José Ingenieros’ kind, capable of being passionate about the ideas of renovation which are currently changing the world, and of freeing themselves from the influence and prejudices of a conservative and bourgeois culture and education; there is a lack of socialist and syndicalist groups, in possession of their own instruments of popular culture, and thus capable of making the people interested in studying the crisis. The only popular educational institution, with a revolutionary spirit, is this institution-in-formation, the People’s University. It thus falls to it, beyond the modest plane of its initial work, to present contemporary reality to the people, explain to the people that it is living through one of the greatest and most transcendental times in history, and infect the people with the fruitful restlessness which currently moves the other civilized peoples of the world.
Marx/Engels Internet Archive
Important information about the current state of MIA
February 9, 2007: On January 13th the MIA server was taken down by a sustained denial of service attack from China. You can still access MIA thanks to our mirror servers, who have overcome the Chinese attackers. Please note that any e-mail sent to will not work until we have our new server setup by March 1st. You can read the full details of these incidents here.

World History Archive
The history of neocolonialism in Africa

Bay of Pigs Invasion

The Bay of Pigs Invasion was an unsuccessful attempt by United States-backed Cuban exiles to overthrow the government of the Cuban dictator Fidel Castro. Increasing friction between the U.S. government and Castro's leftist regime led President Dwight D. Eisenhower to break off diplomatic relations with Cuba in January 1961. Even before that, however, the Central Intelligence Agency had been training anti-revolutionary Cuban exiles for a possible invasion of the island. The invasion plan was approved by Eisenhower's successor, John F. Kennedy.
On April 17, 1961 about 1300 exiles, armed with U.S. weapons, landed at the Bahía de Cochinos (Bay of Pigs) on the southern coast of Cuba. Hoping to find support from the local population, they intended to cross the island to Havana. It was evident from the first hours of fighting, however, that the exiles were likely to lose. President Kennedy had the option of using the U.S. Air Force against the Cubans but decided against it. Consequently, the invasion was stopped by Castro's army. By the time the fighting ended on April 19, 90 exiles had been killed and the rest had been taken as prisoners.

The Central Intelligence Agency: its crimes.
According to the CIA's own definition, covert action means "any clandestine or secret activities designed to influence foreign governments, events, organizations, or persons in support of U.S. foreign policy conducted in such manner that the involvement of the U.S. Government is not apparent." Before we explore the various types of covert operations in which the Agency engages, we should examine one of the methods that the CIA uses to mask its activities. What is being referred to is the establishment of "front" organizations, better known as proprietaries.

R.A.Pastor - 1992
U.S. foreign policy: the Caribbean Basin

Scholars of inter-American relations have devoted considerable efforts to try to locate the motive for U.S. involvement in the internal affairs of its neighbors. Instead of a single answer, they have amassed a collection of explanations that range from security (keep out rivals, maintain stability), political/ideological (promote democracy, prevent Communism or "alien" ideologies), economic (imperialism, access to investment or trade), to psychological (an impulse to dominate, a fear of insecurity, misperception). A particular explanation might be cogent for a case, but in trying to understand what moves the United States over time, one needs to look for patterns in the history of U.S. relations with the region.
Róbinson Rojas (1970)
El desarrollo del dominio imperialista en Chile
" America fluye hacia los Estados Unidos un torrente continuo de dinero: unos cuatro mil dolares por minuto, cinco millones por día, dos mil millones por año, diez mil millones cada cinco años. Por cada mil dólares que se nos van, nos queda un muerto. !Mil dólares por muerto: ese es el precio de lo que se llama imperialismo!"
     (Segunda Declaración de La Habana, 1962)   texto completo aquí
La historia del dominio imperialista yanqui en Chile, es la historia de la lucha constante y creciente de un pueblo por liberarse de ese dominio, por un lado, y la traición descarada de las clases dominantes, que se han encargado de facilitar el saqueo económico de nuestro pueblo por parte de los yanquis, abriéndoles las puertas de la educación, de la cultura, de los hábitos, de las costumbres y del Estado chileno al dominio imperialista.

E.A.Mance: América Latina, Dependência e Globalizaçao           Cooperativas
O quinto Caderno da colecção aborda o tema das cooperativas, tratadas como verdadeiras empresas, em termos de risco, de necessidade de investimentos, de qualidade de recursos humanos determinantes para a sobrevivência e o sucesso das mesmas, e ainda como instituições económicas que, em certas condições, possam incorporar alguns valores de coesão social e de acção comunitária na luta contra a pobreza.
T. Dos Santos ( 2004):
Lula contra la pared
El gobierno Lula vive su primera crisis estructural. El próximo día 20 se reúne el Comité del Ministerio de Economía encargado de definir la tasa de interés básica pagada por el Estado para la colocación de sus títulos en el mercado (COPOM). En torno de esta reunión se abrió una lucha política de gran importancia estratégica.

A. G. Frank:
La dependencia de Theotonio

Textos de Anibal Pinto Santa Cruz:

Sobre planificación:

6.- Algunas cuestiones generales de la política económica en la América Latina, 1967

1.- Raices estructurales de la inflacion en América Latina, 1971

Sobre distribución del ingreso:

7.- Notas sobre la distribución del ingreso y la estrategia de la distribución, 1962

2.- Concentración del progreso técnico y de sus frutos en el desarrollo latinoamericano, 1965

5.- Factores estructurales y modalidades del desarrollo; su incidencia sobre la distribución del ingreso, 1967

Sobre dependencia:

3.- Heterogeneidad estructural y modelo de desarrollo reciente de la América Latina, 1972

4.- Notas sobre desarrollo, subdesarrollo y dependencia, 1972

8.- El sistema centro-periferia 20 años después, 1972

9.- Las relaciones económicas entre America Latina y los Estados Unidos; algunas implicaciones y perspectivas políticas, 1972

On Peripheral Capitalism

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