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Planning for development: integrated international system of production and power elites.
Editor: Róbinson Rojas Sandford
19 September 2011
The network of global corporate control
Stefania Vitali , James B. Glattfelder , and Stefano Battiston, 
 Chair of Systems Design, ETH Zurich, Kreuzplatz 5, 8032 Zurich, Switzerland

The structure of the control network of transnational corporations affects global market competition and financial stability. So far, only small national samples were studied and there was no appropriate methodology to assess control globally. We present the first investigation of the architecture of the international ownership network, along with the computation of the control held by each global player. We find that transnational corporations form a giant bow-tie structure and that a large portion of control flows to a small tightly-knit core of financial institutions. This core can be seen as an economic “super-entity” that raises new important issues both for researchers and policy makers.

Read also:
Revealed - the network that run the world
From the New Scientist, 24 October 2011

The idea that a few bankers control a large chunk of the global economy might not seem like news to New York's Occupy Wall Street movement and protesters elsewhere. But the study, by a trio of complex systems theorists at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, the first to go beyond ideology to empirically identify such a network of power. It combines the mathematics long used to model natural systems with comprehensive corporate data to map ownership among the world's transnational corporations (TNCs).

On power elites
From UNU-WIDER working papers series 2010
Elise S. Brezis
Globalization and the Emergence of a Transnational Oligarchy

The aim of this paper is to examine the evolution of recruitment of elites due to globalization. In the last century, the main change that occurred in the way the Western world trained its elites is that meritocracy became the basis for their recruitment. Although meritocratic selection should result in the best being chosen, we show that meritocratic recruitment may actually lead to class stratification and auto-recruitment. In this paper, I show that due to globalization, the stratification effect will be even stronger. Globalization will bring about the formation of an international technocratic elite with its own culture, norms, ethos, and identity, as well as its private clubs like the Davos World Economic Forum. We face the emergence of a transnational oligarchy.

From UNU-WIDER working papers series 2010
William I. Robinson
Global Capitalism Theory and the Emergence of Transnational Elites

The class and social structure of developing nations has undergone profound transformation in recent decades as each nation has incorporated into an increasingly integrated global production and financial system. National elites have experienced a new fractionation. Emergent transnationally-oriented elites grounded in globalized circuits of accumulation compete with older nationally-oriented elites grounded in more protected and often state-guided national and regional circuits. This essay focuses on structural analysis of the distinction between these two fractions of the elite and the implications for development.
I suggest that nationally-oriented elites are often dependent on the social reproduction of at least a portion of the popular and working classes for the reproduction of their own status, and therefore on local development processes however so defined whereas transnationally-oriented elites are less dependent on such local social reproduction. The shift in dominant power relations from nationally- to transnationally-oriented elites is reflected in a concomitant shift to a discourse from one that defines development as national industrialization and expanded consumption to one that defines it in terms of global market integration.

From UNU-WIDER working papers series 2010
Jurgen Brauer and Robert Haywood
Non-state Sovereign Entrepreneurs and Non-territorial Sovereign Organizations

We propose two new concepts, of non-state sovereign entrepreneurs and the nonterritorial sovereign organizations they form, and relate them to issues pertaining to state sovereignty, governance failures, and violent social conflict over the appropriation of the powers that accrue to states in modern international law. The concepts deal with the rise of transboundary non-state actors, as they impinge on and aim to supplement or supersede certain powers of state actors. We provide examples to show that non-state sovereign entrepreneurs and their organizations already exist. We are interested in their potential role in conflict transformation.

Non-equity modes of international production and development

Cross-border non-equity modes (NEMs) of international production generated at least $2 trillion in sales globally in 2010 and are growing rapidly, shaping world trade and investment patterns, with important implications for development... production is not exclusively about foreign direct investment (FDI) on the one hand and trade on the other. NEMs - which include contract manufacturing, services outsourcing, contract farming, franchising, licensing, and management contracts - allow transnational corporations to coordinate activities in their global value chains and influence the management of host-country firms without owning equity stakes in those firms. Transnational corporations manage the activities of NEM partner firms in their global value chains - for example, a local company in a host country assembling a product or providing information technology (IT) support - through contracts or, equally important, through access to transnational corporations´ technology, skills, business models or internal markets. Transnational corporations seldom take equity stakes in NEM partner firms, although the partner firms are tied to the transnational corporations´ global networks.
...UNCTAD...cites concerns about the impact of NEMs in host developing economies. For example, working conditions may be poor, particularly in the case of contract manufacturing in labour-intensive activities, since NEM partner firms are under strong competitive pressure to reduce costs. In some instances, NEMs can be used to circumvent social and environmental standards. The report also points to pitfalls for long-term industrial development: Developing countries need to mitigate the risk of remaining locked into low value-added activities and need to avoid overdependence on foreign technologies and inputs.

Transnational corporations and integrated international production
UNCTAD: World Investment Report 1993

Transnational corporations are a powerful force for binding national economies together. Through complex corporate strategies and intricate network structures, transnational corporations engage in international production characterized by a sophisticated intra-firm division of labour for each corporate function. As a result, they create an integrated international production system which places about one third of the world's private sector productive assets under the governance of transnational corporations. The World Investment Report 1993: Transnational Corporations and Integrated International Production, prepared by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) Programme on Transnational Corporations (formerly the United Nations Centre on Transnational Corporations)--the third in an annual series of reports on transnational corporations and foreign direct investment--provides an analysis of the changing activities of transnational corporations and their impact on world-wide economic change. The major findings of the Report are summarized below.
Table of contents - Preface - Overview
Chapter I - Global Trends -
A. Trends - B. The universe of transnational corporations - C. The policy framework
Chapter II - Regional Trends - A. Developed countries - B. Developing countries - C. Central and Eastern Europe
Chapter III - Sectoral Trends - A. Overall trends - B. The primary sector - C. The secondary sector - D. The tertiary sector - E. Conclusions
Chapter IV - The growth of foreign direct investment in the 1980´s: The bulge in the trend - A. Short term factors - B. Policy changes - C. Structural factors - D. Future prospects
Chapter V - Strategies of transnational corporations - A. The functional scope of international production - B. The geographic scope of international production - C. Conclusions
Chapter VI - Organizational structures of transnational corporations - A. Structures of transnational corporations under complex strategies - B. Integrated international production at the firm level - C. Conclusions
Chapter VII - Integrated International Production and its implications - A. The characteristics of the system - B. The geographic structure of integrated international production - C. Implications for host countries
Chapter VIII - Corporate Nationality - A. The grounds of corporate nationality - B. Corporate nationality: where and how it matters - C. Integrated international production and corporate nationality - D. Towards more order and clarity - E. Looking ahead
Chapter IX - Parent-Affiliate relations and responsibilities - A. The parent-affiliate dichotomy - B. National legislative and judicial approaches - C. Options for consideration - D. Public opinion and corporate good will - E. Conclusions
Chapter X - Tax Policy - A. Problems of allocating business income - B. Income allocation in an integrated international production system - C. Alternative methods for dealing with the allocation of income - D. Some implications for tax policy
Chapter XI - Investment Policies - A. Competition for investment and the convergence of investment policies - B. Investment policies in developing countries - C. International production, competitiveness and systemic convergence

Annex Tables:
Table 1: Foreign-direct-investment inward flows, by region and economy, 1981-1991
Table 2: Foreign-direct-investment inward and outward stock, 1980, 1985 and 1990
Table 3: The ratio of foreign-direct-investment inflows to gross domestic capital formation and the ratio of gross domestic capital formation to gross domestic product, 1971-1975, 1976-1980, 1981-1985, 1986-1991
Table 4: Average annual inflows of foreign direct investment to the Ten largest developing economies, 1970-1980, 1981-1991
Table 5: New bilateral treaties for the promotion and protection of foreign direct investment signed or entered into force in 1991 and 1992
Table 6: Changes in main national legislation relating to foreign direct investment in 1992
Table I.10: The largest 100 non-financial transnational corporations, ranked by foreign assets, 1990
Select list of publications of the UNCTAD Programme on Transnational Corporations

World Investment Report 1997:
Transnational corporations, market structure and competition policy

In contrast to what might be expected when FDI and trade become freer and expand together, globalization may well increase concentration"...and this process may be accentuated by integrated international production. Integrated International Production will generate barriers for developing countries attempting independent planning for development.
Chapter V. Policy implications

" There are four main types of business practices that can have anticompetitive effects: practices undertaken by a single firm (when a firm enjoys a dominant position); anticompetitive mergers and acquisitions; horizontal restraints (i.e., arrangements between competitors to restrain competition) and vertical restraints (anticompetitive arrangements between firms along the production-distribution chain). Horizontal and vertical restraints include the following arrangements, which can be undertaken individually or in combination:

Horizontal restraints (these may take the form of domestic cartels, import cartels, export cartels and international cartels).-
Price fixing: Competing suppliers enter into cooperative agreements regarding prices and sales conditions.
Restraint of output: Competing suppliers enter into agreements regarding output and product quality.
Market allocation: Competing suppliers allocate customers amongst themselves, who therefore cannot benefit from competition by other suppliers.
Exclusionary practices: Competing suppliers employ practices that inhibit or preclude the ability of other actual or potential suppliers to compete in the market for a product.
Collusive tendering: Competing suppliers exchange commercially sensitive information on bids (bid-rigging) and agree to take turns as to who will make the most competitive offer.
Conscious parallelism: Competing suppliers generally set the same prices, but without an explicit agreement.
Other restraints: Generally characterized by suppliers entering into cooperative agreements competition not to undertake certain actions of competitive value (e.g., advertising).

Vertical restraints.-
Exclusive dealing: A producer supplies distributors and guarantees not to supply other distributors in a given region.
Reciprocal exclusivity: A producer supplies on the condition that the distributor does not carry anybody else’s products.
Refusal to deal: A supplier refuses to sell to parties wishing to buy.
Resale price maintenance: A producer supplies distributors only on the condition that the distributor sells at a minimum price set by the supplier.
Territorial restraint: A supplier sells to distributors only on the condition that the distributor does not market the product outside a specified territory.
Discriminatory pricing: A supplier charges different parties different prices under similar circumstances.
Predatory pricing: Suppliers sell at a very low price (or supply intermediate inputs to competitors at excessive prices) in order to drive competitors out of business.
Premium offers: A dominant supplier offers discounts or other inducements only to certain loyalty rebates parties on the condition they do not sell someone else’s products.
Tied selling: Producers force purchasers to buy goods they do not want as condition to sell them those they do want, or force resalers or wholesalers to hold more goods than they wish or need.
Full-line forcing: A supplier requires distributors, for access to any product, to carry all of the supplier’s products.
Transfer pricing: May involve over-invoicing or under-invoicing of intermediate inputs between foreign affiliates. Under -invoicing can be used to facilitate predatory pricing."

A. Investment liberalization
1. Liberalization of entry and operations - 2. Limiting market-power inducements - (a) Assessing costs and benefits -
(b) Minimizing anticompetitive effects
B. The interface of foreign direct investment and competition law
1. The growing emphasis on competition law - -2. Main elements of competition law - 3. Competition law and foreign direct investment - (a) At-entry inward merger review - i. General trends - ii. Typical scenarios involving mergers and acquisitions - (b) Outward merger review - (c) Worldwide dominant positions - (d) Post-entry competition issues -
i. Ancillary agreements restraining competition - ii. Secondary effects - iii. Cross-border technology alliances
C. Broader policy implications
1. The importance of competition policy - 2. International cooperation - (a) The need for international cooperation -
(b) Obstacles
i. Impediments to information access - ii. Limited enforcement cooperation - iii. Differences in competition laws -
(c) Existing cooperation arrangements - 3. Looking ahead
D. Competition policy and market outcomes
1. Naturally concentrated markets - 2. Competing objectives - (a) Promoting development - (b) Other objectives - Notes

" Apart from development objectives, there are a number of other objectives that may not be well served by market forces and that therefore may motivate governments to play a more active role in markets. These include:
Safeguarding national security. Virtually all governments intervene in markets to maintain domestic production capacity in certain industries considered essential to national security by restricting foreign (and sometimes even domestic) participation in these. They do so to minimize the risk of disruption of supply in the event of conflict and to keep certain knowledge (especially relating to high technology) from potential adversaries.
Protecting labour rights. A fully market-driven national labour market would have no minimum wages, would not allow unionization or other forms of cooperative labour agreements, would not necessarily prohibit indentured servitude (a form of slavery based upon contracts) and would probably not impose regulations relating to the quality and safety of the work environment upon firms. Most societies have therefore recognized the need to regulate national labour markets because market forces would give rise to outcomes that neither governments nor societies find desirable.
Safeguarding culture. Governments sometimes regulate cultural industries, with a view towards protecting and maintaining national and cultural identity. • Promoting positive externalities. Positive externalities relate to activities whose net social benefit exceeds the return that a private investor could expect under normal market conditions. In other words, in cases where market signals understate the benefits to society of the activity in question and where market signals alone determine levels of investment and output, these would be less than optimal from a social perspective. Education and health care are among the most common instances of activities in which governments intervene in markets based upon the expected positive externalities associated with these services."

World Investment Report 1991:
The Triad in Foreign Direct Investment

"This first volume in the World Investment Report series analyses the Triad (Japan, the European Community and the United States) in terms of foreign direct investment.
It looks at the role transnational corporations play in promoting regional economic integration around the three poles of the Triad,
describes the linkages between foreign direct investment and trade, technology and financial flows, and
highlights policy implications for developing countries and the international community."

From The World Bank Group
World Development Report 2009
Reshaping Economic Geography
Spatial Disparities and Development Policy

Economic growth will be unbalanced, but development still can be inclusive—that is the message of this year’s World Development Report. As economies grow from low to high income, production becomes more concentrated spatially. Some places—cities, coastal areas, and connected countries—are favored by producers. As countries develop, the most successful ones also institute policies that make living standards of people more uniform across space. The way to get both the immediate benefi ts of the concentration of production and the long-term benefi ts of a convergence in living standards is economic integration.
Although the problems of economic integration defy simple solutions, the guiding principle does not have to be complex. The policy mix should be calibrated to match the diffi culty of the development challenge, determined by the economic geography of places. Today, policy discussions about geographic disparities in development often start and end with a consideration of spatially targeted interventions. The Report reframes these debates to include all instruments for economic integration—institutions, infrastructure, and incentives. The bedrock of integration efforts should be spatially blind institutions. As the challenges posed by geography become more diffi cult, the response should include connective infrastructure. In places where integration is hardest, the policy response should be commensurately comprehensive: institutions that unite, infrastructure that connects, and interventions that target.

O. Sunkel, 1985
The transnational corporate system
There are some crucial questions relating to the TNC which one cannot begin to understand, much less to answer, if one does not have a more realistic picture of contemporary capitalism. The so-called market has in fact been superseded to a significant degree by public and private planning. To a very large extent, the visible hands of the State and the TNC have long replaced the mythical invisible hand of laissez-faire capitalism, if it ever existed. It is not really the individual institution of the TNC as such that is the object of so much attention. There have been individual instances of large world-wide business organizations in the past which have not aroused such great concern. The focus is rather on the emergence of a transnational business system with such a great potential for socially uncontrolled power and influence that international society finds itself forced into a profound reorganization in order to accommodate it.

United Nations - Economic Comission for Latin America and the Caribbean
Twenty-Ninth Session, Brasilia, Brasil
6-10 May 2002
Globalization and Development

The process that has come to be known as globalization, -i.e., the progressively greater influence being exerted by worldwide economic, social and cultural processes over national or regional ones— is clearly leaving its mark on the world of today. This is not a new process. Its historical roots run deep. Yet the dramatic changes in terms of space and time being brought about by the communications and information revolution represent a qualitative break with the past. In the light of these changes, the countries of the region have requested the secretariat to focus the deliberations of the twenty-ninth session of ECLAC on the issue of globalization and development.
Globalization clearly opens up opportunities for development. We are all aware -and rightfully so- that national strategies should be designed to take advantage of the potential and meet the requirements associated with greater integration into the world economy.
This process also, however, entails risks:
risk generated by new sources of instability in trade flows and, especially, finance;
the risk that countries unprepared for the formidable demands of competitiveness in today’s world may be excluded from the process;
and the risk of an exacerbation of the
structural heterogeneity existing among social sectors and regions within countries whose linkages with the world economy are segmented and marginal in nature.
Many of these risks are associated with two disturbing aspects of the globalization process:
The first is the bias in the current form of market globalization created by the fact that the mobility of capital and the mobility of goods and services exist alongside severe restrictions on the mobility of labour. This is reflected in the asymmetric, incomplete nature of the international agenda that accompanies the globalization process. This agenda does not, for example, include labour mobility. Nor does it include mechanisms for ensuring the global coherence of the central economies’ macroeconomic policies, international standards for the appropriate taxation of capital, or agreements regarding the mobilization of resources to relieve the distributional tensions generated by globalization between and within countries...The second...

Global Value Chains
concepts and tools

The value chain describes the full range of activities that firms and workers do to bring a product from its conception to its end use and beyond. This includes activities such as design, production, marketing, distribution and support to the final consumer. The activities that comprise a value chain can be contained within a single firm or divided among different firms. Value chain activities can produce goods or services, and can be contained within a single geographical location or spread over wider areas. The GVC Initiative is particularly interested in understanding value chains that are divided among multiple firms and spread across wide swaths of geographic space, hence the term "global value chain."
Why are we interested in global value chains? Studies from a range of disciplines show that global value chains have become much more prevalent and elaborate in the past 10 to 15 years.  While many firms have had international operations and trading relationships for decades and a few for more than a century, global value chains now contain activities that are tightly integrated and often managed on a day-to-day basis. This means that firms and workers in widely separated locations affect one another more than they have in the past. Some of these effects are quite straightforward, as when a firm from one country establishes a new factory or engineering center in another country, and some are more complex, as when a firm in one country contracts with a firm in another country to coordinate production in plants owned by yet another firm in a third country, and so on...

Patterns of international capital flows and their implications for economic development
E. Prasad, R.G. Rajan and A. Subramanian - 2006
"Economic theory posit that capital should, on net, flow from richer to poorer countries...whe show that the paradox has,if anything, intensified over time,with capital, in fact, flowing from poorer to rich countries..."
General Discussion on this paper
The rise of offshoring: it's not wine for cloth anymore
G. M. Grossman and E. Rossi-Hansberg - 2006
General Discussion on this paper
Shifts in economic geography and their causes
A. J. Venables - 2006
General Discussion in this paper
Impact of globalization on monetary policy
K. S. Rogoff - 2006

From World Investment Report 2002:
Transnational Corporations and Exports Competitiveness
Chapter V
International Production System
A. Drivers and features
B. Case studies
C. Conclusions
TNC activities affect the export performance of host countries through a range of equity and non-equity relationships. What is common to all of them is that production -and, more broadly, the operations of a firm- is organized under the common governance of TNCs...In other words, global markets increasingly involve competition between entire production systems, orchestrated by TNCs, rather than between individual factories or firms"
While the growth of international production systems is well recognized, it is less well known that there is a growing tendency for firms, even large TNCs, to specialize more narrowly and to contract out more and more functions to independent firms, spreading them internationally, to take advantage of differences in costs and logistics. Some are even opting out of production altogether, leaving contract manufacturers to handle it while they focus on innovation and marketing. The main suppliers and contract manufacturers are themselves often large TNCs, with global “footprints” matching those of their principals and with their own subcontractors and suppliers. However, TNCs also increasingly use national suppliers and contractors in host economies. Specialization does not stop here: leading TNCs are also entering into joint innovation arrangements with other firms – competitors, suppliers or buyers – and with institutions such as research laboratories, universities and so on. Thus, the emerging global production system is becoming more multifaceted , but with tighter coordination by lead players in each international production system.

From Trade and Development Report 2007: Regional cooperation for development
The Trade and Development Report 2007,... recommends that developing countries should strengthen regional cooperation with other developing countries, but proceed carefully with regard to North-South bilateral or regional preferential trade agreements. Such agreements may offer gains in terms of market access and higher foreign direct investment, but they can also limit national policy space, which can play an important role in the medium- and long-term growth of competitive industries

From Trade and Development Report 2006: Global partnership and national policies for development
"The rules and commitments of the international trading regime restrict the de jure ability of developing nations to adopt national development policy".
"Rules and commitments, which in legal terms are equally binding for all countries, in economic terms might impose more binding constraints on developing countries"(p. 167)

From Trade and Development Report 2005: New Features of Global Interdependence
"Natural-resource endowments determine the degree to which selfsufficiency in food and raw materials is compatible with rapid industrial development and growth ... but the balance-of-payments constraint limits import growth." (p. 52)

More Trade and Development Reports here
United Nations Organization - 1 May 1974
"The General Assembly
Adopts the following Declaration:
Declaration on the Establishment of a New International Economic Order
We, the Members of the United Nations,
Having convened a special session of the General Assembly to study for the first time the problems of raw materials and development, devoted to the consideration of the most important economic problems facing the world community,
Bearing in mind the spirit, purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations to promote the economic advancement and social progress of all peoples,
Solemnly proclaim our united determination to work urgently for THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A NEW INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC ORDER based on equity, sovereign equality, interdependence, common interest and cooperation among all States, irrespective of their economic and social systems which shall correct inequalities and redress existing injustices, make it possible to eliminate the widening gap between the developed and the developing countries and ensure steadily accelerating economic and social development and peace and justice for present and future generations, and, to that end, declare:
1. The greatest and most significant achievement during the last decades has been the independence from colonial and alien domination of a large number of peoples and nations which has enabled them to become members of the community of free peoples. Technological progress has also been made in all spheres of economic activities in the last three decades, thus providing a solid potential for improving the well-being of all peoples. However, the remaining vestiges of alien and colonial domination, foreign occupation, racial discrimination, apartheid and neo-colonialism in all its forms continue to be among the greatest obstacles to the full emancipation and progress of the developing countries and all the peoples involved. The benefits of technological progress are not shared equitably by all members of the international community. The developing countries, which constitute 70 per cent of the world's population, account for only 30 per cent of the worlds income. It has proved impossible to achieve an even and balanced development of the international community under the existing international economic order. The gap between the developed and the developing countries continues to widen in a system which was established at a time when most of the developing countries did not even exist as independent States and which perpetuates inequality...

London - 4 April 2006
World's biggest 25 food companies not taking health seriously enough
The world’s top 25 food companies appear not to be taking the new global diet and health agenda seriously enough, says an 80 page report from The City University out today.
Researchers at City’s Centre for Food Policy studied the annual reports, accounts and HQ websites (to Autumn 2005) of the top 10 food manufacturers, top 10 food retailers and top 5 foodservice companies (top 3 fast food and top 2 contract caterers).They were rated for whether the companies were doing anything about the health agenda agreed by the world’s governments at the World Health Organisation.
In May 2004, a Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health was passed by the World Health Assembly (the WHO’s governing body). This made recommendations to companies as to what they could do to health tackle the world’s diet crisis – not just obesity but heart disease, cancers and diabetes.
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On power elites and development:

Aligning Elites with Development

TNCs and Oligopolistic Capital

On Elites and Decentralization and Privatization

Integrated International System of Production and Power Elites

Global Value Chains, Outsourcing and Global Production Networks

World Investment Reports
---(the complete series)

World Investment Reports
---(selected statistics)

---Notes for lectures
---Notes and papers

- Global Value Chains
- Integrated International

- International Division of

- Transnational Corporations
- The Triad ( U.S.A, Japan, E.U.)

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- Planning for Development
- The Developmental State
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- The future of development

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CEPAL: La inversión extranjera en América Latina y el Caribe, 1997
CEPAL: La inversión extranjera en América Latina y el Caribe, 1998
CEPAL: La inversión extranjera en América Latina y el Caribe, 1999
Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe
Inversiones Extranjeras Directas
Hojas Informativas por País

O investimento estrangeiro direto na América Latina e Caribe 2010
Foreign direct Investment in Latin America and the Caribbean 2010
La inversión extranjera directa en América Latina y el Caribe 2010
Foreign direct Investment in Latin America and the Caribbean
La inversión extranjera directa en América Latina y el Caribe 2009
Foreign direct investment in Latin America and the Caribbean 2008
La inversión extranjera directa en América Latina y el Caribe 2008
Foreign Investment in Latin America and the Caribbean 2007
La inversión extranjera en América Latina y el Caribe 2007
Foreign Investment in Latin America and the Caribbean 2006
La inversión extranjera en América Latina y el Caribe 2006
Foreign Investment in Latin America and the Caribbean 2005
La inversión extranjera en América Latina y el Caribe 2005
Foreign investment in Latin America and the Caribbean 2004
Documento informativo Investimento estrangeiro na América Latina e no Caribe 2004
La Inversión extranjera en América Latina y el Caribe 2004
Foreign investment in Latin America and the Caribbean. 2003 Report
La inversión extranjera en América Latina y el Caribe 2003
Foreign Investment in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2003
Foreign investment in Latin America and the Caribbean. 2002 Report
La Inversión Extranjera en América Latina y el Caribe - Informe 2002
Foreign investment in Latin America and the Caribbean. 2001 Report
La Inversión Extranjera en América Latina y el Caribe. Informe 2001
Foreign Investment in Latin America and the Caribbean. 2000 Report
La inversión extranjera en América Latina y el Caribe. Informe 2000
Foreign investment in Latin America and the Caribbean. 1999 Report
La inversión extranjera en América Latina y el Caribe. Informe 1999
Foreign investment in Latin America and the Caribbean. 1998 Report
La inversión extranjera en América Latina y el Caribe. Informe 1998
Foreign investment in Latin America and the Caribbean. 1997 Report
La inversión extranjera en América Latina y el Caribe. Informe 1997

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