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This academic site promotes excellence in teaching and researching economics and development, and the advancing of describing, understanding, explaining and theorizing.
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On Planning for Development: Migration and Disasters -1
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Palestinian Territories occupied by Israel

May 14 2008 marks the 60th anniversary of what is billed in the U.S. and Israeli mainstream media as Israel’s "independence," and what the Palestinian and Arab peoples as a whole know as al-Nakba—the Catastrophe. To make way for the creation of the Israeli settler state, more than 80 percent of the Palestinian population was driven out of their homeland by means of terror.

From The World Bank Group:  Home ---Data ---Publications ---Events ---Contact

Migration and Remittances Factbook 2016
December 2015 | Press Release  Español | Français | русский | العربية 

This factbook provides a snapshot of migration and remittances for all countries, regions and income groups of the world, compiled from available data from various sources.
Part 1.- Foreword | Highlights |Acknowledgments | Data Notes | Migration and Remittances: Top Countries | South-South Migration Versus South-North Migration | Remittances Compared With Other Resource Flows | World | Developing Countries | Regional Tables | Income-Group Tables | Other Country Group Tables (PDF, 3MB)
Part 2.- Country Tables : Afghanistan - Luxembourg (PDF, 17MB)

Part 3.- Country Tables : Macao SAR, China - Zimbabwe | Glossary (PDF, 15MB)

From The World Bank Group

Migration and Remittance Flows: Recent Trends and Outlook, 2013-2016

Remittance flows to developing countries are expected to reach $414 billion in 2013 (up 6.3 percent over 2012), and $540 billion by 2016. Worldwide, remittance flows may reach $550 billion in 2013 and over $700 billion by 2016. These increases are projected in spite of a $10 billion downward revision in the data due to the introduction of the Sixth Edition of the IMF Balance of Payments Manual and the reclassification of several developing countries as high-income countries.

As the development community debates the post-2015 development agenda, there is a case to be made for reducing migration costs, including the costs of recruitment, visa, passport, and residency permits.

From the OECD

International Migration Outlook 2013

This publication analyses recent development in migration movements and policies in OECD countries and some non member countries including migration of highly qualified and low qualified workers, temporary and permanent, as well as students.

From WIDER working papers 2011

Is Internal Migration Bad for Receiving Urban Centres?
Evidence from Brazil, 1995-2000
Céline Ferré - April 2011

During the twentieth century, internal migration and urbanization shaped Brazil’s economic and social landscape. Cities grew tremendously, while immigration participated in the rapid urbanization process and the redistribution of poverty between rural and urban areas. In 1950, about a third of Brazil’s population lived in cities; this figure grew to approximately 80 per cent by the end of the nineteenth century. The Brazilian population redistributed unevenly—some dynamic regions became population magnets, and some neighbourhoods within cities became gateway clusters in which the effects of immigration proved particularly salient. This study asks, has domestic migration to cities been part of a healthy process of economic transition and mobility for the country and its households? Or has it been a perverse trap?

From WIDER - UNU - Research Paper No. 2008/85

Conflict, Disasters, and No Jobs: Reasons for International Migration from Sub-Saharan Africa
Wim Naudé - October 2008

Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has the highest growth rate in net international migration in the world. The reasons for this migration are investigated in this paper.
First, a survey of the literature on the profile and determinants of international migration in SSA is given.
Second, panel data on 45 countries spanning the period 1965 to 2005 are used to determine that the main reasons for international migration from SSA are armed conflict and lack of job opportunities. An additional year of conflict will raise net out-migration by 1.35 per 1,000 inhabitants and an additional 1 per cent growth will reduce net out-migration by 1.31 per 1,000.
Demographic and environmental pressures have a less important direct impact, but a more pronounced indirect impact on migration through conflict and job opportunities. In particular, the frequency of natural disasters has a positive and significant effect on the probability that a country will experience an outbreak of armed conflict. Furthermore, there is no evidence of a ‘migration hump’ or of persistence in net migration rates in SSA, and no evidence that immigration is causing conflict in host countries.

From The World Bank Group
Migration and Remittances Factbook 2011
Officially recorded remittance flows to developing countries are estimated to increase by 6 percent to $325 billion in 2010. This marks a healthy recovery from a 5.5 percent decline registered in 2009. Remittance flows are expected to increase by 6.2 percent in 2011 and 8.1 percent in 2012, to reach $374 billion by 2012.

From CEPAL Review:
2009 Spatial distribution, internal migration and development in Latin America and the Caribbean
2007 International migration and development: the socioeconomic impact of remittances in Colombia
2004 Migrations, the labour market and poverty in Greater Buenos Aires
1993 Intraregional migration of skilled manpower
2003 Globalization and international migration: the Latin American experience
From The World Bank Group
Migration and Remittances Factbook 2008
This factbook provides a snapshot of migration and remittances for all countries, regions and income groups of the world, compiled from available data from various sources.


International Migration Outlook

Annual Report - 2010 Edition

The recent recession has slowed migration, especially that driven by labour demand. Yet, migration did not come to a halt – in part because family and humanitarian movements are less sensitive to changes in labour market conditions, but also because of structural needs and demographic trends. Concealed behind a slack labour market, the ageing of the population is starting to reduce the working-age population in many countries.
The crisis has also had the effect of throwing many immigrant workers out of work, at a higher rate than for native-born workers. Many were recent migrants, but not all. The road to steady employment for migrants in the past has often been a long one. With job loss, the return to such employment in the wake of the crisis could also be long. Add to this the fact that, even in good times, labour market integration for immigrants and their children in many OECD countries has not always met expectations.
The current situation for immigrants, particularly youth, is a particularly difficult one. The sharpest decline in employment is observed among immigrant youth, particularly in the countries hardest hit by the crisis. There is a real threat that this will have a long-term negative impact on their integration outcomes.
It is important to remember that migrants were contributors to the national economy when times were good; they should not be seen as a burden when times are bad. Those who are without work should be given equal opportunity with native-born unemployed to develop their skills and to re-integrate the ranks of the employed during the recovery. Jobs are the best insurance against social exclusion and marginalisation of migrants and their children. Employment contributes to their integration and to broader social cohesion. It also addresses the concerns of public opinion towards immigration.
There is no escaping the fact that more labour migration will be needed in the future in many OECD countries as the recovery progresses and the current labour market slack is absorbed. There are several reasons for this, which it is useful to recall.

International Migration Outlook
Annual Report - 2008 Edition

Temporary labour migration is back in the headlines again. It had fallen into discredit after the experience of the “guest-worker” era, when many of the guest workers who were present at the time of the first oil price shock remained in the host countries where they had found work. Recently, much of the debate on temporary labour migration has focused on so-called “circular migration”, which also incorporates the notion of repeated movements.
Why temporary migration is back in the limelight?
There are essentially three reasons for the resurgent interest in temporary migration.
The first relates to the fact that returns of highly qualified migrants are seen as a possible response to concerns about brain drain. For example, in India and Chinese Taipei, the return of highly skilled migrants has had beneficial effects on the development of the native software and high-technology sectors. As a result, some have argued that this model of return migration could be applied more broadly, enabling origin countries to reap some benefits from the temporary loss of talented expatriates.
The second reason is related to the discovery of the large remittances transferred by immigrants, both high- and lesser-skilled, back to their origin countries. These remittances greatly improve the welfare of persons left behind and tend to be more common for recent or short-term immigrants than for those long-established in host countries. Temporary migration tends to spread the benefits of remittances and of skill transfers among more persons.
The third concerns the fact that lesser skilled migration continues to suffer from a bad image in many host countries, with less favourable labour market outcomes for immigrants with low education and, often, for their children as well. As a consequence, there is a general reluctance to acknowledge that there are labour market needs for lowskilled migrants and a belief that any needs which do exist should be dealt with by means of temporary flows.
But how often do immigrants return to their countries of origin after a stay in a host country? Can migration policy encourage returns to host countries? Is temporary/circular labour migration a workable solution? This publication provides some answers to these questions.

Conference on African Migration in Comparative Perspective - June, 2003
M. Cerrutti and R. Bertoncello
Urbanization and Internal Migration Patterns in Latin America
A. Portes
Urbanization in Comparative Perspective

The Carrefour supermarket in the Tijuca quarter of Rio de Janeiro is located right at the foot of the Favela Borel, one of the most violent slums of the city. Recently, the military police invaded Borel, killing four young men who, in the event, proved to be innocent. In visiting Carrefour, one would expect a significant display of security given the threat posed by its violent neighbor, both to property and life. Nothing of the sort. The supermarket is as tranquil as one could find in any wealthy suburb. Shoppers arrive and leave their cars with full confidence that they would still be there when they return.
For this tranquility, Carrefour has the drug traffickers in the hill to thank. The powerful and well-organized band that controls Borel has decreed that shoplifting or robbery in its vicinity and, especially in its well-stocked neighbor, is strictly forbidden...

Douglas Massey, University of Pennsylvania, USA
Patterns and Processes of International Migration in the 21st Century
By the end of the 20th century, all developed nations had become countries of immigration. The only question was whether or not they chose to recognize this fact officially. Given the emergence of sizeable migratory flows throughout the world, policies governing the number, characteristics, and terms under which foreigners enter nation states have become controversial and politically divisive. Since an enlightened consideration of policies necessarily begins with hard facts and objective knowledge about the phenomenon in question, I attempt to lay the foundations for a comprehensive understanding of international migration, first by describing the modern history of international population movements, then by delineating the size and structure of the world’s leading migratory systems today, and finally by developing a synthetic multi-level theory to account for the initiation and perpetuation of migratory flows in the contemporary world. Lessons from this review are then applied to consider policies for the 21st century.
Dorrit Posel, University of Natal, S. Africa
"Have Migration Patterns in post-Apartheid South Africa Changed?"

Philip Guest, Population Council, Thailand
"Bridging the Gap: Internal Migration in Asia"

Sally Findley, Columbia University, USA
"Migration in Demographic Perspective: An Overview" (PowerPoint Presentation)

Bryan Roberts, University of Texas at Austin, USA
"Comparative Systems: An Overview"
This overview focuses on urbanization and the development of urban systems in less developed countries from the 1950s to the present. In 1950, some 18 percent of the population of less developed regions was urban, rising to 40 percent by 2000 (UNDP, 2002: Table A.2). These percentages conceal considerable variation between countries and regions. Forty-two percent of the population of Latin America and the Caribbean was urban in 1950, compared with 15 percent in Africa, 17 percent in South-Central Asia and 15 percent in South-Eastern Asia (ibid).1 The differences in the extent of urbanization are associated with differences in the timing of urbanization and in the nature of urban systems. The highest rates of urbanization between 1950 and 2000 in Latin America occurred in the 1950s, when many of the urban systems of Latin American countries had high primacy – the concentration of a country’s urban population in its largest city. Countries in other regions experienced their fastest rates of urbanization later, in the 1960s and 1970s, and in comparison to Latin America primacy was a less marked feature of many of their urban systems in 1950.
Abdou Maliq Simone, New School, USA
"Moving Towards Uncertainty: Migration and the Turbulence of African Urban Life"
Peter Marcuse, Columbia University, USA
Migration and Urban Spatial Structure in a Globalizing World: A Comparative Look
This paper begins an examination of the relationship between migration and urban space. More specifically, it looks at the reciprocal impact of migration (both intra- and inter-national) and the internal structure of urban space. It is a conceptual paper, although it builds on a range of empirical work, particularly in the field of urban analysis, and on documentation of patterns of migration and of urban change in the two countries involved in the comparison: South Africa and the United States (I focus on New York City in the one case and Johannesburg in the other because they are the cities I know blest, and the most integrated into global networks.). Both are, today, deeply embedded in processes of globalization, although at quite different points, and they provide a contrast between developed and developing economies that illuminates both he generalizability and the limitations of comparative analysis.
Graeme Hugo, GISCA, Australia
"Urbanization in Asia: An Overview"
Of the many profound changes which have swept Asia during the last half-century none have been so profound and far reaching as the doubling of the proportion of population living in urban areas. In 1950, 231 million Asians lived in urban areas and by 2000 they had increased five times to 1.22 billion while their proportions of the total population increased from 17.1 to 34.9 percent (United Nations 2001a). Moreover, in the next two decades Asia will pass the threshold of having more than half their population living in urban areas (United Nations 2002).
While there are huge variations between countries in the level of urbanisation and later of urban growth this is indicative of substantial economic, social and demographic change in the region. The paper firstly outlines the major patterns and trends in urbanisation and urban growth in the region. It then examines, in so far as is possible with the information available, the role of population movement in Asian urbanisation. It then discusses a number of key issues relating to migration and urbanisation in the region and finally a number of policy issues relating to urbanisation in Asia are examined.
Oded Stark, University of Bonn, Germany
"Tales of Migration without Wage Differentials: Individual, Family, and Community Contests"
By means of examples that pertain to individual, family, and community contexts, it is shown that migration between locations is compatible with a zero expected net earnings differential between locations. The examples give rise to testable predictions that differ sharply from the predictions that emanate from a standard postulate of earnings differential.
This article elaborates on the idea that migration between locations is compatible with a zero expected differential in net earnings between locations. It presents examples that yield such a relationship in different contexts. By giving rise to testable predictions that differ sharply from the predictions that emanate from a standard postulate of earnings differential, the examples point to a limitation of conventional policies aimed at affecting migration flows, and imply new policy instruments.
Mark Collinson, Agincourt, University of Witwatersrand, S. Africa
"Highly Prevalent Circular Migration: Households, Mobility, and Economic Status in Rural South Africa"
South Africa’s Apartheid-driven social engineering reshaped society to provide cheap labor for mines and industry while unemployed family members were legislated to remain in densely settled rural areas. High levels of circular migration became entrenched and continue to prevail. This context makes it important to explore contemporary household livelihood strategies, mobility and links with economic status in the rural area. The demographic surveillance system (DSS) of Agincourt can shed some interesting perspectives since it spans the decade during which apartheid was abolished. Literature on labour migration tends to focus on the urban side of the cycle, i.e. the destination perspective of circular migrants. This study however provides an opportunity to see the perspective of the rural sending population. Interestingly, the links between the urban areas and rural hinterlands are so strong that a sendingcommunity perspective can explain key aspects of urban settlement patterns. Being a case study this paper invests more in description than explanation, however, the implications for theoretical development must not be overlooked, and some questions are flagged that might be addressed by these data.
Norma Montes, CEDEM, University of Havana, Cuba
"Internal Migration in Cuba in XXth Century Last Decades: An Overview"
Sara Curran, Princeton University, USA
Kanchana Tangchonlatip, Mahidol University, Thailand
"Migration, Cumulative Causation and Gender: Evidence from Thailand"
Vicky Hosegood, ACHPS, S. Africa
"The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Children's Living Arrangements and Migration in Rural South Africa"
Sangeetha Madhaven, University of Witwatersrand, S. Africa
"Migration, Household Behavior and Community Differentiation: An Overview" (PowerPoint Presentation)
Robert E. B. Lucas, Boston University, USA
"The Economic Well-Being of Movers and Stayers: Assimilation, Impacts, Links and Proximity"
C. Elisa Florez, CEDE, Colombia
"Migration and the Urban Informal Sector in Colombia"
Kinuthia Macharia, American University, USA
"Migration in Kenya and Its Impact on the Labor Market"
Patricia Fernandez-Kelly, Princeton University, USA
"The State and Internal Migration in Guadalajara and West Baltimore"
Michel Garenne, Pasteur Institute, France
"Migration, Urbanisation and Child Health in Africa: A Global Perspective"
Burt Singer, Princeton University, USA
Marcia Castro, Princeton University, USA
"Migration, Urbanization and Malaria: A Comparative Analysis of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and Machadinho, Rondônia, Brazil"
Kathleen Kahn, Agincourt, University of Witwatersrand, S. Africa
"Health Consequences of Migration: Evidence from South Africa's Rural Northeast (Agincourt)"
Mark VanLandingham, Tulane University, USA
"Impacts of Rural to Urban Migration on the Health of Young Adult Migrants in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam"
Hania Zlotnik, United Nations, USA
"Migrants' Rights
Ron Skeldon, University of Sussex, UK
"Migration and Poverty"
David Hughes, Rutgers University, USA
"Refugees and Squatters: Immigration and the Politics of Territory on the Zimbabwe-Mozambique Border"
Donny Meertens, National University of Colombia, Colombia
"Forced Displacement in Colombia: Public Policy, Gender, and Iniatives for Reconstruction"
Global Economic Prospects 2006
Economic Implications of Remittances and Migration

WASHINGTON, November 16, 2005 — International migration can generate substantial welfare gains for migrants and their families, as well as their origin and destination countries, if policies to better manage the flow of migrants and facilitate the transfer of remittances are pursued, says the World Bank's annual Global Economic Prospects (GEP) report for 2006.
“With the number of migrants worldwide now reaching almost 200 million, their productivity and earnings are a powerful force for poverty reduction,” said François Bourguignon, World Bank Chief Economist and Senior Vice President for Development Economics.
“Remittances, in particular, are an important way out of extreme poverty for a large number of people. The challenge facing policymakers is to fully achieve the potential economic benefits of migration, while managing the associated social and political implications.”

From The World Bank Group - November 2007
The International Migration of Women
edited by economists Andrew R. Morrison, Maurice Schiff, and Mirja Sjöblom.
WASHINGTON, November 26, 2007 — Women make up almost half the migrant population in the world and their numbers are increasing, according to a new World Bank report released today.
"The fact that women now account for almost half the total migrant population is having enormous effects on development," says Andrew Morrison, lead economist at the World Bank's Gender Group."Women are sending lots of money to their families back home, and evidence from rural Mexico shows that their migration leads to positive economic effects for the homes they leave behind."
Between 1960 and 2005, the percentage of international migrants who are women increased by almost 3 percentage points from 46.7 percent to 49.6 percent, to a total number of approximately 95 million women, according to the new World Bank volume, The International Migration of Women, edited by economists Andrew R. Morrison, Maurice Schiff, and Mirja Sjöblom.

From Africa Renewal, Volume 19 No. 4. January 2006
African migration: from tensions to solutions
Migrants who leave their countries in search of work are currently not adequately protected by international law.

David M. Malone and Heiko Nitzschke:
Economic Agendas in Civil Wars: What We Know, What We Need to Know
(PDF 135KB)

The political economy of civil wars has acquired unprecedented scholarly and policy attention. Among others, the International Peace Academy’s programme on Economic Agendas in Civil Wars (EACW) has aimed to contribute to a better understanding of the complex dynamics of civil war economies and has identified areas for policy development critical for improved conflict prevention, conflict resolution, and postconflict peacebuilding. While much of the earlier debate on the economic dimensions has been polarized around the ‘greed versus grievance’ dichotomy, there is now a better understanding of how economic dynamics can influence the onset, character, and duration of armed conflicts. This paper discusses key research findings and their policy relevance, provides a preliminary assessment of policy efforts to address the economic dimensions of conflict and conflict transformation, and offers some issues for further research and policy action.

Tony Addison:
Post-Conflict Recovery: Does the Global Economy Work for Peace?
(PDF 96KB)

Countries as diverse as Afghanistan, Angola, and Sierra Leone are now attempting to recover from major wars, often amidst continuing insecurity. The challenge is to achieve a broad-based recovery that benefits the majority of people. The economic and social recovery of conflict-affected countries cannot be separated from their interaction with the rest of the world through flows of finance, goods, and people. Unfortunately, the global economy is not working well for peace. Trade reform, in particular, must take account of the need to create better, and non-violent, livelihoods for the world’s poor: rich-country protectionism in agriculture hinders broad-based recovery and thereby harms the new international security agenda. Post-conflict economies also need more external finance to support early institutional development and reform, thereby increasing the effectiveness of longer-term aid inflows.

RP2005/15 Amos Sawyer:
Social Capital, Survival Strategies, and their Potential for Post-Conflict Governance in Liberia
(PFD 93KB)

This paper investigates how people created, adapted and used social capital and conflict resolution during more than a decade of violent conflict in Liberia, and the potential of such capital to contribute to post-conflict peacebuilding and self-governance.

RP2005/42 P. B. Anand:
Getting Infrastructure Priorities Right in Post-Conflict Reconstruction
(PDF 121KB)

In this paper, an attempt is made to identify some key challenges for infrastructure sectors in post-conflict reconstruction. In spite of the Hague and Geneva Conventions, infrastructure can be damaged in conflicts, and reconstructing infrastructure is often essential to sustain recovery. Conflicts erode governance institutions, weaken public expenditure management systems, and increase transaction costs making it difficult for principals to monitor their agents. Infrastructure includes both ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ assets of societies and the rebuilding of social institutions and capacity of communities is as crucial as reconstructing roads and bridges. A framework is developed here for assessing alternative infrastructure policies for their impact on three key dimensions of (i) governance and state rebuilding, (ii) conflict prevention and peace, and (iii) poverty reduction. Drawing upon evidence from evaluation studies including Afghanistan, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, East Timor and Rwanda, a number of policy tensions and action points for policymaking in infrastructure sectors in post-conflict contexts are identified.

RP2005/52 Liisa Laakso:
Beyond the Notion of Security Community: What Role for the African Regional Organizations in Peace and Security?
(PDF 94KB)

African regional organizations’ increasing activity in security policy is usually approached through the concept of a ‘security community’, which can only partially clarify their difficult situation. A multilevel governance model is suggested as a more useful approach in a situation where economic cooperation is weak, member states’ principles of governance diverge, and they themselves might be part of security problems. Security community is not a necessary condition for a regional organization to play a role in the field of security. By new intra-regional and cross-level relationships with the international community and civil society, regional organizations can become important security actors in Africa.

RP2005/51 Jennifer Widner:
Constitution Writing and Conflict Resolution
(PDF 101KB)

African regional organizations’ increasing activity in security policy is usually approached through the concept of a ‘security community’, which can only partially clarify their difficult situation. A multilevel governance model is suggested as a more useful approach in a situation where economic cooperation is weak, member states’ principles of governance diverge, and they themselves might be part of security problems. Security community is not a necessary condition for a regional organization to play a role in the field of security. By new intra-regional and cross-level relationships with the international community and civil society, regional organizations can become important security actors in Africa.

RP2005/50 Joseph Hanlon:
Is the International Community Helping to Recreate the Pre-Conditions for War in Sierra Leone?
(PDF 94KB)

‘In a very real sense, the conditions that spawned the war and inflicted gruesome casualties on Sierra Leone’s citizens have not disappeared’, warned the International Crisis Group. In this paper we argue that many of those conditions are being recreated. The same old men who were responsible for the war are still in power, both in government and in a reinstated chieftaincy system, and corruption is still endemic, while young people remain jobless and largely uneducated. Further, we argue that the policies of the international community are, perhaps inadvertently, promoting a return to pre-war conditions.

RP2005/48 Saman Kelegama:
Transforming Conflict with an Economic Dividend: The Sri Lankan Experience
(PDF 87KB)

Peace can generate an economic dividend, which can be further increased by appropriate economic reform. This dividend can in turn be used to raise popular support for conflict resolution measures along the road to achieving a final political settlement, a strategy that characterizes the recent period in Sri Lanka. However, despite an increase in economic growth following the cessation of hostilities between the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) and the government, no substantial dividend materialized for either government supporters in the South or LTTE supporters in the war-torn Northeast. The causes of this failure include delays in disbursing aid which would have eased adjustment to economic reforms—resulting in cuts to public spending that affected Southern households—and weak institutions that impeded the effective use of aid in the Northeast. The Sri Lankan experience highlights some important lessons for both government and donors on making use of an economic lever for consolidating a peace process and conflict resolution. It also highlights some of the dangers in relying too much on economic levers to consolidate a peace process when levels of mistrust are very high.

RP2005/44 Ghassan Dibeh:
The Political Economy of Postwar Reconstruction in Lebanon
(PDF 173KB)

This paper studies the postwar economic and political reconstruction in Lebanon. The paper shows that the ‘reconstruction boom’ was short-lived. The economy experienced a growth trap early in the reconstruction period, and entered a cyclical crisis in 1998 which resulted from an ill-designed fiscal-monetary policy mix. The expansionary fiscal policy resulting from the high resource demands – due to economic and political reconstruction and from the needs of addressing horizontal inequality codified in the peace agreement known as the Taef Accords – led to a fiscal crisis of the state. The monetary and central bank policy was finance-biased with emphasis on financial and exchange rate stability and foreign capital inflows. Such a mix led to a real interest rate shock in the postwar period that played a role in the onset of the cyclical downturn. The finance-biased policy led to the rise of a rentier economy leading to deindustrialization during this period. The rise of a growth-impeding political economic structure resulting from the Taef Accords also played a role in intensifying the economic crisis through exerting pressures on public resources and through the engendering of a political crisis that brought to an end the era of postwar reconstruction.

RP2006/18 Marcia Byrom Hartwell:
Violence in Peace: Understanding Increased Violence in Early Post-Conflict Transitions and Its Implications for Development
(PDF 86KB)

A key issue for development in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries has been an escalation of violence during post-conflict transitions. A long-term goal for international donor involvement is to assist in building legitimate and effective political, economic, and legal institutions. However, research and observation has revealed that increased violence is commonplace during peace processes and strongly influences the ways in which these institutions are formed. In turn post-conflict violence itself is strongly influenced and motivated by the way in which peace agreements have been negotiated. This study addresses some of the reasons for escalation of violence following peace agreements. It describes the underlying dynamics including the relationship between perceptions of justice as fairness, formation of post-conflict identity, political processes of forgiveness and revenge; and the policy implications for development particularly in relation to peace conditionality tied to aid.

RP2006/19 Arjan de Haan:
Migration in the Development Studies Literature: Has It Come Out of Its Marginality?
(PDF 140KB)

This paper explores the role migration has played in development studies, and in debates on economic growth and poverty. It argues that, despite a recent surge of interest in international migration and remittances, research on human mobility particularly for labour within poor countries does not have the place it deserves, and that it used to have in the classical development literature. Review of the empirical literature suggests that in fact much is known about the migration–development relationship, provided we are careful with definitions, and allow for context-specificity to be a key component of analyses. Against this richness of empirical detail, the paper reviews theoretical models of migration, finding significant differences in understandings of migration and its role in shaping wellbeing, but also complementarities. This highlights the importance of interdisciplinarity, and institutional understanding of processes of economic growth. In particular, it stresses that development economics need to draw more strongly on the insights by and approaches of non-economist social sciences.

DP2003/72 Raimo Väyrynen:
Illegal Immigration, Human Trafficking, and Organized Crime
(PDF 227KB)

It is important to make a careful distinction between illegal immigration, human smuggling, and human trafficking which are nested, but yet different concepts. This distinction is relevant because these different categories of the illegal movement of people across borders have quite different legal and political consequences. Human smuggling and trafficking have become a world-wide industry that ‘employs’ every year millions of people and leads to the annual turnover of billions of dollars. Many of the routes and enclaves used by the smugglers have become institutionalized; for instance, from Mexico and Central America to the United States, from West Asia through Greece and Turkey to Western Europe, and within East and Southeast Asia. More often than not flourishing smuggling routes are made possible by weak legislation, lax border controls, corrupted police officers, and the power of the organized crime. Naturally, poverty and warfare contribute to the rising tide of migration, both legal and illegal.
In general, illegal migration seems to be increasing due to the strict border controls combined with the expansion of the areas of free mobility, such as the Schengen area, and the growing demographic imbalance in the world. The more closed are the borders and the more attractive are the target countries, the greater is the share of human trafficking in illegal migration and the role played by the national and transnational organized crime. The involvement of criminal groups in migration means that smuggling leads to trafficking and thus to victimization and the violation of human rights, including prostitution and slavery.

DP2003/68 Matthew J. Gibney and Randall Hansen:
Asylum Policy in the West: Past Trends, Future Possibilities
(PDF 231KB)

This article examines the policy responses of Western countries in the realm of asylum. We begin by explaining the reasons why the asylum issue has made its way up the political agendas of liberal democratic countries in recent years. While applications for asylum have risen in the last two decades, we also highlight the way rights-based constraints and financial costs have contributed to controversy around the issue. We then examine in detail the major policy responses of states to asylum, grouping them into four main categories: measures aiming to prevent access to state territory, measures to deter arrivals, measures to limit stay, and measures to manage arrival. Moving then to explore the efficacy of these measures, we consider the utility of policy making from the viewpoints of states, asylum seekers and refugees, and international society. The article concludes with the presentation of four new directions in which policies could move in order better to square the professed interests of Western states with the needs of refugees for protection.

DP2003/59 Catherine Phuong:
Controlling Asylum Migration to the Enlarged EU
(PDF 217KB)

We examine the ways in which candidate countries which are to join the EU in 2004 are responding to increasing asylum migration from the East and assess the impact of accession on their asylum and immigration laws and policies. It will be argued that recent changes in asylum and immigration laws in candidate countries have been largely affected by current EU efforts to devise a common immigration policy and a possible common asylum system. Instead of devising their own response to asylum migration, candidate countries are merely aligning their asylum policies with EU practice and expectations.

DP2003/48 Elizabeth Thomas-Hope:
Irregular Migration and Asylum Seekers in the Caribbean
(PDF 306KB)

Irregular migration is increasing in the Caribbean while the opportunities for applying for asylum hardly exist. The policy regarding most Caribbean irregular migrants is based on the view of the potential destinations, namely that the migrants are economic rather than political refugees. Whatever the specific cause of a migrant’s departure, the movement is rooted in a complex amalgam of political, socioeconomic and (increasingly) environmental, factors. Thus irregular movements are part of the wider Caribbean migration process. The irregular movements differ from other forms of migration in that they represent the informal sector of migration, providing an alternative to those sectors of national populations that for political or economic reasons fall outside the immigration categories for entry to the United States. Locations in the Caribbean largely provide the intended transit stops to the United States, but with the implementation of policies to interdict migrants at sea, many of these intermediary locations become final destinations and, ultimately, marginalized communities of the migrants themselves and successive generations. These centres are the nodal points of …/.

DP2003/41 Jonathon W. Moses and Bjørn Letnes:
If People were Money: Estimating the Potential Gains from Increased International Migration
(PDF 215KB)

In this paper we elaborate on the findings produced by an applied equilibrium model that is used to calculate the annual efficiency gains from free international migration. These findings suggest that we can expect significant gains from liberalizing international labour flows. In particular, we expand on two implicit aspects of the estimates: the actual number of migrants being generated by the various counter-factual scenarios, and the per-migrant cost/benefits associated with each. These estimates are then compared with contemporary migration flows and the findings of studies that analyse their economic impact. In light of these comparisons, we conclude that our original findings are not unreasonable.

DP2003/35 Philip Martin:
Economic Integration and Migration: The Mexico-US Case
(PDF 236KB)

This paper explains the evolution and effects of Mexico-US migration, and highlights the NAFTA approach to economic integration, viz., free up trade and investment while stepping up efforts to prevent unauthorized migration. The European Union approach is different: provide aid first, and later free up trade and migration in the expectation that moves toward convergence will ensure minimal migration because trade has become a substitute for migration. The paper concludes that NAFTA will reduce unwanted Mexico-US migration in the medium to long term, and that different initial conditions in Europe mean that there will be relatively little east-west migration when nationals of new entrant EU members achieve freedom of movement.

DP2003/34 Géraldine Chatelard:
Iraqi Forced Migrants in Jordan: Conditions, Religious Networks, and the Smuggling Process
(PDF 230KB)

This paper describes and analyses the case of Iraqis who, in the 1990s, have arrived in Jordan as forced migrants, and have continued to Western Europe or Australia as asylum migrants. The argument put forth is that trends of asylum migration cannot be fully understood without looking at a set of interrelated issues in the countries of first reception of the forced migrants: reception standards, the migrants’ poor socioeconomic conditions, further violations of their human rights, but also the functioning of the migrants’ social networks and of human smuggling rings.

DP2003/31 Stephen Castles and Sean Loughna:
Trends in Asylum Migration to Industrialized Countries: 1990-2001
(PDF 420KB)

The purpose of this paper is to outline trends and patterns in movements of asylumseekers to Western so-called industrialized countries from 1990-2001. The paper begins by characterizing three distinct phases of asylum migration since the end of the Second World War. It then provides background material on global refugee and asylum movements, using statistics from UNHCR. The data for selected receiving countries and regions is discussed, followed by some remarks on changing routes used by asylumseekers. The selected countries and regions are Australia, Canada, the EU and the USA. Finally, we examine some of the causal factors behind asylum migration and attempt to identify their significance upon flows migration.

DP2003/29 Andrés Solimano:
Development Cycles, Political Regimes and International Migration: Argentina in the Twentieth Century
(PDF 405KB)

At the turn of the twentieth century, a large number of Europeans, mostly from Italy and Spain, left their homelands and headed to the distant shores of Argentina in response to the good economic opportunities, fertile land and hopes for a better future that were to be found there. At the time, Argentina was one of the most vibrant world economies. Between 1870 and 1930, around seven million people migrated from Europe to Argentina, although nearly three million returned at some different point during those years. Also foreign capital responded to the opportunities offered by Argentina, and British financial institutions funded an important part of the construction of national infrastructure needed to support growth. In contrast, European migration to Argentina virtually stopped in the 1950s, and in the next 30 years or so the country become a net exporter of professionals who were fleeing economic decline, poor opportunities and authoritarian regimes. Moreover, during this period, financial capital steadily left Argentina looking for safer places. Nowadays, and in contrary to the flow of people a century ago, Argentineans are leaving in large numbers to Spain, Italy and other destinations. Emigration this time is associated with the collapse of the country’s currency experiment of the 1990s which left a legacy of massive output decline, high unemployment, financial crisis and lost hopes.
This paper investigates the main patterns of international migration to and from Argentina in the twentieth century by examining the effects of relative income differentials, persistence effects, economic cycles and political regimes.

DP2003/27 Ana María Iregui:
Efficiency Gains from the Elimination of Global Restrictions on Labour Mobility: An Analysis using a Multiregional CGE Model
(PDF 236KB)

This paper computes the worldwide efficiency gains from the elimination of global restrictions on labour mobility using a multiregional CGE model. A distinctive feature of our analysis is the introduction of a segmented labour market, as two types of labour are considered: skilled and unskilled. According to our results, the elimination of global restrictions on the mobility of skilled and unskilled labour generates worldwide efficiency gains that could be of considerable magnitude. When only skilled labour migrates, the worldwide efficiency gains are smaller, as this type of labour represents a small fraction of the labour force in developing regions.

DP2003/24 Susan F. Martin, Andrew I. Schoenholtz and David Fisher:
Impact of Asylum on Receiving Countries
(PDF 204KB)

Whereas asylum seekers and the systems for adjudicating their claims to refugee status in developed countries have garnished considerable attention and, often, have been at the centre of political controversy, there has been relatively little research on their actual impact on receiving countries. This article discusses the factors that determine the impact of asylum, as distinct from other forms of migration, concluding that the number of asylum seekers, government policies and socioeconomic characteristics all determine the impact of asylum. Hence, the impacts of asylum can differ significantly from country to country. Even within the same country, one could expect to see varied impacts depending on the age, education and skill level of individual asylum seekers. The paper then examines the fiscal, economic, and social impacts of asylum, as well as its impact on foreign policy and national security. It concludes with an examination of the impact of developed countries’ asylum policies on the protection of refugees in developing countries. When refugee protection has been weakened in economically strong states and asylum restrictions are perceived as burden shifting, international protection in the developing world where most refugees try to survive has been undercut.

Timothy J. Hatton and Jeffrey G. Williamson:
What Fundamentals Drive World Migration?
(PDF 232KB)

Governments in the OECD note rising immigration with alarm and grapple with policies aimed at selecting certain migrants and keeping out others. Economists appear to be well armed to advise governments since they are responsible for an impressive literature that examines the characteristics of individual immigrants, their absorption and the consequences of their migration on both sending and receiving regions. Economists are, however, much less well armed to speak to the determinants of the world migrations that give rise to public alarm. This paper offers a quantitative assessment of the economic and demographic fundamentals that have driven and are driving world migration, across different historical epochs and around the world. The paper is organized around three questions: How do the standard theories of migration perform when confronted with evidence drawn from more than a century of world migration experience? How do inequality and poverty influence world migration? Is it useful to distinguish between migration pressure and migration ex post, or between the potential demand for visas and the actual use of them?

A Spanish translation of DP 2003/23 appears in
Revista Asturiana de Economía, No. 30: 7-36
¿Cuáles son las causas que mueven la migración mundial?
(PDF 521KB)

Los gobiernos de la OCDE observan la inmigración con gran preocupación y lidian con políticas cuyo ánimo es seleccionar determinados emigrantes y mantener alejados a otros. Los economistas parecen estar bien preparados para asesorar a los gobiernos en la medida en que son los responsables de una literatura imponente que examina las características de los inmigrantes individuales, su absorción y las consecuencias de su migración, tanto en las regiones emisoras como en las receptoras. Sin embargo, los economistas no cuentan con la misma preparación a la hora de hablar de los determinantes de la migración mundial que están generando la preocupación del público en general. En este trabajo se ofrece una evaluación cuantitativa de los fundamentos demográficos y económicos que han movido y están moviendo la migración mundial, en diferentes épocas históricas y en todo el mundo. El trabajo gira en torno a tres preguntas: ¿cómo responden las teorías estándar de la migración cuando se las confronta con las pruebas derivadas de más de un siglo de experiencia de migración mundial?, ¿de qué forma influyen la desigualdad y la pobreza en la migración mundial?, ¿es útil diferenciar entre la presión migratoria y la migración ex post, o entre la demanda potencial de visados y el uso real de los mismos?

DP2003/10 Timothy M. Shaw:
Conflict and Peace-building in Africa: The Regional Dimensions
(PDF 590KB)

Contemporary Africa reveals a range of causes, consequences and responses to conflicts which are increasingly interrelated as well as regional in character, as around the Great Lakes/Horn. Their economic and non-state features are undeniable, leading to some promising possibilities in terms of ‘track-two’ diplomacy both on and off the continent, such as the ‘Kimberley Process’ around ‘blood’ diamonds. Development corridors and trans-frontier peace-parks may also constitute innovative ways to moderate and contain conflict. As often, changeable African cases challenge established assumptions, analyses and policies, such as those around civil society, governance, regional and security studies.

DP2003/20: Khalid Koser and Nicholas Van Hear:
Asylum Migration and Implications for Countries of Origin
(PDF 197KB)

The purpose of this paper is to synthesize what is known about the influence of asylum migration on countries of origin. It combines an analysis of data, a review of the literature and empirical examples from our own research. In the first section we consider the effects of the absence of refugees on countries of origin, focusing on the scale of movements, the characteristics of refugees, where they go and their length of time in exile. In the second section, we review the evidence about the influence of asylum-seekers and refugees on their country of origin from exile. Third, we consider the implications for countries of origin of the return of asylum-seekers and refugees. The conclusion acknowledges the limited state of current knowledge and draws out some policy implications.

DP2003/19 Claudia Tazreiter:
Asylum-seekers as Pariahs in the Australian State: Security Against the Few
(PDF 195KB)

During the last decade measures of overt and covert surveillance, information sharing and deterrence of the illegal movement of people has increased within and between states. Border security has come to dominate international relations, and increasingly to deflect the needs of asylum-seekers who search for a state that will offer them substantive protection under the Refugee Convention. Measures of internal and external deterrence diminish the reality of protection to genuine refugees as some of the most vulnerable individuals in the world today. Australia, as a country of relative geographic isolation, has not experienced the large-scale influxes of asylum-seekers seen in many parts of the world. Notwithstanding this, the Australian Government has in recent years implemented harsh policy and administrative measures directed at asylum-seekers with a substantial measure of public support. In August 2001, an incident involving 433 asylum-seekers was branded in popular discourse an ‘asylum crisis’. This incident involved a Norwegian freighter, the Tampa, which picked up survivors from a sinking boat who were making their way to Australian waters in order seek protection under the Refugee Convention. The Tampa was repelled by Australian security forces from disembarking the people they had picked up in distress on Australian soil. In this article, I explore the Tampa incident against the backdrop of refugee policy development from 1999. I argue that rather than responding to a crisis, the Australian government has generated the perception of a crisis in the Australian community. Implications of the Australian response to asylum-seekers are significant not only in the Asia/Pacific region, but further afield, as policy responses toward asylum-seekers by receiving states have converged in the recent past.

DP2003/89 Andrés Solimano:
Remittances by Emigrants: Issues and Evidence
(PDF 231KB)

Remittances, after foreign direct investment, are currently the most important source of external finance to developing countries. Remittances surpass foreign aid, and tend to be more stable than such volatile capital flows as portfolio investment and international bank credit. Remittances are also an international redistribution from low-income migrants to their families in the home country. Worldwide, remittances are relatively concentrated in a group of developing countries: the top 20 recipient-countries of workers’ remittances capture around 80 per cent of total remittances by workers to the developing countries. The three main source countries of remittances are the US, Saudi Arabia and Germany, while in terms of value, the three main recipient countries are India, Mexico and the Philippines.
The international market for remittances is segmented and costly for migrants, as money transmitter operators charge high fees and use overvalued exchange rates. Commercial banks in both source and recipient countries account for only a small share of the global remittances market.

DP2003/20: Khalid Koser and Nicholas Van Hear:
Asylum Migration and Implications for Countries of Origin
(PDF 197KB)

The purpose of this paper is to synthesize what is known about the influence of asylum migration on countries of origin. It combines an analysis of data, a review of the literature and empirical examples from our own research. In the first section we consider the effects of the absence of refugees on countries of origin, focusing on the scale of movements, the characteristics of refugees, where they go and their length of time in exile. In the second section, we review the evidence about the influence of asylum-seekers and refugees on their country of origin from exile. Third, we consider the implications for countries of origin of the return of asylum-seekers and refugees. The conclusion acknowledges the limited state of current knowledge and draws out some policy implications.

DP2003/18 Svetlana P. Glinkina and Dorothy J. Rosenberg:
Social and Economic Decline as Factors in Conflict in the Caucasus
(PDF 1023KB)

We argue that the conflicts in the Caucasus are the result of the abrogation by the elite of the earlier, Soviet era, social contract. This process was accompanied by the collapse of the formal economy; evidenced by huge national income compression, falling public goods provision, and growing inequality and poverty. In the absence of state provision of basic amenities and governance, ordinary people are compelled to fall back on kinship ties. Declining standards of governance facilitate state-sponsored corruption and criminality in a setting where the shadow economic activity is increasingly important to individual survival strategies. Oil pipelines and the right to control the transit of goods both legal and illegal also underlie conflict in the region. Criminality has replaced ethnicity as the major motivation for conflict and conflict per se has become a lucrative source of income.

DP2003/10 Timothy M. Shaw:
Conflict and Peace-building in Africa: The Regional Dimensions
(PDF 590KB)

Contemporary Africa reveals a range of causes, consequences and responses to conflicts which are increasingly interrelated as well as regional in character, as around the Great Lakes/Horn. Their economic and non-state features are undeniable, leading to some promising possibilities in terms of ‘track-two’ diplomacy both on and off the continent, such as the ‘Kimberley Process’ around ‘blood’ diamonds. Development corridors and trans-frontier peace-parks may also constitute innovative ways to moderate and contain conflict. As often, changeable African cases challenge established assumptions, analyses and policies, such as those around civil society, governance, regional and security studies.

DP2003/78 George J. Borjas:
The Economic Integration of Immigrants in the United States: Lessons for Policy
(PDF 158KB)

The most important economic feature of immigration to the United States in the post- 1965 period has been a significant deterioration in the economic performance of successive immigrant waves. The policy reaction to this trend would obviously differ if the entry wage disadvantage disappeared quickly, as the immigrants assimilated in the American economy and acquired skills and information valuable in the American labour market. This paper examines the determinants of economic assimilation, and discusses how the experience of earlier immigrant waves can provide valuable information about the assimilation process the new immigrants will likely experience.

DP2003/64 Riccardo Faini:
Is the Brain Drain an Unmitigated Blessing?
(PDF 200KB)

Increasingly, immigration policies tend to favour the entry of skilled workers, raising substantial concerns among sending countries. The ‘revisionist’ approach to the analysis of the brain drain holds that such concerns are largely unwarranted. First, sustained migratory flows may be associated with an equally large flow of remittances. Second, migrants may return home after having acquired a set of productive skills. Finally, the ability to migrate abroad may boost the incentive to acquire skills by home residents. This paper takes a further look at the link between skilled migration, education, and remittances. It finds little support for the revisionist approach. First, a higher skilled content of migration is found to be associated with a lower flow of remittances. Second, there is little evidence suggesting that raising the skill composition of migration has a positive effect on the educational achievements in the home country.

From The World Bank Group
International Migration, Remittances and the Brain Drain
International Migration Reduces Poverty in Developing Countries, But Results in Massive Brain Drain for Some.-
October 24, 2005, Washington, D.C—Migrants' remittances reduce poverty in developing countries, but massive emigration of highly-skilled citizens poses troubling dilemmas for many smaller low-income countries, a new World Bank research study finds. International Migration, Remittances and the Brain Drain, a study produced by the Bank's research department, includes a detailed analysis of household survey data in Mexico, Guatemala and the Philippines---all countries that produce millions of migrants---which concludes that families whose members include migrants living abroad have higher incomes than those with no migrants.
From the World Bank. Public Disclosure Authorized 3060
R. H. Adams (2003)

International migration, remittances, and the brain drain; a study of 24 labour exporting countries
While the level of international migration and remittances continues to grow, data on international migration remains unreliable. At the international level, there is no consistent set of statistics on the number or skill characteristics of international migrants. At the national level, most labor-exporting countries do not collect data on their migrants. Adams tries to overcome these problems by constructing a new data set of 24 large, labor-exporting countries and using estimates of migration and educational attainment based on United States and OECD records. He uses these new data to address the key policy question: How pervasive is the brain drain from labor-exporting countries? Three basic findings emerge: With respect to legal migration, international migration involves the movement of the educated. The vast majority of migrants to both the United States and the OECD have a secondary (high school) education or higher. While migrants are well-educated, international migration does not tend to take a very high proportion of the best educated. For 22 of the 33 countries in which educational attainment data can be estimated, less than 10 percent of the best educated (tertiary-educated) population of labor-exporting countries has migrated. For a handful of labor-exporting countries, international migration does cause brain drain. For example, for the five Latin American countries (Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Jamaica and Mexico) located closest to the United States, migration takes a large share of the best educated. This finding suggests that more work needs to be done on the relationship between brain drain, geographical proximity to labor-receiving countries, and the size of the (educated) population of labor-exporting countries.
From UNFPA: State of the World Population"
From SOWP 2004, chapter 4:
Migration and Urbanization

During the past ten years, migration has increased, both within and between countries, and the phenomenon has grown in political importance.
Recognizing that orderly migration can have positive consequences on both sending and receiving countries, the ICPD Programme of Action called for a comprehensive approach to managing migration. It emphasized both the rights and well-being of migrants and the need for international support to assist affected countries and promote more interstate cooperation around the issue. In order to achieve a balanced spatial distribution of production employment and population, countries should adopt sustainable regional development strategies and strategies for the encouragement of urban consolidation, the growth of small or medium-sized urban centres and the sustainable development of rural areas, including the adoption of labour-intensive projects, training for non-farming jobs for youth and effective transport and communication systems. To create an enabling context for local development, including the provision of services, governments should consider decentralizing their administrative systems.
Full SOWP 2004: "The Cairo Consensus at Ten: Population, Reproductive Health and the Global Effort to End Poverty"

Migration Police Institute

The Migration Policy Institute is an independent, nonpartisan, nonprofit think tank in Washington, DC dedicated to analysis of the movement of people worldwide.MPI provides analysis, development, and evaluation of migration and refugee policies at the local, national, and international levels. It aims to meet the rising demand for pragmatic and thoughtful responses to the challenges and opportunities that large-scale migration, whether voluntary or forced, presents to communities and institutions in an increasingly integrated world.
MPI is guided by the philosophy that international migration needs active and intelligent management. When such policies are in place and are responsibly administered, they bring benefits to immigrants and their families, communities of origin and destination, and sending and receiving countries.
MPI’s policy research and analysis proceed from four central propositions:
Fair, smart, transparent, and rights-based immigration and refugee policies can promote social cohesion, economic vitality, and national security.
Given the opportunity, immigrants become net contributors and create new social and economic assets.
Sound immigration and integration policies result from balanced analysis, solid data, and the engagement of a spectrum of stakeholders — from community leaders and immigrant organizations to the policy elite — interested in immigration policy and its human consequences.
National policymaking benefits from international comparative research, as more and more countries accumulate data, analysis, and policy experience related to global migration

From Capitulos - SELA
International Migrations in Latin America and the Caribbean
Edition No. 65 May-August 2002

International migration is one of the most enduring social processes throughout history and its relevance underlines new concerns riddled with perceptions that differ from observable reality. It is important to point out that in the past the movement of people played a starring role in economic, social and political transformations as it complemented the expansion of trade and the world economy, contributed to the creation of nations and territories, fuelled urbanization and opened up new areas of production.
During the second half of the 19th century and the first decades of the 20th century the bulk of migration consisted of two major contrasting flows: one included the free movement of Europeans who played a key role in the economic convergence of some regions of the old and new world; the other consisted of the movement of workers of diverse origin, mostly Asian, towards tropical regions. This at times forced movement resulted in an expansion of social and economic inequalities at the international level. These flows, which were fuelled by different forces, opened up opportunities, won the approval of the countries of destination and contributed significantly to social and cultural changes (ECLAC, 2002). International Migration in LAC-I
International Migration in LAC-II
International Migration in LAC-III

Human Development Research Papers: Topical background research for the
Human Development Report 2009
Overcoming barriers: Human mobility and development
  • de Haas, Hein,
    Mobility and Human Development" [511 KB]
    This paper argues that mobility and migration have always been an intrinsic part of human development. Migration can be considered as a fundamental capabilities-enhancing freedom itself. However, any meaningful understanding of migration needs to simultaneously analyse agency and structure. Rather than applying dichotomous classifications such as between forced and voluntary migration, it is more appropriate to conceive of a continuum running from low to high constraints under which migration occurs, in which all migrants deal with structural constraints, although to highly varying degrees. Besides being an integral part of human development, mobility also tends to affect the same structural processes of which it is part. Simplistic positive-versus-negative debates on migration and development can be overcome by integrating agency-structure dialectics in the analysis of migration impacts. This paper argues that (i) the degree to which migrants are able to affect structural change is real but limited; (ii) the nature of change in sending and receiving is not pre-determined; and (iii) that in order to enable a more focused and rigorous debate, there is a need to better distinguish and specify different levels and dimensions at which the reciprocal relationship between human mobility and development can be analysed. A critical reading of the empirical literature leads to the conclusion that it would be naïve to think that despite their often considerable benefits for individuals and communities, migration and remittances alone can remove more structural development constraints. Despite their development potential, migrants and remittances can neither be blamed for a lack of development nor be expected to trigger take-off development in generally unattractive investment environments. By increasing selectivity and suffering among migrants, current immigration restrictions have a negative impact on migrants’ wellbeing as well as the poverty and inequality reducing potential of migration.
  • Hanson, Gordon H.,
    The Governance of Migration Policy " [246 KB]
    In this paper, I examine high-income country motives for restricting immigration. Abundant evidence suggests that allowing labor to move from low-income to high-income countries would yield substantial gains in global income. Yet, most high-income countries impose strict limits on labor inflows and set their admission policies unilaterally. A core principle underlying the World Trade Organization is reciprocity in tariff setting. When it comes to migration from poor to rich countries, however, labor flows are rarely bidirectional, making reciprocity moot and leaving labor importers with all the bargaining power. One motivation for barriers to labor inflows is political pressure from groups that are hurt by immigration. Raising immigration would depend on creating mechanisms to transfer income from those that immigration helps to those that it hurts. Another motivation for immigration restrictions is that labor inflows from abroad may exacerbate distortions in an economy associated with redistributive tax and transfer policies. Making immigration more attractive would require creating mechanisms that limit the negative fiscal impacts of labor inflows on natives. Fiscal distortions create an incentive for receiving countries to screen immigrants according to their perceived economic impact. For high skilled immigrants, screening can be based on educational degrees and professional credentials, which are relatively easy to observe. For low skilled immigrants, illegal immigration represents an imperfect but increasingly common screening device. For policy makers in labor-importing nations, the modest benefits freer immigration brings may simply not be worth the political hassle. To induce high-income countries to lower border barriers, they need to get more out of the bargain.
  • Facchini, Giovanni and Anna Maria Mayda,
    "The Political Economy of Immigration Policy " [316 KB]
    We analyze a newly available dataset of migration policy decisions reported by governments to the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs between 1976 and 2007. We find evidence indicating that most governments have policies aimed at either maintaining the status quo or at lowering the level of migration. We also document variation in migration policy over time and across countries of different regions and income levels. Finally, we examine patterns in various aspects of destination countries’ migration policies (policies towards family reunification, temporary vs. permanent migration, high-skilled migration). This analysis leads us to investigate the determinants of migration policy in a destination country. We develop a political economy framework in which voter attitudes represent a key component. We survey the literature on the determinants of public opinion towards immigrants and examine the link between these attitudes and governments’ policy decisions. While we find evidence broadly consistent with the median voter model, we conclude that this framework is not sufficient to understand actual migration policies. We discuss evidence which suggests that interest-groups dynamics may play a very important role.
  • Ghosh, Jayati - 2009
    Migration and Gender Empowerment : Recent Trends and Emerging Issues
    Women are increasingly significant as national and international migrants, and it is now evident that the complex relationship between migration and human development operates in genderdifferentiated ways. However, because migration policy has typically been gender-blind, an explicit gender perspective is necessary. This paper attempts this, beginning with an examination of recent trends in women’s migration, internationally and within nations. It then considers the implications of the socio-economic context of the sending location for women migrants. The process of migration, and how that can be gender-differentiated, is discussed with particular reference to the various types of female migration that are common: marriage migration, family migration, forced migration, migration for work. These can be further disaggregated into legal and irregular migration, all of which affect and the issues and problems of women migrants in the process of migration and in the destination country. The manifold and complex gendered effects of migration are discussed with reference to varied experiences. Women migrants’ relations with the sending households and the issues relevant for returning migrants are also considered. The final section provides some recommendations for public policy for migration through a gender lens.

  • Landau, Loren B. and Aurelia Kazadi Wa Kabwe-Segatti,
    Human Development Impacts of Migration: South Africa Case Study
    [634 KB]

    Controls on human mobility and efforts to undermine them continue to shape South Africa’s politics, economy, and society. Despite the need for improved policy responses to human mobility, reform is hindered by lack of capacity, misinformation, and anti-migrant sentiments within and outside of government. This report outlines these trends and tensions by providing a broad overview of the limited demographic and socio-economic data available on migration to and within South Africa. Doing so highlights the spatialised aspects of human mobility, trends centred on and around the country’s towns and cities. It also finds significant development potential in international migrants’ skills and entrepreneurialism. By enhancing remittances and trade, non-nationals may also expand markets for South African products and services. Despite these potential benefits, there are severe obstacles to immigration reform. These include a renewed South African populism; the influence of a strong anti-trafficking lobby; a European Union (EU) agenda promoting stricter border controls; poor implementation capacity; and endemic corruption among police and immigration officials. There are different, but equally significant problems in reforming frameworks governing domestic mobility including perceptions that in-migration is an inherent drain on municipal budgets. Recognising these limitations, the report concludes with three recommendations. (1) A conceptual reconsideration of the divisions between documented and undocumented migrants; between voluntary and forced migrants; and between international and domestic migration. (2) An analytical respatialisation in future planning and management scenarios involving regional and local bodies in evaluating, designing and implementing policy. (3) To situate migration and its management within global debates over governance and development and for ‘migration mainstreaming’ into all aspects of governance. The success of any of these initiatives will require better data, the skills to analyse that data, and the integration of data into planning processes.

  • Ortega, Francesc and Giovanni Peri,
    The Causes and Effects of International Labor Mobility: Evidence from OECD Countries 1980-2005
    [747 KB]

    This paper contains three important contributions to the literature on international migrations. First, it compiles a new dataset on migration flows and stocks and on immigration laws for 14 OECD destination countries and 74 sending countries for each year over the period 1980-2005. Second, it extends the empirical model of migration choice across multiple destinations, developed by Grogger and Hanson (2008), by allowing for unobserved individual heterogeneity between migrants and non-migrants. We use the model to derive a pseudo-gravity empirical specification of the economic and legal determinants of international migration. Our estimates show that bilateral migration flows are increasing in the income per capita gap between origin and destination. We also find that bilateral flows decrease significantly when the destination countries adopt stricter immigration laws. Third, we estimate the impact of immigration flows on employment, investment and productivity in the receiving OECD countries using as instruments the ”push” factors only in the gravity equation. We find that immigration increases employment one for one, implying no crowding-out of natives. In addition, investment responds rapidly and vigorously, and total factor productivity is not affected. These results imply that immigration increases the total GDP of the receiving country in the short-run one-for-one, without affecting average wages or labor productivity. We also find that the effects of immigration are less beneficial when the receiving economy is in bad economic times.

  • Bakewell, Oliver - 2009
    South-South Migration and Human Development: Reflections on African Experiences
    This paper looks at the relationship between migration between developing countries – or countries of the global ‘South’ – and processes of human development. The paper offers a critical analysis of the concept of South-South migration and draws attention to four fundamental problems. The paper then gives a broad overview of the changing patterns of migration in developing regions, with a particular focus on mobility within the African continent. It outlines some of the economic, social and political drivers of migration within poor regions, noting that these are also drivers of migration in the rest of the world. It also highlights the role of the state in influencing people’s movements and the outcomes of migration. The paper highlights the distinctive contribution that migration within developing regions makes to human development in terms of income, human capital and broader processes of social and political change. The paper concludes that the analysis of migration in poorer regions of the world and its relationship with human development requires much more data than is currently available.
  • Fang, Cai, Du Yang, and Wang Meiyan - 2009
    Migration and Labor Mobility in China

    China has witnessed the largest labor migration since the reform and opening up policies were implemented. According to the most recent statistics, the total number of rural to urban migrant workers reached 136 million. Migrants are defined as persons who have left out of township for more than 6 months. The migration flow has propelled the economic and societal transition in China through labor productivity enhancement and social restructuring. Accordingly, the Chinese government has improved the migration policies with increasing migration flow and the changes of labor market situations. This report is organized as follows. Section one briefly introduces when and how the migration started by reviewing the history, size and trend, impacts of migration in China and the vulnerability of migrants. Section two reviews the main migration policy changes in the past three decades. Section three illuminates the Lewisian turning point that marks economic development and transitioning in China. Section four discusses the relevance of China’s experiences to other developing economies in terms of economic development and migration policy changes.

  • Gibney, Matthew J. - 2009
    Precarious Residents: Migration Control, Membership and the Rights of Non-Citizens

    This paper examines the situation of a subgroup of non-citizens found in virtually all contemporary states, what I call “precarious residents”. Precarious residents can be defined as non-citizens living in the state that possess few social, political or economic rights, are highly vulnerable to deportation, and have little or no option for making secure their immigration status. The archetypal precarious resident is the undocumented (or unlawful) migrant. However, there are many other barely tolerated individuals who also fit the appellation, such as asylum seekers (including ones whose claims have been rejected), guest workers, and individuals with temporary protection from deportation. I begin this paper by exploring the nature of precarious residence, discussing its dimensions, causes and manifestations in different national contexts. I move then to consider the human development consequences of precarious residence before exploring the question of the responsibilities of states to protect the rights and, in some cases, recognize the membership claims of these non-citizens.

  • Kundu, Amitabh - 2009
    Urbanisation and Migration: An Analysis of Trend, Pattern and Policies in Asia

    The present paper overviews urbanisation and migration process in Asian countries at macro level since 1950s, including the projections made till 2030. It questions the thesis of southward movement of urbanisation and that of urban explosion in Asia. Increased unaffordability of urban space and basic amenities, negative policy perspective towards migration and various rural development pogrammes designed to discourage migration are responsible for this exclusionary urban growth and a distinct decline in urban rural growth differential, with the major exception of China. The changing structure of urban population across different size categories reveals a shift of growth dynamics from large to second order cities and stagnation of small towns. The pace of urbanization has been modest to high in select countries in Asia, not because of their level of economic growth but its composition and labour intensity of rapidly growing informal sectors. Several countries have launched programmes for improving governance and infrastructural facilities in a few large cities, attracting private investors from within as well as outside the country. These have pushed out squatter settlements, informal sector businesses along with a large number of pollutant industries to a few pockets and peripheries of the cities. The income level and quality of basic amenities in these cities, as a result, have gone up but that has been associated with increased intra-city disparity and creation of degenerated periphery. Nonetheless, there is no strong evidence that urbanization is associated with destabilization of agrarian economy, poverty and immiserisation, despite the measures of globalization resulting in regional imbalances. The overview of the trend and pattern suggests that the pace of urbanization would be reasonably high but much below the level projected by UNPD in the coming decades.

  • Martin, Philip - 2009
    Demographic and Economic Trends: Implications for International Mobility

    About three percent of the world’s 6.1 billion people were international migrants in 2000. Population growth is expected to slow between 2000 and 2050 in comparison to 1950-2000, but international migration is expected to rise as persisting demographic and economic inequalities that motivate migration interact with revolutions in communications and transportation that enable people to cross borders. The default policy option to manage what is sometimes deemed out-of-control migration, adjusting the rights of migrants, is unsatisfactory, prompting this review of longer term factors affecting migration patterns, including aging in industrial countries, rural-urban migration that spills over national borders, and the migration infrastructure of agents and networks that moves people. The paper concludes with an assessment of the likely effects of the 2008-09 recession on international migration.

  • Ha, Wei, Junjian Yi, and Junsen Zhang - 2009
    Inequality and Internal Migration in China: Evidence from Village Panel Data

    This paper analyzes the impact of rural-to-urban migration on income inequality and gender wage gap in source regions using a newly constructed panel dataset for around 100 villages over a ten-year period from 1997 to 2006 in China. Since income inequality is time-persisting, we use a system GMM framework to control for the lagged income inequality, in which contemporary emigration is also validly instrumented. We found a Kuznets (inverse U-shaped) pattern between migration and income inequality in the sending communities. Specifically, contemporary emigration increases income inequality, while lagged emigration has strong income inequalityreducing effect in the sending villages. A 50-percent increase in the lagged emigration rate translates into one-sixth to one-seventh standard deviation reduction in inequality. These effects are robust to the different specifications and different measures of inequality. More interestingly, the estimated relationship between emigration and the gender wage gap also has an inverse Ushaped pattern. Emigration tends to increase the gender wage gap initially, and then tends to decrease it in the sending villages.

  • Bell, Martin, and Salut Muhidin - 2009
    Cross-National Comparisons of Internal Migration

    Internal migration is the most significant process driving changes in the pattern of human settlement across much of the world, yet remarkably few attempts have been made to compare internal migration between countries. Differences in data collection, in geography and in measurement intervals seriously hinder rigorous cross-national comparisons. We supplement data from the University of Minnesota IPUMS collection to make comparisons between 28 countries using both five year and lifetime measures of migration, and focusing particularly on migration intensity and spatial impacts. We demonstrate that Courgeau's k (Courgeau 1973) provides a powerful mechanism to transcend differences in statistical geography. Our results reveal widespread differences in the intensity of migration, and in the ages at which it occurs, with Asia generally displaying low mobility and sharp, early peaks, whereas Latin America and the Developed Countries show higher mobility and flatter age profiles usually peaking at older ages. High mobility is commonly offset by corresponding counter-flows but redistribution through internal migration is substantial in some countries, especially when computed as a lifetime measure. Time series comparisons show five year migration intensities falling in most countries (China being a notable exception), although lifetime data show more widespread rises due to age structure effects. Globally, we estimate that 740 million people, one in eight, were living within their home country but outside their region of birth, substantially above the commonly cited figure of 200 million international migrants

  • Martin, Philip - 2009
    Migration in the Asia-Pacific Region: Trends, factors, impacts

    This paper provides a comprehensive assessment of international migration in the Asia-Pacific region and reviews internal migration in China. After putting Asia-Pacific migration in a global context, it reviews trends in migration and the impacts of migrants in the major migrantreceiving countries, patterns of migration and their development impacts in migrant-sending countries, the human development impacts of migration, and three policy issues, viz, new seasonal worker programs for Pacific Islanders in New Zealand and Australia, required local sponsorship of foreigners in the Gulf countries, and the economic effects of migrants in the US and Thailand. Recent trends in internal migration in China, which shares attributes of international migration because of the hukou (household registration) system, are also assessed.

  • Risse, Mathias - 2009
    Immigration, Ethics and the Capabilities Approach
    [548 KB]

    Often, immigration debates are conducted under the presumption that immigration policies must be justifiable only to those who already live in the respective country. Alas, reflection on the justifiability of immigration policies to those excluded becomes ever more important in a politically and economically increasingly interconnected world. This study explores two approaches to the normative reflection on immigration at some depth, namely, the idea that restrictive immigration policies are problematic because they are hampering the development of human capabilities, as well as the idea that such policies are problematic because they are at odds with the fact that our planet belongs to humanity collectively. On both of these proposals, less restrictive immigration policies are not merely demanded as one possible way of aiding the poor, but would be required as such. Both of these approaches can be treated within the same framework, the grounds-of-justice framework, which allows us to focus on the idea that states must also be justified to those who do not belong to them. Central to the proposal about immigration that can be made within this approach are ideas of over- and under-use of commonly owned resources and spaces.

  • Ha, Wei, Junjian Yi, and Junsen Zhang 2009
    Brain Drain, Brain Gain, and Economic Growth in China

    This paper examines the effects of both permanent and temporary emigration on human capital formation and economic growth of the source regions. To achieve this end, this paper explores the Chinese provincial panel data from 1980 to 2005. First, the fixed effects model is employed to estimate the effect of emigration on school enrollment rates in the source regions. Relative to this aspect, we find that the magnitude (scale) of permanent emigrants (measured by the permanent emigration ratio) is conducive to the improvement of both middle and high schools enrollments. In contrast, the magnitude of temporary emigrants has a significantly positive effect on middle school enrollment but does not have a significant effect on high school enrollment. More interestingly, different educational attainments of temporary emigrants have different effects on school enrollment. Specifically, the share of temporary emigrants with high school education positively affects middle school enrollment, while the share of temporary emigrants with middle school education negatively affects high school enrollment. Second, the instrumental variable method is applied to estimate the effect of emigration on economic growth within the framework of system Generalized Method of Moments (GMM). The estimation results suggest that both permanent and temporary emigrations have a detrimental effect on the economic growth of the source regions. Our empirical tests provide some new evidence to the "brain drain" debate, which has recently received increasing attention.

  • Letouzé, Emmanuel, Mark Purser, Francisco Rodríguez, and Matthew Cummins - 2009
    Revisiting the Migration-Development Nexus

    This paper presents empirical estimates of a gravity model of bilateral migration that properly accounts for non-linearities and tackles causality issues through an instrumental variables approach. In contrast to the existing literature, which is limited to OECD data, we have estimated our model using a matrix of bilateral migration stocks for 127 countries. We find that the inverted-U relationship between income at origin and migration found by other authors survives the more demanding bilateral specification but does not survive both instrumentation and introduction of controls for the geographical and cultural proximity between country pairs. We also evaluate the effect of migration on origin and destination country income using the geographically determined component of migration as a source of exogenous variation and fail to find a significant effect of migration on origin or destination income

  • Miguel, Edward, and Joan Hamory - 2009
    Individual Ability and Selection into Migration in Kenya
  • Crush, Jonathan, and Sujata Ramachandran - 2009
    Xenophobia, International Migration and Human Development

    In the continuing discussion on migration and development, the vulnerability of all migrant groups to exploitation and mistreatment in host countries has been highlighted along with an emphasis on protecting their rights. However, xenophobia has not yet received explicit attention although anti-migrant sentiments and practices are clearly on the rise even in receiving countries in developing regions. Despite gaps in existing empirical work, research and anecdotal evidence exposes pervasive forms of discrimination, hostility, and violence experienced by migrant communities, with the latter becoming easy scapegoats for various social problems in host countries. This study attempts to insert xenophobia in this debate on migration and development by examining the growth of this phenomenon in host countries in the South. It provides short accounts of xenophobia witnessed in recent times in five countries including South Africa, India, Malaysia, Libya, and Thailand. The ambiguity surrounding the concept is discussed and crucial features that define xenophobia are outlined. A variety of methods to study it are likewise identified. Using a wide range of examples from diverse contexts, the paper explores possible reasons for the intensification of xenophobia. The final sections of the paper briefly outline the developmental consequences of rampant xenophobia for migrant and host populations while examining policy options to tackle it.

  • Ortega, Daniel E. - 2009
    Human Development of Peoples

    This paper provides a framework and estimates of Enrollment Rates per natural and combines them with previous Income and Child Mortality per natural estimates by Clemens and Pritchett (2008) to produce a Human Development Index Per Natural. The methodology is applied for 1990 and 2000 to provide estimates of growth rates of this measure over the period. The paper also develops and illustrates a framework for estimating an education place premium, and discusses how it is related to per natural measures. The peoples of the least developed countries stand to gain the most from international migration, but there are potentially significant gains to migration between developing countries as well.

From The World Bank - Public Disclosure Authorized WPS3915
S. V. Lall, H. Selod and Z. Zmarak - 2006
Rural-urban migration in developing countries : a survey of theoretical predictions and empirical findings

The migration of labor from rural to urban areas is an important part of the urbanization process in developing countries. Even though it has been the focus of abundant research over the past five decades, some key policy questions have not found clear answers yet. To what extent is internal migration a desirable phenomenon and under what circumstances? Should governments intervene and, if so, with what types of interventions? What should be their policy objectives? To shed light on these important issues, the authors survey the existing theoretical models and their conflicting policy implications and discuss the policies that may be justified based on recent relevant empirical studies. A key limitation is that much of the empirical literature does not provide structural tests of the theoretical models, but only provides partial findings that can support or invalidate intuitions and in that sense, support or invalidate the policy implications of the models. The authors' broad assessment of the literature is that migration can be beneficial or at least be turned into a beneficial phenomenon so that in general migration restrictions are not desirable. They also identify some data issues and research topics which merit further investigation.

Migration, Remittances and Agricultural Productivity in China


WTO accession, Rural Labour Migration and Urban Unemployment in China - 2002


International Organization for Migration

IOM works to help ensure the orderly and humane management of migration, to promote international cooperation on migration issues, to assist in the search for practical solutions to migration problems and to provide humanitarian assistance to migrants in need, including refugees and internally displaced people.
The IOM Constitution recognizes the link between migration and economic, social and cultural development, as well as to the right of freedom of movement.
IOM works in the four broad areas of migration management:
Migration and development
Facilitating migration
Regulating migration
Forced migration.
IOM activities that cut across these areas include the promotion of international migration law, policy debate and guidance, protection of migrants' rights, migration health and the gender dimension of migration.

Africa and the Middle East - The Americas - Asia and Oceania - Europe
IOM’s activities also cover a wide range of service areas. These are:
Migration and Development
Migration & Economic/Community Development
Capacity Building Through Qualified Human Resources & Experts

Migration Health
Migration Health Assessment
Migration Health Assistance & Advice
Post-emergency Migration Health Assistance
Facilitating Migration
Labour Migration
Migrant Processing & Assistance
Migrant Integration
Facilitating Migration
Movement, Emergency and Post-Conflict
Resettlement Assistance
Repatriation Assistance
Emergency & Post-emergency Operations
Regulating Migration
Return Assistance to Migrants & Governments
Technical Cooperation on Migration Management & Capacity Building

Claims Programmes
Forced Labour Compensation Programme, Germany
Holocaust Victim Assets Programme
Iraq Property Claims Programme
Humanitarian & Social Programmes

General Support Programmes
Migration Policy & Research
Stranded Migrant Facility


Cai Fang, 2000
The invisible hand and visible feet: internal migration in China
As a part of traditional planned economy, population migration and labor mobility in China were strictly controlled by the authorities before the 1980s. To be more precise, cross-regional migration was controlled by public security departments and it was almost impossible to make any rural-urban migration without authoritative plans or official agreement; Industrial transfer of labor force was controlled by departments of labor and personnel management, and there was no free labor market at all. But the most strictly controlled were the transfer from rural to urban areas, and from farmers to non-agricultural workers. This control has functioned through the Household Registration System (Hukou System), a typical Chinese registration system of permanent residence that segregates rural and urban areas strictly.

ALERTNET (The Reuter Foundation)
Reuters AlertNet is a humanitarian news network based around a popular website. It aims to keep relief professionals and the wider public up-to-date on humanitarian crises around the globe. AlertNet attracts upwards of ten million users a year, has a network of 400 contributing humanitarian organizations and its weekly email digest is received by more than 26,000 readers.

It was started in 1997 by Reuters Foundation - an educational and humanitarian trust - to place Reuters' core skills of speed, accuracy and freedom from bias at the service of the humanitarian community. AlertNet has won a Popular Communication award for technological innovation, a NetMedia European Online Journalism Award for its coverage of natural disasters and has been named a Millennium Product by the British Government -- an award for outstanding applications of innovative technologies.

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
Le Haut Commissariat des Nations Unies pour les réfugiés a été créé le 14 décembre 1950 par l'Assemblée Générale des Nations Unies, avec pour mandat de coordonner l'action internationale pour la protection des réfugiés et de chercher des solutions aux problèmes des réfugiés dans le monde.

Le but premier de l'UNHCR est de sauvegarder les droits et le bien-être des réfugiés. L'agence s'efforce ainsi d'assurer pour tout le respect du droit à demander l'asile et à trouver refuge dans un autre État. A terme, les solutions qu'elle met en œuvre sont le retour dans le pays d'origine, l'intégration dans le pays d'accueil ou la réinstallation dans un pays tiers.

En plus de cinquante ans d'activité, l'agence a aidé environ 50 millions de personnes à recommencer leur vie. Aujourd'hui, 6 289 employés continuent d'aider environ 32,9 millions de personnes dans 111 pays.

En 1954 et en 1981 le Prix Nobel de la Paix a été décerné à l’UNHCR.

Global IDP Project
The Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC), established in 1998 by the Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC), is the leading international body monitoring conflict-induced internal displacement worldwide.

Through its work, the Centre contributes to improving national and international capacities to protect and assist the millions of people around the globe who have been displaced within their own country as a result of conflicts or human rights violations.

At the request of the United Nations, the Geneva-based IDMC runs an online database providing comprehensive information and analysis on internal displacement in some 50 countries. Based on its monitoring and data collection activities, the Centre advocates for durable solutions to the plight of the internally displaced in line with international standards. The IDMC also carries out training activities to enhance the capacity of local actors to respond to the needs of internally displaced people (IDPs). In its work, the Centre cooperates with and provides support to local and national civil society initiatives.

P. S. Douma (2001):
The political economy of internal conflict:
A review of contemporary trends and isues


University of Oxford
Refugee Studies Centre
The Refugee Studies Centre (RSC) was established in 1982 as part of the University of Oxford's Department of International Development (QEH). It has international reputation as the leading multidisciplinary centre for research and teaching on the causes and consequences of forced migration.

Forced Migration Review

Forced Migration Review (FMR) is published three times a year in English, Arabic, Spanish and French by the Refugee Studies Centre of the Oxford Department of International Development, University of Oxford. FMR is available free of charge in print and online. Since it was launched in 1987 it has gained a global reputation as the most widely read publication on refugee and internal displacement issues.



B. S. Chimni (2000)
Globalisation, Humanitarianism and the Erosion of Refugee Protection
The Dominance of Transnational Capital
The material reality is, however, given shape by transnational capital, which is unifying the globe in a bid to maximise returns as opposed to human development. Thus, the assets of the top three billionaires in the world are more than the combined GNP of all the least developed countries and their 600 million people (HDR 1999: 3). Yet, there is insufficient recognition that internal conflicts may be traced to shrinking shares of marginalised peoples in the globalisation process. Evidence of the one-sided globalisation process may be seen in the following examples from the field of international law.
Since the early eighties, coinciding incidentally with the beginnings of the nonentrée regime, Northern states have pushed through the adoption of a network of international instruments that seek to remove ‘national’ impediments to the entry, establishment and operation of transnational capital

United Nations: Peace and Security Portal
Report of the Panel of United Nations on Peace Operations 2000
United Nations:
Conflict and Sustainable Development in Africa -1998
On 25 September 1997, the Security Council convened at the level of Foreign Ministers to consider the need for a concerted international effort to promote peace and security in Africa. The Council observed that despite the progress achieved by some African States the number and intensity of armed conflicts on the continent remained a matter of grave concern, requiring a comprehensive response. The Council requested that I submit a report regarding the sources of conflict in Africa, ways to prevent and address those conflicts, and how to lay the foundation for durable peace and economic growth following their resolution. In accordance with the wishes of the Council, and because the scope of the challenge extends beyond the purview of the Security Council alone, I hereby submit this report not only to the Security Council but also to the General Assembly and other components of the United Nations system that have responsibilities in Africa, including the Bretton Woods institutions.
J.Hammond - 1985
Famines: Myths, Media and Misundertanding
The scale and complexity of the problems of the Sub-saharan food crisis are compounded by the partial diagnoses and oversimplified perceptions of northern media and aid agencies over the past year. The Western response to the famines will be dealt with later in the magazine in Mary Wright's analysis of the role of publicity and the media. But it might be helpful at this point to examine some of the prevalent misconceptions. Myths are powerful, especially when they operate not only in the minds of the general public but also in those in a position to influence future developments.

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Róbinson Rojas on:
Sustainable development in a globalized economy? The odds. 1999
Sustainable development in a globalized economy. 1997
Making sense of development studies
Notes on the philosophy of the capitalist system
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Notes on economics: about obscenities, poverty and inequality
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15 years of monetarism in Latin America: time to scream
Latin America: a failed industrial revolution
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Latin America: a dependent mode of production

Puro Chile la memoria del pueblo
Proyecto para el Primer Siglo Popular

Director: Róbinson Rojas Sandford


Paz y Seguridad
Informe del Panel sobre las operaciones de paz 2000

Puro Chile la mémoire du peuple
Projet pour le Premier Siècle Populaire

Editeur: Róbinson Rojas Sandford


Haut Commisariat des Nations Unies pour les Réfugiés
Paix et Sécurité
Rapport du Groupe d'étude sur les opérations de paix 2000