Counter visits from more than 160  countries and 1400 universities (details)

The political economy of development
This academic site promotes excellence in teaching and researching economics and development, and the advancing of describing, understanding, explaining and theorizing.
About us- Castellano- Français - Dedication
Home- Themes- Reports- Statistics/Search- Lecture notes/News- People's Century- Puro Chile- Mapuche

Castellano - Français  - Editor: Róbinson Rojas Sandford

Economic literacy
Without economic literacy there is no possibility to understand processes of social change. Unfortunately, economic literacy is a rare commodity in capitalist, semicapitalist and protocapitalist societies where primary, secondary and university education is extremely poor for the majority -and extremely good for a wealthy minority-  which, of course is convenient for maintaining the extremely wealthy minority dominant position in society. To help students and researchers  I provide this 'rearrangement' of  valuable basic literature on economic literacy. Of course, this is just a first step. Without this first step, though, development issues cannot be understood, and, therefore, fighting against the barbaric social, political, cultural and economic effects of unleashed capitalist markets will be even more difficult.
(Dr. Róbinson Rojas)

Economic Sociology and Political Economy

The global academic community of researchers, students and practitioners interested in Economic Sociology and Political Economy (run by Oleg Komlik)

ES and PE on Facebook

The Global Financial Crisis 2008

Stand and Deliver: Private Property and the Politics of Global Dispossession
By Stefan Andreasson - 2006
Queen’s University Belfast
Property rights necessarily generate violent,and oftentimes lethal, processes of dispossession.While liberal theorists from Locke to Hayek consider property rights as an essential and emancipatory component of human freedom, they fail to consider societal power asymmetries impeding the ability of property rights to protect the interests of the weak and marginalised. If property rights produce freedom and prosperity, they do so very selectively. More obvious is the ongoing historical process of already propertied classes making ‘clever usurpation into an irrevocable right’ by extending private property regimes along two key dimensions – type and space.
The New Economic Geography: effects and policy implications
A symposium sponsored by The Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City
August 24-26, 2006

- Shift in economic geography and their causes
- Consequences for production and prices, employment and wages
- Consequences for financial markets and global savings and investment
- Strategies for growth - Implications for monetary policy - Overview panel

From The Economist
On the hiking trail 
Globalisation is generating huge economic gains. That is no reason to ignore its costs
Aug 31st 2006
The problem of colonialism in classical political economy : analysis, epistemological breaks and mystification
By Amiya Kumar Bagchi
Centre for Studies in Social Sciences, Calcutta
...The famous `invisible hand' of Smith (1776) has been regarded simply as a statement of the justification of laissez faire as the basic principle that should inform the governance of a commercial society. However, in the Theory of Moral Sentiments, the proposition about the invisible hand was derived as a special case of the more general dictum that individual actions motivated by selfish desires (or presumably their opposite) can have unintended social consequences. In the particular case discussed in the Theory of Moral Sentiments, the rich, according to Smith (1790, pp.184-5),
" spite of their natural selfishness and rapacity, though they mean only their own conveniency, though the sole end which they propose from the labours of all the thousands whom they employ, be the gratification of their own vain and insatiable desires ... are led by an invisible hand to make nearly the same distribution of the necessaries of life, which would have been made, had the earth been divided into equal portions among all its inhabitants and thus without intending it, without knowing it, advance the interest of the society, and afford means to the multiplication of the species."
There are other passages in the same book which throw considerable light on what Smith considered to be the appropriate framework for analysis of the motivation and consequences of public policy - often deriving from very different attitudes to the public sphere (Ibid., pp.185- 187). All this analysis and the necessary distinctions between different ethical systems vanished in the memory of economists and policy-makers following laissez faire doctrines, and an `epistemological break' between Smith's Wealth of Nations and his other writings was imposed by the selective memory of the following generations, although the author himself never executed such a break (for the concept of `epistemological break' see Althusser, 1969 pp.32-36; Althusser attributes the concept to Gaston Bachelard).
Markets, Politics and Globalization: Can the Global Economy be Civilized?
By Gerald Karl Helleiner - 2000
Professor Emeritus, Department of Economics and Distinguished Research Fellow,
Centre for International Studies
University of Toronto, Canada
Global Critics is an electronic journal and forum founded in November 2004 in Aberystwyth, Wales. The idea of the journal is to construct a media and a portal to publish contemporary views in form of academic writing. The scope is international both in issues and writers, who are scholars, professionals and students in the field of social sciences, economics or law. The long-term objective is to develop this project into a coherent and respected electronic journal with a regular number of issues published every year.
Global Critics is divided into four main areas: politics, economics, law and society. Each subject has one or more senior editors with speciality in the area. These editors overview outlines and attract qualified writers. Together editors form an editorial board with a chief editor in charge of quality standard and aims.
The editorial team recognizes the initial difficulties in producing this journal, but it is important to notice that Global Critics itself is a project to development skills in electronic publishing. Global Critics is also a vehicle for the editorial team and the writers to obtain own leverage and status as years pass by.

The official version: here economics is taught as an ideology in defense of the capitalist market:
economic system
economic planning
economic growth
economic development
government economic policy
classical economics
business cycles
distribution theory
distribution of wealth and income
labour economics
land reform
commodity trade
international trade
As an additional tool the following introductory courses are available:
Introduction to economics
Introduction to macroeconomics

Dr. Róbinson Rojas papers and notes
Dr. Róbinson Rojas books

From "How To Trade Stocks"
A history of economic thought

Economics is a tough subject. It’s difficult to watch and analyze the way trends happen because certain events can cause them to constantly change all the time. In time, different economic thinkers and theorists form their own thoughts on economics, influencing the “schools of thought” or beliefs, leading to an interesting history of economic thought. There are multiple schools of economic thought and each one at one point taught different economic theories. Some of these theories proved to be false while others were found to be more true to life. However, things are still evolving and new schools of thought start to blossom all the time. Here are some links to information about the most significant schools of economic thought.

New Economic Foundation:
The Real World Economics

The international economic system creates damaging inequalities between rich and poor, and fuels climate change and environmental degradation. Through Real World Economic Outlook, NEF aims to expose the problems with the international finance and economic systems and create appropriate remedies. We are also researching and campaigning on changes to global governance to tackle international issues like climate change, and work by jubilee research continues nef’s pioneering involvement in tackling international debt. transforming markets goes beyond corporate responsibility to set out a new vision for harnessing and channelling enterprise to meet social and environmental need.

World Wide Resources in Economics

WebEc was an effort to categorize free information in economics on the WWW. WebEc and RFE comprised the WWW Virtual Library in Economics. You may browse WebEc contents or you can search. More information about WebEc is available.

General Economics Resources
Education and Teaching
Methodology and History of Economic Thought
Mathematical and Quantitative Methods
Economics and Computing
Economics Data
International Economics
Financial Economics
Public Economics
Health and Welfare
Labor and Demographics
Law and Economics
Industrial Organization
Business Economics
Economic History
Development, Technological Change and Growth
Economic Systems
Agriculture and Natural Resources
Regional Economics
Economics of Networks

National Bureau of Economic Research
Founded in 1920, the National Bureau of Economic Research is a private, nonprofit, nonpartisan research organization dedicated to promoting a greater understanding of how the economy works. The NBER is committed to undertaking and disseminating unbiased economic research among public policymakers, business professionals, and the academic community.
Over the years the Bureau's research agenda has encompassed a wide variety of issues that confront our society. The Bureau's early research focused on the aggregate economy, examining in detail the business cycle and long-term economic growth. Simon Kuznets' pioneering work on national income accounting, Wesley Mitchell's influential study of the business cycle, and Milton Friedman's research on the demand for money and the determinants of consumer spending were among the early studies done at the NBER.

International Development Economics Associates

IDEAs or International Development Economics Associates is a pluralist network of progressive economists across the world, engaged in research, teaching, and dissemination of critical analyses of economic policy and development. Its members are motivated by the need to strengthen and develop alternatives to the current mainstream economic paradigm as formulated by the neo-liberal orthodoxy. The organisation is based in the South and led by economists based in several developing countries, but membership of the network is open to all those committed to developing and using alternative non-orthodox tools of economic analysis appropriate for meeting development challenges.

The Accumulation Process in the Period of Globalization
Prabhat Patnaik - 2008
This paper, based on a lecture given in memory of D. D. Kosambi, discusses the current global crises in terms of rising inflation and food shortages, and argues that this situation reflects the inherent nature of capitalism which engages in accumulation through both expansion and encroachment. This squeezes out peasant agriculture and all petty producers, and ultimately leads to a supply constraint on goods produced by these groups. Under the current context of capitalism, these forces are creating a crisis for mankind.
The Global Food Crisis
Jayati Ghosh - 2008
The recent food shortages and rapidly rising prices of food have adversely affected billions of people, especially the poor in the developing world. This is very much a man-made crisis, resulting from the market-oriented and liberalising policies adopted by choice or compulsion in almost all countries, which have either neglected agriculture or allowed shifts in global prices to determine both cropping patterns and the viability of farming, and also generated greater possibilities of speculative activity in food items. This article discusses the features, causes of the current crisis and indicates an alternative policy framework for redressal.
Inflation Targeting: Issues and Alternatives
This is a set of papers which covers theoretical and empirical research on the issue of inflation targeting. The papers specifically cover various outcomes of inflation targeting as well the controversies, exploring alternative approaches, methodologies and solutions. While the impact on employment remains a primary concern of the papers, other specific issues which have been covered are; employment costs of inflation reduction in developing countries from a gender perspective, looking at the nature of inflation targeting from a class based social perspective, a comparison of inflation targeting and real exchange rate targeting in affecting economic growth and employment. In addition, country specific studies on the impact of inflation targeting and alternatives in Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, Turkey, India, Vietnam, and Philippines are included.
Earth Summit 2002: from Rio to Johannesburg
Sustainable development lies at the heart of the Earth Summit process. The journey toward sustainable development has not been straightforward and is far from being fully achieved. In the last thirty years a whole series of events have brought us to the wide-ranging interpretation of sustainable development that we see today.
The concept of sustainable development dates back a long way but it was at the UN Conference on Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972) that the international community met for the first time to consider global environment and development needs (Figure 1). The Conference led to the formation of the UN Environment Programme (UNEP).
The Stockholm Declaration and Action Plan, which were also produced, defined principles for the preservation and enhancement of the natural environment, and highlighted the need to support people in this process. The Conference indicated that “industrialised” environmental problems, such as habitat degradation, toxicity and acid rain, were not necessarily relevant issues for all countries.
In particular, development strategies were not meeting the needs of the poorest countries and communities. However, it was the pending environmental problems that dominated the meeting and led to wider public environmental awareness.
Books such as "The Silent Spring" by Rachel Carson gave a foretaste of the current view that, if international modes of development continue along their present paths, the world is rapidly heading for a major breakdown.

Resources for economists on the internet
Dictionaries, Glossaries and Encyclopedias
IDEAS.- the largest bibliographic database dedicated to economics
Welcome to the largest bibliographic database dedicated to Economics and available freely on the Internet. Over 550'000 items of research can be browsed or searched, and over 450'000 can be downloaded in full text! This site is part of a large volunteer effort to enhance the free dissemination of research in Economics, RePEc. To see the popularity of these services, browse the statistics at LogEc

In defence of Marxism
This is the website of the International Marxist Tendency. To find out more about the history of the Tendency we recommend you to start with the document A Brief History of the International Marxist Tendency. You can also read more about the origins of the Marxist tendency in Ted Grant's book History of British Trotskyism.
For a detailed analysis of our ideas regarding the world situation today and the tasks facing revolutionary Marxists, please read our document on World revolution and the tasks of the Marxists. If you agree with our ideas and the need to fight for a revolutionary Marxist alternative within the working class movement, please join us, or see the Contact Us section for details of how to join the struggle for socialism in your country.

World Institute for Development Economic Research (UN)
World Income Inequality Database (UNU)
A major update of the World Income Inequality Database is available as of May, 2008. Please consult the revision notes for details.
The UNU-WIDER World Income Inequality Database (WIID) collects and stores information on income inequality for developed, developing, and transition countries. The database and its documentation are available on this website.
WIID2 consists of a checked and corrected WIID1, a new update of the Deininger & Squire database from the World Bank, new estimates from the Luxembourg Income Study and Transmonee, and other new sources as they have became available. WIID2a contains fewer points of data than WIID1 as some overlaps between the old Deininger & Squire data and estimates included by WIDER have been eliminated along with some low quality estimates adding no information. In addition to the Gini coefficient and quintile and decile shares, survey means and medians along with the income shares of the richest 5% and the poorest 5% have been included in the update. In addition to the Gini coefficient reported by the source, a Gini coefficient calculated using a new method developed by Tony Shorrocks and Guang Hua Wan is reported. The method estimates the Gini coefficient from decile data almost as accurately as if unit record data were used.

The Economist:
Research tools
US Central Intelligence Agency:
Basic data on economies

World Bank 1996: Classification of economies. Methodology
Search on privatisation - liberalization - decentralisation
Marxist Economics : introduction
By Dr. Roger A. McCain - Drexel University Department of Economics

"Marxist, neoclassical, and Keynesian economics all have their roots in the "Classical Political Economy" of the early 19th century, but since the later nineteenth century they have developed in different ways. Neoclassical and Keynesian economics, whatever their differences, have remained closer together than either is to Marxist economics. As a result, Marxist economics has not been a part of what the American tradition regards as the "Principles of Economics" and thus is outside the scheme of a book entitled "Essential Principles of Economics."
On the other hand, Marxist criticisms of the other traditions in economics (and their criticisms of Marxism) have been important parts of the Reasonable Dialog of Economics in the last two centuries. We resolve this contradiction by exploring Marxist economics in this appendix to the book."
"One key point to understand is that Marxist economics is an economic theory of capitalism. Since governments based on Marxist ideology have mostly either collapsed or moved away from the distinctive "Soviet-type" economics system toward more capitalist economic systems, it may seem that Marxist ideas are discredited. What has been discredited is the Soviet-type economic system, which has little to do with the Marxist economic analysis of capitalism. Thus, Marxist economics has as strong (or weak) a case as ever where its analysis of capitalism is concerned."
"Since the labor theory of value plays a key part in Marxism, we begin with a discussion of the Reasonable Dialog about the Labor Theory of Value.
Notice of Copyright : These documents and images have been created by Dr. Roger A. McCain and the author reserves all rights to their use for purposes of sale, publication, commercial gain, or promotion. Permission is freely granted to all to download, reproduce, copy, print, or otherwise transform these documents and images for personal use."
From "Theories of Surplus Value", by K. Marx - 1861-3
Chapter XVII
Ricardo’s Theory of Accumulation and a Critique of it.  (The Very Nature of Capital Leads to Crises)

"When considering the production process we saw that the whole aim of capitalist production is appropriation of the greatest possible amount of surplus-labour, in other words, the realisation of the greatest possible amount of immediate labour-time with the given capital, be it through the prolongation of the labour-day or the reduction of the necessary labour-time, through the development of the productive power of labour by means of cooperation, division of labour, machinery etc., in short, large-scale production, i.e., mass production.  It is thus in the nature of capitalist production, to produce without regard to the limits of the market..."
"...If over-production has taken place not only in cotton, but also in linen, silk and woollen fabrics, then it can be understood how over-production in these few, but leading articles, calls forth a more or less general (relative) over-production on the whole market.  On the one hand there is a superabundance of all the means of reproduction and a superabundance of all kinds of unsold commodities on the market.  On the other hand bankrupt capitalists and destitute, starving workers."

Karl Marx (1857) on:
Production, consumption, distribution and exchange (circulation)

Adam Smith (1776) on:
An inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations
Wherever there is a great property, there is great inequality. For one very rich man, there must be at least five hundred poor, and the affluence of the few supposes the indigence of the many. The affluence of the rich excites the indignation of the poor, who are often both driven by want, and prompted by envy to invade his possessions. (p. 580)

The IMF point of view on the current world economic crisis
December 2008
Finance $ Development
World Economy Under Stress
Cracks in the System:
Repairing the Damaged Global Economy

The global economy is facing its worst crisis in 60 years, triggering fears of a long, deep recession. The task ahead is to design new rules and institutions to reduce systemic risks without stifling innovation.

From the BBC World Service
Global Financial Crisis 2008
The United Nations says the world economy faces its worst downturn since the Great Depression. It expects world economic output to shrink by as much as 0.4% in 2009, due to a slump among developed countries - particularly the US and in Europe.
This would mark the world economy's first year of contraction since the 1930s, the UN said. The report added there had been complacency about the impact of the financial crisis on poorer countries. "It seems inevitable that the major countries will see significant contraction in the immediate period ahead and that recovery may not materialise any time soon, even if the bail-out and stimulus package succeed," it says.

Global Financial Crisis 2008
An analysis by the
Real-World Economic Review
Big banks are failing, bailouts measured in hundreds of billions of dollars are not nearly enough, jobs are vanishing, mortgages and retirement savings are turning to dust. Didn’t economic theory promise us that markets would behave better than this? Even the most ardent defenders of private enterprise are embarrassed by recent events: in the words of arch-conservative columnist William Kristol, There’s nothing conservative about letting free markets degenerate into something close to Karl Marx’s vision of an atomizing, irresponsible and self-devouring capitalism.2
So what does the current wreckage of the global financial system tell us about the theoretical virtues of the market economy?

From the Real-World Economics Review Blog:
Greenspan, Friedman and Summers win Dynamite Prize in Economics - February 22, 2010
sanity, humanity and science
Post-autistic economics review
Issue no. 27, 9 September 2004
In this issue:
- G. C. Harcourt
What would Marx and Keynes have made of the happenings of the past 30 years and more?
- Richard D. Wolff
The Riddle of Consumption
- M. Ben-Yami
Fisheries management: Hijacked by neoliberal economics
- Deborah Campbell
Here’s what economics students in three countries are doing to put their professors on the defensive

Read full text of issues 44, 43, 42, 41, 40, 39, 38, 37, 36, 35, 34, 33, 32, 31, 30, 29, 28, 27, 26, 25, 24, 23, 22, 21, 20, 19, 18, 17, 16, 15, 14, 13, 12, 11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1.
Issue no. 44 - 9 December 2007
You can download the whole issue as a 77 page pdf document by clicking here
download articles individually by clicking on their pdf link.
In this issue:
Frank Ackerman, "Economics for a warming world" - download pdf
Jorge Buzaglo, "Climate change, global ethics and the market" - download pdf
Ian Fletcher, "The global economy bubble equilibrium" - download pdf
Frederic Lordon, "High finance -- a game of risk: Subprimes, ninja loans, derivatives and other financial fantasies" - download pdf
James Angresano, "Orthodox economic education, ideology and commercial interests: Relationships" - download pdf
Robert Pollin and Heidi Garrett, "The employment effects of military and domestic spending priorities" - download pdf
Dani Rodrik, "World too complex for one-size-fits-all models" - download pdf
Margaret Legum, "What is the right size?" - download pdf
Margaret Legum, economist, author and anti-apartheid activist 1933--2007

Post-autistic economics network
Some articles on the PAE Movement
- “Teaching Economics: PAE and Pluralism”, (EAEPE, July 2005)
- “Post-Autistic Economics”, Social Policy, summer 2005)
- “Post-Autistic Economics”, Soundings, April 2005)
- “Signifying nothing?”, The Economist, Jan 29, 2004)
- “Revolutionizing French Economics”, Challenge, Nov/Dec. 2003)
- “Fired up for battle”, The Guardian (UK) 9 September 2003
- ”Taking On 'Rational Man'” The Chronicle of Higher Education (US) 24 Jan. 2003
- ”The 2002 Nobel Prize in Economics”, The Journal of Investing (US) Spring 2003
- “The Storming of the Accountants”, The New Statesman (UK) 21 Jan. 2002
- “Post-autisten' vallen economische heilige huisjes aan”, De Morgen, Bruxelles 2 Mar. 2002
- English Translation
- “movimiento económico postautista”, IBLNEWS, 14 March 2002
- “Distorted economic relations: A new movement – the post-autistic economists- want to renew economics”, Sueddeutsche Zeitung, (Munich) 3 April 2002

9 June 2005
Capitalist Economic Terrorism

Note by Róbinson Rojas: Free-market fundamentalism, which can be described as capitalist economic terrorism, is creating a world with a small bunch of super rich and a big majority just surviving on their income. United States is a telling case study of this. What began with  the Reagan Administration is reaching obscene feautures with the Bush Administration. Statistics show that "for every additional dollar earned by the bottom 90 percent of the population between 1950 and 1970, those in the top 0.01 percent earned an additional $162. That gap has since skyrocketed. For every additional dollar earned by the bottom 90 percent between 1990 and 2002, each taxpayer in that top bracket brought in an extra $18,000." The New York Times is publishing a special section ("Class Matters"), from which I select here some important texts. They show how capitalist economic terrorism (free-market fundamentalism) can disjoint a society. The winners are the ones who have at their service a political class serving their interests by unleashing political and economic terrorism (otherwise known as globalization) all over planet Earth. They are building a larger U.S. empire. Modern Caligulas like Bush et al are the top layer of that political class.

The Bush Economy (7 June 2005)
Richest Are Leaving Even the Rich Far Behind (5 June 2005)
Crushing Upward Mobility (7 June 2005)
Class Matters. A special section
The Mobility Myth (6 June 2005)

The New York Times - 10 June 2005
Losing Our Country
By Paul Krugman
"The middle-class society I grew up in no longer exists. Working families have seen little if any progress over the past 30 years. Adjusted for inflation, the income of the median family doubled between 1947 and 1973. But it rose only 22 percent from 1973 to 2003, and much of that gain was the result of wives' entering the paid labor force or working longer hours, not rising wages.
But the wealthy have done very well indeed. Since 1973 the average income of the top 1 percent of Americans has doubled, and the income of the top 0.1 percent has tripled."
From PAE, No 33, 14 September 2005
The Rise and Demise of the New Public Management

Wolfgang Drechsler
(University of Tartu and Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia)
Within the public sphere, the most important reform movement of the last quarter of a century has been the New Public Management (NPM). It is of particular interest in the post-autistic economics (pae) context because NPM largely rests on the same ideology and epistemology as standard textbook economics (STE) is based, and it has had, and still has, similar results.
From PAE, No. 33, 14 September 2005
Forum on Economic Reform

Can the World Bank Be Fixed?
David Ellerman
(University of California at Riverside)
If the goal of development assistance is to foster autonomous development, then most aid and "help" is actually unhelpful in the sense of either overriding or undercutting the autonomy of those being "helped." The two principal forms of unhelpful "help" are social engineering and charitable relief. The World Bank is the primary example over the last half century of the failures of social engineering to "engineer" development. Frustration over these failures, particularly in Africa, is now leading the Bank and many other development agencies towards the other form of unhelpful help, namely, long-term charitable relief. The paper outlines some of the reasons for the failure of socially engineered economic, legal, and social reforms both in the developing world and in the post-socialist transition countries. Finally, the argument   is summarized in five structural reasons why the World Bank cannot be "fixed."
7 June 2005
EuroMemorandum Group
European Economists  for an Alternative Economic Policy in Europe
June 2005
After the French and Dutch No to the Constitution:
The EU needs a new economic and social development strategy.

  "The French and Dutch No to the Constitution opens  the window for a thorough reflection and public discussion about the way in which the people want to live in Europe. The majority of voters have rejected the elitist project of a European construction, which subordinates the democratic lives and material well-being of the people to the rules of markets and competition. They perceived European policies in their real lives as a threat to their economic and social welfare, as source of increasing insecurity for their work and incomes, as mounting inequality and injustice and as an obstacle to relevant democratic participation possibilities in the process of shaping a society which allows them to lead a free and independent life...".
Karl Marx (1857) on:
Production, consumption, distribution and exchange (circulation)
Andre Gunder Frank (1992) on:
Marketing Democracy in an Undemocratic Market
"Democracy" is in, and "development" is out as buzzwords for the "Third World." The very "development" idea and word are in apparently terminal crisis. The new idea to replace it is "democracy." When Gandhi was asked what he thought of "Western Civilization," he answered "it would be a good idea." We can say as much of development and democracy as well. However, for the Third World, "democracy" is likely to become no more real in the future than "development," or Western Civilization for that matter, did in the past. Instead like the latter, "democracy" may well become a flag - or the figleaf - for continued exploitation and oppression of the South by the North.

Róbinson Rojas (1997) on
Basic knowledge on economics
Notes designed for students wanting to understand the basic tenets of textbook economics ( capitalist economics, that is), without calculus, which is utilised as a disguise to justify a barbaric economic system leading to social exclusion and waste of human and material resources. The capitalist economic problem: what to produce, how to produce, for whom to produce. Resource allocation: alternative approaches, the free market versus central planning. The meaning of "resource allocation" and the main alternative methods of allocating resources.
Concepts for Review: Economic resources, resource allocation, production possibility curves, supply, demand, competition, profitability and the free market, central planning and bureaucracy, factors of production,  distribution of income, factor mobility

- Sustainable development in a globalized economy? The odds. 1999
- Sustainable development in a globalized economy. 1997
- Making sense of development studies
- Notes on the philosophy of the capitalist system
- Notes on economics: assuming scarcity
- Notes on economics: about obscenities, poverty and inequality
- Notes on structural adjustment programmes
- Agenda 21 revisited (notes)
- 15 years of monetarism in Latin America: time to scream
- Latin America: a failed industrial revolution
- Latin America: the making of a fractured society
- Latin America: a dependent mode of production
- The 'adjustment' of the world economy
- The transnational corporate system in the late 1990s
- A market-friendly strategy for development
- Notes on agribusiness in the 1990s
- Transnational corporations in developing countries
- Latin America: blockages to development
- Development Studies: Researching for the big bosses?
- International capital and intellectual dishonesty
A typical textbook on capitalist economics:

Introduction to Economic Analysis
by R. Preston McAfee
- California Institute of Technology

From Biz/Ed
"A Web site for students and educators in business studies, economics, accounting, leisure, sport & recreation and travel & tourism."
GDP, GNP and economic growth

Interest Rate Transmission Mechanism »
Interactive Markets »
The Stock Exchange »
Maths in Business and Economics »

Online Economics Textbooks
Teaching Resources for Economics
The history of economic thought website
This is a personal website run by poor, starving students with very little time.    We receive no renumeration for our efforts.  It is offered to the general public as "educational entertainment" -- which means, in effect, that we are merely sharing our own interest in this particular, specialized academic topic.

McMaster University
Archive of the History of Economic Thought
by Roderick Hay

J. Sloman and M. Sutcliffe:

Tutor2u Economics.Com
Problems in Microeconomics
A Primer in European Macroeconomics
Economics Testing System
Economic Review
Resources for economists on the internet
Adam Smith:
The Wealth Of Nations

K. Marx/F. Engels:
Bourgeois and proletarians

Karl Marx:
and other early works

F. Engels:
Introduction to K. Marx's "Wage-labour and capital"

Karl Marx:
Wage-labour and capital

On Development Economics
The Future of Development Economics
The New Economy in Development
The Need to Rethink Development Economics
Development Economics
Economic Literacy
Basic knowledge on economics

RRojas Databank is a member of Development Gateway hosted by The World Bank

Education for Sustainability
Postgraduate courses on
Environment and
Development Education at
London South Bank University

- Part time distance learning
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- Notes for lectures
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- Global Value Chains
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- Transnational Corporations
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- Dependency Theory
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- The Developmental State
- The Neo-liberal State
- Development Economics
- The future of development

- Foreign Direct Investment
- Factor Payments to Abroad
- The New Economy in

- International Trade

Back to Global Economic Prospects for Developing Countries

--World Investment Reports
---(the complete series)

--World Investment Reports
---(selected statistics)

-- Planning for Development
UNCTAD areas of work:
Globalization and Development
Development of Africa
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Services Infrastructure
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The following databases on-line are available:
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- Human Development
- Hunger
- Inequality/social exclusion
- Informal sector
- Labour Market
- Microfinance
- Migration
- Poverty
- Privatization
- State/Civil Society/

- Sustainable Development
- Transnational Corporations
- Urbanization

- Complete list of development themes

Puro Chile la memoria del pueblo
Proyecto para el Primer Siglo Popular

Director: Róbinson Rojas Sandford


Puro Chile la mémoire du peuple
Projet pour le Premier Siècle Populaire

Editeur: Róbinson Rojas Sandford