Counter visits from more than 160  countries and 1400 universities (details)

The political economy of development
This academic site promotes excellence in teaching and researching economics and development, and the advancing of describing, understanding, explaining and theorizing for planning for development.
About us- Castellano- Français - Dedication
Home- Themes- Reports- Statistics/Search- Lecture notes/News- People's Century- Puro Chile- Mapuche
 On Planning for Development

Selected texts by Manuel Castells and Saskia Sassen

( this texts are available  for my students and ex students in Development Planning Unit (University College London) and Education for Sustainability Programme (London South Bank University)

Róbinson Rojas on
Managing and Planning for Development: International and National Dimensions (Part 1)
  See Notes for lectures, Workshops, Slide presentations and Seminars.

Basic notions on managing and planning for development, the role of the state, markets and civil and military bureaucracy, NGOs and other civil society organizations in the development process. It places national development in the context of the international division of production and examines alternatives to hegemonic development practices. It critically reviews the recent history of international aid, particularly its implications for poverty reduction, growth and equity.

E. Thorbecke - 2005
The evolution of the development doctrine 1950-2005

The selection and adoption of a development strategy - i.e. a set of more or less interrelated and consistent policies - depend upon three building blocks:
(1) the prevailing development objectives which, in turn, are derived from the prevailing view and definition of the development process;
(2) the conceptual state of the art regarding the existing body of development theories, hypotheses, models, techniques, and empirical applications; and
(3) the underlying data system available to diagnose the existing situation, measure performance, and test hypotheses.

From ECLAC 2012

Time for Equity: closing gaps, opening trails

(2 July 2012) "Planning for development is back with a renewed strength and complex challenges," said today the Deputy Executive Secretary of ECLAC Antonio Prado, when opening the commemorative seminar to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of the Latin American and Caribbean Institute for Economic and Social Planning (ILPES) at the organization's headquarters in Santiago, Chile.
ILPES was created by ECLAC on 2 July 1962 in the aim of supporting Latin American and Caribbean governments in the field of planning and public administration by providing training, consultancy and research services.
"Closing the multiple gaps in the region takes a long-term vision, strategic planning and long-lasting persistence," highlighted Prado at the international seminar that will conclude tomorrow. "The State must be capable of providing strategic management for the long run, looking ahead, and being involved in the design of strategies for guiding national development," he emphasized.

From The Economist - 21 April 2012
Kim selection - The new boss of the World Bank has a tough job. The manner of his appointment has made it tougher

FOR the past decade, two big trends have been reshaping development. One is the growth of new sources of aid and loans, notably middle-income countries such as China, private capital flows and charitable organisations such as the Gates Foundation. This is undermining the dominance of Western institutions. The other is a new way of thinking about development, which focuses less on national plans and more on the rights of individuals and specific groups.

Dueling Development Visions: Shaping the World Bank for the Future
Submitted by Michael Woolcock on Fri, 2012-04-13 10:36
Blogs is here

..."One can easily oversimplify differences, or render them more rigid that they often are, but answers to each of these questions can be usefully juxtaposed. The key issue is both simple and profound: What do we think ‘development’ actually is? Since the inception of the Bretton Woods institutions in the aftermath of WWII, answers to this question have steadily evolved, responding to and driving significant changes in practice. Traditionally, however, and for many still today, the core business of development is the construction of systems – building the physical and institutional infrastructure that defines a ‘modern’ economy and society. When we say that France is ‘more developed’ than Gabon, we mean, inter alia, that France’s economic wealth is based on productivity growth, that its political life reflects the prevailing preferences of its citizens, that its society (at least in principle) confers equal rights, responsibilities and opportunities to all, and that administrative procedures are conducted in accordance with rational rules, consistent precedents and professional meritocratic norms"...

Robert H. Wade - 2012
The Fight Over the Global Development Agenda: How the West Tries to Marginalise UNCTAD

The UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) has a long history of intellectual independence. This article details how Western countries tried to marginalise the organisation and its work – which is often critical of Western powers – during the 2012 UNCTAD conference. While developing countries were able to mobilise and partially beat back these attempts for now, the organisation’s ability to contribute to global macroeconomics remains under threat.

From The Economist - May 5th 2012 - Print edition

Zero-sum debate
Economists are rethinking the view that capital should not be taxed

Top capital-income tax rates in America and Britain fell by more than half from the 1950s to the 1980s. There is pressure to go further.
But some economists are questioning the prevailing view, not least because reductions in capital-tax rates appear to have delivered more inequality than growth. In a 2008 paper, Juan Carlos Conesa of Universitat Autňnoma de Barcelona, Sagiri Kitao of the University of Southern California and Dirk Krueger of the University of Pennsylvania argued that taxing capital was “not a bad idea after all”.

Capital markets are imperfect, they observe, and households are unable to insure themselves against all of life’s ups and downs. Taxing away some of the return to capital to provide social insurance against risks is appropriate.

Rebalancing the Global economy: A Primer for Policymaking
Stijn Claessens, Simon J Evenett and Bernard Hoekman - 23 June 2010
"This new eBook aims to provide policymakers and their advisers with up-to-date, comprehensive analyses of the central facets of global economic imbalances and to identify and evaluate potential national and systemic responses to this challenge."

One of the most important features of capitalist markets is that they create economic inequality as a result of capital accumulation, which appears as an antagonistic contradiction between economic efficiency and social efficiency in any capitalist social formation. Planning for development require practitioners  having a strong understanding of the above feature, particularly because once established economic inequality makes even stronger the political, social, and cultural inequalities already in place, adding to religious, racial and gender inequalities in a sort of self-propelled feedback loop. Here are some useful sections on this in my archive
(Dr. Róbinson Rojas):

-- Inequality - Social exclusion
-- Inequality, poverty, social exclusion and corruption i
n U.S.A
-- Inequality, poverty, and social exclusion in Latin America
-- Inequality, poverty, social exclusion and corruption in China
-- Spatial Inequality in Asia

Planning for Development require internal and external political and economic conditions allowing national policies to be free from blockages imposed by vested economic and political interests (huge transnational corporations and imperial nation-states) being served by the internal dynamics of capitalist free markets. The texts below deal with this problem within the realm of international trade. They make useful reading for planners for development particularly in developing countries.
(Dr. Róbinson Rojas):

UNCTAD - Trade and Development Reports (TADR):
Regional cooperation for development

The Trade and Development Report 2007,... recommends that developing countries should strengthen regional cooperation with other developing countries, but proceed carefully with regard to North-South bilateral or regional preferential trade agreements. Such agreements may offer gains in terms of market access and higher foreign direct investment, but they can also limit national policy space, which can play an important role in the medium- and long-term growth of competitive industries

Global partnership and national policies for development

"The rules and commitments of the international trading regime restrict the de jure ability of developing nations to adopt national development policy".
"Rules and commitments, which in legal terms are equally binding for all countries, in economic terms might impose more binding constraints on developing countries"(p. 167)

New Features of Global Interdependence

"Natural-resource endowments determine the degree to which selfsufficiency in food and raw materials is compatible with rapid industrial development and growth ... but the balance-of-payments constraint limits import growth." (p. 52)

Policy coherence, development strategies and integration into the world economy

"The search for economic stability is not between autarky and surrendering national sovereignty to the expansive logic of markets." (p. 97)

Capital Accumulation, Growth and Structural Change

With the leading industrial countries still not pulling in the same direction, prospects for much of the developing world are clouded by tensions in the trading system, volatility in the currency market and deflationary pressures. This year´s Report traces the difficulties back to the pattern of global trade and financial flows in the 1990s. But the Report also asks whether market-led reforms adopted in many developing countries after the debt crisis of the early 1980s have strengthened these countries´ ability to withstand external shocks.

Developing Countries in World Trade

The Trade and Development Report 2002 analyses trends and outlooks for the world economy and focuses on export dynamism and industrialization in developing countries. It demonstrates that, although integration into world trade is essential, it is not in itself sufficient for ensuring a country´s development. The Report questions the conventional wisdom that export growth and foreign direct investment (FDI) automatically generate commensurate income gains.

Global Trends and Prospects - Financial Architecture

International economic issues touch the lives of people everywhere. Whether grappling with the challenges posed by new information technologies, seeking to draw policy lessons from financial crises in emerging markets, or assessing the possible impact of China´s entry into the World Trade Organization, we look to economics as a guide in our rapidly changing world. The poorest nations especially require a clear economic road map if they are to make progress against the persistent problems of hunger, ill health and social insecurity.

Global Economic Growth and Imbalances

Even as the digital age creates new opportunities, financial fragilities in the world economy continue to constrain policy makers everywhere. Given the severity of East Asia´s financial crisis, much of the focus and concern in recent years has been on developments in the region. This year´s Report takes a careful look at the forces driving the recovery in East Asia, its weakness and the long-term prospects and policy for sustained growth and development.
From the International Research Journal of Finance and Economics - 2007
Economic Development Planning Models:
A comparative assessment

S. K. Kooros and L. M Badeux

Economic development, distinguished from economic growth, results from an assessment of the economic development objectives with the available resources, core competencies, and the infusion of greater productivity, technology and innovation, as well as improvement in human capital, resources, and access to large markets. Economic development transforms a traditional dual-system society into a productive framework in which every one contributes and from which receive benefits accordingly. Economic development occurs when all segments of the society benefit from the fruits of economic growth through economic efficiency and equity. Economic efficiency will be present with minimum negative externalities to society, including agency, transaction, secondary, and opportunity costs. At the same time, disintegration of national sovereign states into more fragmented nations along the ethnic lines would not help these newly formed societies to accede to a formidable economic development regardless of their form of government...
Development economics contain a number of theories, but little research has been conducted on economic planning models. The developing countries’ preoccupation with economic planning provides a rationale for this paper. In this paper, the conceptual affinity among the three models is examined. Markov-Chain (Markov 1914) has been applied to short term market forecasting and business decisions on the firm’s future market share, given a consumer transition from one firm to the next. Leontief's model shows the short term inter-industry interdependence of production functions, (Leontief 1965, 1985). Kooros' model transcends the former two models by providing an optimum resource allocation planning model and the decision criteria, (Kooros, 1995, 1998). This paper provides a comparative analysis of the three models’ structures, similarities, and respective advantages...

from the Asian Development Bank

Environment and Economics in Project Preparation - 1999

E-mail or fax the Publications Unit at + 632 636 2648 to order copies of this document. Applicable shipping cost will be charged.
On-line edition: Free of Charge
Hardcopy price: $15.00
ISBN: 971-561-201-6

A key feature of this book is the inclusion of ten cases illustrating practical approaches to environmental economic analysis in situations where information and time are limited and entail a lot of resources. The book provides case-specific examples of bringing environmental concerns to focus, thus providing guidance based on real world examples for project designers and evaluation experts on how to use environmental valuation for project design. From these examples, it can be concluded that the inclusion of environmental valuation in project design improves project quality. 1999. 394 pages.

Guidelines for the Economic Analysis of Projects -1997

The printed version of this publication is out of print. Please contact the Publications Unit for more information
Guidelines, Handbooks, and Manuals from the Asian Development Bank
On-line edition: Free of Charge
Hardcopy price: $10.00

ISBN: 971-561-127-3
Pub. Date: 1997
Out of Print

Provides guidelines for ADB staff, consultants, and officials of developing member countries in assessing project proposals for economic viability and financial sustainability. It includes sections on environmental costs and benefits, the distribution of net benefits, and sensitivity and risk analysis. 215 pages.

See also:
Handbook for Integrating Risk Analysis in the Economic Analysis of Projects - 2002
Handbook on Gender Dimension in Projects - 2000
 Economic Analysis of Policy-Based Operations (2003)
Handbook for Integrating Poverty Impact Assessment in the Economic Analysis of Projects (2001)
Handbook for the Economic Analysis of Health Sector Projects (2000)

From the Economic and Social Research Council (UK) - 2009
The Strategic Challenges
Global Economic Performance, Policy and Management

The collapse of confidence in the world financial system will shape the research agenda for a long time.The full extent of the damage to the global economy remains unclear. Governments have been forced to intervene in the economy, overturning the economic orthodoxy of the last 30 years.
The boundaries of public and private are being redrawn as new economic regimes are created.The recession puts renewed pressure on understanding the causes of poverty and what policies reduce it.Through research centres and grants, ESRC funded social scientists have already been active in these areas, giving us the opportunity to build on and deepen what is already known.

From United Nations Development Programme - 2009
Handbook on planning, monitoring and evaluating for development results

"This 2009 version of the ‘Handbook on Planning, Monitoring and Evaluating for Development Results’ aims to support UNDP in becoming more results-oriented and to improve its focus on development changes and real improvements in people’s lives. It replaces and updates the previous Handbook from 2002. It was a breakthrough in driving the effective application of the results-based management approach in programming and performance management.
The Handbook recognizes that planning,monitoring and evaluation require a focus on nationally owned development priorities and results, and should reflect the guiding principles of national ownership, capacity development and human development. Globally, there has been a significant shift away from the project approach in favour of programme and national approaches. All partners and members of the Executive Board expect UNDP to demonstrate tangible results in development cooperation. UNDP also faces intensified calls for accountability to citizens for how resources are used, what results are achieved, and how effective these results are in bringing about progress in human development." more information

The four texts below (H. B. Chenery and N. G. Carter, 1973; A. Waterson, 1969; and W. Arthur Lewis, 1966 and 1949) are compulsory reading for my students in planning for development because they give a solid conceptual background for understanding the national and international dimensions of  planning for development in a globalized system of production. (Dr. Róbinson Rojas) 

1) From the World Bank Archives - SWP141
H. B. Chenery and N. G. Carter - 1973
Internal and external aspects of development plans and performance, 1960-1970

I. The analytical framework
II. Development performance in the sixties
III. Distribution and efficiency in aid policy
Notes to the tables

2) From the data files of the World Bank: File Copy 13382
A. Waterson,
Development Planning. Lessons of Experience -1969
- World Bank, 770 pages

Part One: The Development Planning Process
The many meanings of planning: - Wartime planning - Town and country planning - Anticyclical planning - National planning - Regional planning
The spread of development planning: - Early planning - Postwar planning
Stages of development planning: - The socialized countries - Evolution of central planning - The pattern of decentralization - The mixed economies - Three stages of planning - Premature comprehensive planning - Experience favors staged approach - Difficulties of comprehensive planning - The problem of projects - Rationalising current public investment
Development plans: - Planning without plans - The variety of plans - The formal status of plans
The duration of plans: - Short-term plans - Medium-term plans - Long-term plans
Plan continuity and flexibility: - Rolling plans - Annual plans - Plan objectives - Plan targets
Basic data for planning: - Relationship between data and planning - Data needed for planning - The question of priorities - Planning with inadequate data -
The budget's role in planning: - The relationship between plan and budget
Administrative obstacles to planning - The implementation of plans

Part two: The organization of planning - Planning machinery priorities - The distribution of planning functions - The funtion and role of a central planning agency - Locating a central planning agency - Types of central planning agencies - Organization of a central planning agency - Subnational regional and local planning bodies - Programing units in operating organizations

Appendix I. Colombia: questionnaire on investment programs of public entities
Appendix II. Argentina: questionnaire on public investment programs
Appendix III. National plans
Appendix IV. Central planning agencies
Appendix V. Organization chart of Iran's plan organization
Appendix VI. The Philippines National Economic Council
Appendix VII. Morroco (1960) Division of Economic Coordination and Planning
Appendix VIII. India's Planning Commission
Appendix IX. Pakistan, organization chart, planning commission, President's secretariat
Turkey's State Planning Organization

3) W. Arthur Lewis - 1966
Development Planning: the essentials of economic policy

[Selected pages published in]

Table of Contents
Patterns of Planning
Plan Strategy
Foreign Aid
The Arithmetic of Planning
IO Retrospect
Required School Enrolment
Growth Rate Averages
Resources and Their Use I
Capital Account I
Resources and Their Use II

4) A study prepared for the Fabian Society
W. Arthur Lewis
The principles of economic planning
New Edition with a new Introduction
First published in Great Britain in 1949 by Dennis Dobson Ltd, and George Allen and Unwin Ltd.
Second Impression 1950 - Second Edition, Third Impression 1952 - Fourth Impression 1954

THE dispute between planning and laisser-faire is not a dispute between order and anarchy in economic life. All serious political thinkers, and not least the laisser-faire philosophers, start with the proposition that production and distribution must be controlled to the service of social ends. The point at issue is simply how much of this control may be invisible, and how much must be visible. The invisible control, extolled by the laisser-faire protagonists, is that which the market exercises; the "visible control"  favoured by the planners, is that which is organised by the state.

Strategies for Regional Innovation Systems: Learning Transfer and Applications - 2003
(38 pages/428 KB)
Philip Cook, Centre for Advanced Studies, Cardiff University
in cooperation with Olga Memedovic, UNIDO, Strategic Research and Economics Branch

The paper explains the concept of regional innovation systems. It argues that global economic forces have raised the profile of regions and regional governance not least because of the rise to prominence of regional and local business clusters as vehicles for global and national economic competitiveness. Key definitions are given and distinctions drawn. Then, by reference to a number of important dimensions characterizing innovation such as education, knowledge transfer, linkage and communications, four regions from Asia, Europe and Latin America are contrasted. It is shown that regional innovation systems can be underdeveloped by being too dependent on public support, but equally, an over-emphasis on private infrastructures needs to be guarded against except at the most advanced developmental level. A combination of public and private governance at regional level to promote systemic innovation is advocated.

A. Venables - 2006
Shifts in economic geography and their causes

Recent decades have seen momentous changes in the economic geography of the world. Political transitions and economic liberalization have brought formerly closed countries into the world economy...this has amounted to a doubling of the world labour force...Some of these changes - falling trade and communications costs- have been going on for centuries...the ratio of per capita incomes of the richest to poorest nations increased from around 8:1 in 1870 to more than 50:1 in 2000

From the data files of the World Bank
File Copy No. 27711
Subnational Capital Markets in Developing Countries
From Theory to Practice
- 2004
Mila Freire and John Peterson, with Marcela Huerta and Miguel Valadez (editors)

"Within the framework of increasing decentralization, the need for local governments to access financial markets is growing. As urbanization expands, local authorities need to provide more services with fewer resources from the central government. Subnational borrowing—leveraging reliable cash flows—and prudent fiscal management can be alternatives to fund such investments, especially when the useful life of the service is long and an adequate legal framework is in place to ensure fiscal and financial stability."
"This book, prepared by staff members of the World Bank and selected guest contributors, consists of two parts. The first part comprises a framework to study subnational governments as borrowers and the array of credit markets in which they may operate. The second part consists of case studies that document the recent experience of 18 countries in developing markets for subnational borrowers and offer lessons about fostering responsible credit market access within a framework of fiscal and financial discipline. The book pools information on the issuing of municipal debt and its characteristics, analyzes the role of macroeconomic conditions and market development in the success or failure of those borrowings, and suggests recommendations to guide ongoing efforts. The goal is to assist local governments in working as strategic partners in the development and strengthening of the capital markets in emerging economies."

Tactical Planning Models for Supply Chain Management
J. M. Swaminathan Sridhar (University of North Carolina) and
R. Tayur (Carnegie Mellon University) January 2003

Supply chain management includes the implementation of efficient policies related to procurement of raw material, transforming them into semi-finished and finished products and distributing them to the end customer, thereby transcending multiple business units. Poor supply chain management (more often than not) predominantly results in excessive amounts of inventory, the largest asset for many firms.
Inventory is generally carried by firms to hedge against uncertainty of different types ( demand, process and supply ) as well as to account for economic efficiencies. The former are managed with safety stocks ( either in raw material or in finished goods ), and the latter through batches ( lot sizes ). Typically, both these types of inventories need to be considered simultaneously, as one is affected by the other. Outside the manufacturing door, a major challenge that companies face relates to the management of safety stocks rather than with the choice of economic lot-sizes. Thus, efficient coordination of the supply chain relies heavily on how well the uncertainties related to demand, process and supply are managed. Tactical planning is the setting of key operating targets...

Samir Amin, (1990)
Maldevelopment - Anatomy of a global failure

...In this book it is proposed to analyse this failure of development from a political stand-point, for discussion of the options in the framework of macroeconomic schema provides no more than commonplace and foreseeable findings. We must aim higher and integrate in the discussion all the economic, political, social and cultural facets of the problem and at the same time fit them into a local framework ( Africa) that takes account of interaction on a world scale.
We acknowledge that this aim comes up against major theoretical difficulties. Social reality as a whole has three facets: economic, political and cultural. The economic aspect is perhaps the best known. In this field, conventional economics has forged tools of immediate analysis and with greater or lesser success of management of an advanced capitalist society. Historical materialism has sought to plunge deeper and has often succeeded in illuminating the character and extent of social struggles underlying the economic choices.
The field of power and politics is relatively less known; and eclecticism in the theories advanced shows the inadequate scientific mastery of the reality. Functional political thought, like its former or recent ingredients (geopolitics, systems analysis, etc.) may sometimes be of immediate use in shaping strategies but remains conceptually impoverished and does not warrant the status of a critical theory. It is true that historical materialism provides a hypothesis as to the organic relationship between the material base and the political superstructure, and the hypothesis is fruitful if it is not too crudely interpreted. The Marxist schools, however, have not conceptualized the issue of power and politics (modes of domination) as they have the categories(modes of production). The propositions in this direction, by Freudian Marxists for example, have the undoubted merit of drawing attention to neglected aspects of the issue but have not yet produced an overall conceptual system. The field of politics lies virtually fallow.
It is not by chance that the first chapter of Volume One of Capital includes the section entitled 'The Fetishism of Commodities and the Secret thereof. Marx intends to unveil the mysteries of capitalist society, and the reason why it appears to us as directly governed by economics, in the forefront of the social scene and the determinant of the other social dimensions that seem then to accommodate to its demands. Economic alienation thus defines the essence of the ideology of capitalism. Conversely, pre-capitalist class societies are governed by politics, which takes the forefront of the stage and provide the constraints that other aspects of the social reality - including economic life-seem bound to obey. If a theory of these societies were to be written, the work would be entitled 'Power' (instead of capital for the capitalist mode) and the opening chapter would deal with 'the fetishism of power' (instead of the fetishism of commodities).

M. Syrquin - 2005
Kuznets and modern economic growth fifty years later

Simon Kuznets was awarded the 1971 Nobel Prize in economics for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth, yet, two decades after his death it is only in the guise of the “Kuznets curve” that he may be found in the literature of growth or of economic development. In this paper I review Kuznets’ contribution to growth focusing particularly on his analysis of the costs and benefits of growth and the impossibility of conceptualizing modern economic growth without substantive structural shifts.
Kuznets maintained the impossibility of a purely economic theory of growth. He considered the more general theory as a worthwhile goal but a very remote one at the time. The central problem for Kuznets was to endogenize what economics mostly regards as givens: technology, population, tastes, and institutions.
In his studies of national income and growth Kuznets repeatedly emphasized the problems of scope, valuation, and the distinction between net and gross outputs. The answers to these questions depend on the purpose of economic activity which in turn refers to the social values of the place and time. The solutions, therefore, can never be absolute.


Planning in Malaysia is a two-way interactive process between the EPU, on the one hand, and the line ministries and agencies, on the other, as shown below. This top-down and bottom-up processes ensure that national policies and strategies are realized and development concerns at sub-regional level are fully integrated into the overall national development thrusts.
 Planning from the top which is confined to setting macro level parameters is determined in the context of the Inter- EPU Agencies Planning Groups (IAPGs). The EPU is the secretariat for each of the IAPGs whose work precedes the formulation of any development plan.
Planning from the bottom, on the other hand, essentially involves the line ministries, agencies and the state governments which translate the sectoral master plans into specific programmes and projects. The plays the key role in matching the micro-level programmes and projects with the macro-level plans for each economic sectors

National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), People’s Republic of China

Main functions:
1.- To formulate and implement strategies of national economic and social development, annual plans, medium and long-term development plans; to coordinate economic and social development; to carry out research and analysis on domestic and international economic situation; to put forward targets and policies concerning the development of the national economy, the regulation of the overall price level and the optimization of major economic structures, and to make recommendations on the employment of various economic instruments and policies; to submit the plan for national economic and social development to the National People's Congress on behalf of the State Council.
2.- ....

From the Inter-American Development Bank
The Politics of Policies
Economic and Social Progress in Latin America
Ernesto Stein | Mariano Tommasi | Koldo Echebarría | Eduardo Lora | Mark Payne

The impact of public policies depends not only on their specific content or particular orientation, but also on some generic features of the policies. An “ideal” policy that lacks credibility and is poorly implemented and enforced may be more distortionary than a “suboptimal” policy that is stable and well implemented. This study examines six such key features: stability, adaptability, coherence and coordination, the quality of implementation and enforcement, public-regardedness (public orientation), and efficiency. These key features have a great deal of bearing on whether policies can actually enhance welfare, can be sustained over time, and can contribute to overall development.

Ministry of Finance, Planning Economic Development

From Minister's message: "Information is very critical in planning and development of any nation, it is against this background that I wish to highlight the following key achievements.
The Ministry of Finance, Planning Economic Development-Vote 008 is mandated to design strategies that promote economic growth and transformation. Performance of this mandate will facilitate attainment of the Government target of 'Prosperity for All' as well as the Millennium Development Goals. Therefore in FY 2008/09 the Ministry's Budget proposal aims at fulfilling this mandate..."
Mission Statement: To formulate sound economic policies, maximise revenue mobilization, ensure efficient allocation and accountability for public resources so as to achieve the most rapid and sustainable economic growth and development.
MANDATE: The mandate of the Ministry is to:

  1. Formulate policies that enhance stability and accelerate economic growth and development
  2. Plan and design strategies for rapid economic growth and transformation
  3. Mobilize domestic and external resources
  4. Ensure efficient allocation and utilisation of public funds
  5. Monitor and account for the utilisation of public resources

Development Planning and Decolonization in Nigeria

Falola, Toyin. Development Planning and Decolonization in Nigeria. Gainesville, FM: University of Florida Press, 1996. 215 pp.
A review by Udogu, E Ike
in Journal of Third World Studies, Spring 1999

From the Planning Commission, Government of India
11th Five Year Plan 2007-2012 - India

India’s commitment to planned economic development is a reflection of our society’s determination to improve the economic conditions of our people and an affirmation of the role of the government in bringing about this outcome through a variety of social, economic, and institutional means. The Eleventh Five Year Plan, which was approved by the National Development Council on 19 December 2007 reaffirms this commitment. It provides a comprehensive strategy for inclusive development, building on the growing strength of the economy, while also addressing weaknesses that have surfaced.
The strength of the economy is evident from the remarkable transition to a high growth path, which has been achieved in recent years. The Tenth Plan period (2002–03 to 2006–07) began modestly, but then saw the economy accelerating steadily to achieve an average growth rate of 7.7%, for the Plan period as a whole, which is the highest ever achieved in any Plan period. In the last four years the growth rate has averaged 8.9% making India one of the fastest growing economies in the world.

UNIDO Free Publications:


Editor: Róbinson Rojas Sandford
On Planning
for Development:

Dependency Theory
Planning for Development
The Developmental State
The Neo-liberal State
Human Development
Sustainable Development
Education for Sustainable

Climate Change
International Trade

On economic globalization
Foreign Direct Investment
Factor Payments to Abroad
Global Value Chains
Integrated International

International Division of

Transnational Corporations
The Triad ( U.S.A, Japan, E.U.)

On Development Economics
Economic inequality
The Future of Development

The New Economy in

The Need to Rethink
----Development Economics

Development Economics
Economic Literacy
Basic knowledge
----on economics

Complete list of planning for development themes

Education for Sustainability
Postgraduate courses on
Environment and
Development Education at
London South Bank University

- Part time distance learning
- Full time at the University

- Come visit us at

- Notes for lectures
- Notes and papers

Global Economic Prospects for Developing Countries

--World Investment Reports
---(the complete series)

--World Investment Reports
---(selected statistics)

UNCTAD areas of work:
Globalization and Development
Development of Africa
Least Developed Countries
Landlocked Developing Countries
Small Island Developing States
International Trade and

Services Infrastructure
Investment, Technology and
Enterprise Development

The following databases on-line are available:
Commodity Price Statistics
Foreign Direct Investment
Handbook of Statistics
ICT Statistics
Millennium Indicators

Digital Library:
-- News
-- Main publications
-- UNCTAD Series
-- Basic documents
-- Issues in Brief
-- Newsletters
-- Statistical databases
-- Globalization and
----- Development Strategies

-- Economic Development in
----- Africa

-- International trade
-- Dispute Settlement - Course
----- Modules

-- Investment, Technology and
-----Enterprise Development

-- Services Infrastructure for
--- Development and Trade
----- Efficiency

-- Monographs on Port
----- Management

-- Technical Cooperation
-- Discussion papers
-- G-24 Discussion papers
-- Prebisch Lectures
-- Transnational Corporations
----- Journal

-- Publications Survey 2006-

World indicators on the environment

World Energy Statistics - Time Series

Other related themes:
- Agrarian policies
- Agribusiness
- Aid
- Bureaucracy
- Bureaucratic socialism
- Debt
- Decentralization
- Economic Policies
- Employment/Unemployment
- Gender
- Human Rights
- Hunger
- Inequality/social exclusion
- Informal sector
- Labour Market
- Microfinance
- Migration
- Poverty
- Privatization
- State/Civil Society/

Complete list of planning for development themes