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On planning for development: global value chains, outsourcing, global production networks. Editor: Róbinson Rojas Sandford

From GLOBAL VALUE CHAIN INITIATIVE. Duke University - 2013

Global Value Chains
: concepts and tools

What is a value chain? - Why are we interested in global value  chains? - Are all global value chains the same? - What makes global value chins different? - How do global value chains differ from gloval commodities chains? - So what?

The value chain describes the full range of activities that firms and workers do to bring a product from its conception to its end use and beyond. This includes activities such as design, production, marketing, distribution and support to the final consumer. The activities that comprise a value chain can be contained within a single firm or divided among different firms. Value chain activities can produce goods or services, and can be contained within a single geographical location or spread over wider areas. The GVC Initiative is particularly interested in understanding value chains that are divided among multiple firms and spread across wide swaths of geographic space, hence the term "global value chain."
Why are we interested in global value chains? Studies from a range of disciplines show that global value chains have become much more prevalent and elaborate in the past 10 to 15 years.  While many firms have had international operations and trading relationships for decades and a few for more than a century, global value chains now contain activities that are tightly integrated and often managed on a day-to-day basis. This means that firms and workers in widely separated locations affect one another more than they have in the past. Some of these effects are quite straightforward, as when a firm from one country establishes a new factory or engineering center in another country, and some are more complex, as when a firm in one country contracts with a firm in another country to coordinate production in plants owned by yet another firm in a third country, and so on...

OECD Trade Policy Papers, No. 159, OECD Publishing.

Mapping Global Value Chains

Backer, K. D. and S. Miroudot (2013)

"World trade and production are increasingly structured around “global value chains” (GVCs). The last few years have witnessed a growing number of case studies describing at the product level how production is internationally fragmented, but there is little evidence at the aggregate level on the prevalence of GVCs. The main objective of this paper is to provide for more and better evidence allowing the examination of countries’ position within international production networks. We propose a number of indicators that give a more accurate picture of the integration and position of countries in GVCs, as well as a more detailed assessment of the value chain in six broad industries: agriculture and food products, chemicals, electronics, motor vehicles, business services and financial services."

Personal Computing Industry Center

The Personal Computing Industry Center (PCIC) is a key source of knowledge, objective data, and independent thought about the rapidly changing global information industry. It brings together industry executives and researchers to discuss industry issues and new research findings. The center conducts basic and applied research and is an ongoing industry resource for understanding industry trends, analyzing emerging markets and technologies, and providing insights about new developments.
Participants include industry executives and university faculty and graduate students from UC Irvine and Syracuse University, as well as other universities for specific projects (Fudan University, Stanford, UC Berkeley, UC Davis, and UC San Diego).     Papers

IT Outsourcing Contracts and Performance Measurement
David Fitoussi - Paul Merage
School of Business Center for Research on IT and Organizations University of California, Irvine, 2010

Companies that outsource IT services usually focus on achieving multiple objectives and outsourcing contracts typically specify a variety of metrics to measure and reward (or penalize) vendor performance. The specific types of performance metrics included in a contract strongly affect its incentive content and ultimately its outcome. One specific challenge is the measurement of performance when an outsourcing arrangement has a mix of objectives, some that are highly measurable and others that are not. Recent advances in contract theory suggest that the design of incentives for a given objective is affected by the characteristics of other objectives. However, there is little empirical work that demonstrates how relevant these “multi-task” concerns are in real-world contracts.

The Taiwanese Notebook Computer Production Network in China: Implication for Upgrading of the Chinese Electronics Industry
Yungkai Yang - 2006

China surpassed the U.S. in 2004 to become the world’s largest producer of computer hardware with US$81 billion in output1. Yet much evidence also suggests that the contribution and value-added of indigenous Chinese firms remains low in the sector2. Why is this? This paper examines a series of questions concerning the “upgrading” prospects of the domestic electronics industry in China. These questions are inspired by claims advanced by researchers and policy-makers as to the benefits of participating in a global value chain (e.g., Ernst & Kim, 2001; Humphrey & Schmitz, 2004; UNCTD, 2001), as well as by recent developments in one of the major segments of China’s burgeoning electronics industry - notebook computers.

Innovation and Job Creation in a Global Economy: The Case of Apple’s iPod
Greg Linden1, University of California, Berkeley
Jason Dedrick, School of Information Studies, Syracuse University
Kenneth L. Kraemer, University of California, Irvine - 2011

Globalization skeptics argue that the benefits of globalization, such as lower consumer prices, are outweighed by job losses, lower earnings for U.S. workers, and a potential loss of technology to foreign rivals. To shed light on the jobs issue, we analyze the iPod, which is manufactured offshore using mostly foreign-made components. In terms of headcount, we estimate that, in 2006, the iPod supported nearly twice as many jobs offshore as in the United States. Yet the total wages paid in the United States amounted to more than twice as much as those paid overseas. Driving this result is the fact that Apple keeps most of its research and development (R&D) and corporate support functions in the United States, providing thousands of high-paid professional and engineering jobs that can be attributed to the success of the iPod. This case provides evidence that innovation by a U.S. company at the head of a global value chain can benefit both the company and U.S. workers.

Where Do All Those iPod Profits Go?
July 07, 2011 - Josh Rothman, Boston Globe Staff

When we think about globalization, we often imagine a simple transfer of jobs from one country to another: cars made in Osaka rather than Detroit, or jeans made in Guangzhou instead of San Francisco. But this view of globalization is too simple. According to business scholars Greg Linden, Jason Dedrick, and Kenneth Kraemer, it's more useful to look at a product like the iPod: a little bundle of technowonder assembled, piece by piece, in factories around the world. In their new paper, " Innovation and Job Creation in a Global Economy: The Case of Apple’s iPod," published in the Journal of International Commerce and Economics, they break the iPod manufacturing process down, figuring out who makes money and where they live.

Apple core of capitalism
Kevin Rafferty - Special to The Japan Times
August 2011

HONG KONG — For a few hours this month Apple, once regarded as a maverick upstart company, became the world's biggest company by stock market capitalization, until Exxon Mobil again seized the title. Some bullish analysts predict that if stock markets recover their confidence Apple could become a trillion dollar company since it has sales growth ten times the normal company and sits on a pile of $76 billion in cash and investments.

China Makes Almost Nothing Out of Apple's iPads and iPhones
Tim Worstall, Contributor - FORBES - 24 December 2011

My favorite fact of this past year was the proof that China makes almost nothing out of assembling Apple‘s iPads and iPhones. It’s a favorite because it speaks so directly to one of the great political arguments going on in both the US and the UK. I refer, of course, to this very strange idea that both countries would get (even) richer if only they would do more manufacturing.

From ETLA (The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy)
Who captures value in global supply chains?
The case of a Nokia N95 smartphone

J. Ali-Yrkko et al - 2011

Available statistics tell us little about the economic consequences of increasing global dispersion of production processes. In order to shed light on the issue, we perform grass roots detective work to uncover the geography of value added in the case of a Nokia N95 smartphone circa 2007. The phone was assembled in Finland and China. In the case when the device was assembled and sold in Europe, the value-added share of Europe (EU-27) rose to 68%. Even in the case when it was assembled in China and sold in the United States, Europe captured as much as 51% of the value added, despite of the fact that it had rather little role in supplying the physical components. Our analysis illustrates that international trade statistics can be misleading; the capture of value added is largely detached from the physical goods flows. It is rather services and other intangible aspects of the supply chain that dominate. While final assembly – commanding 2% of the value added in our case – has increasingly moved offshore, the developed countries continue to capture most of the value added generated by global supply chains...

Even if the location of the final assembly earns the “made in …” label and for laymen is synonymous to production, it commands only a few per cent of the supply chain’s overall value added in the case of an advanced industrial good. Unlike the cross-border flows of the related physical components and goods would seem to suggest, the developed countries continue to capture the lion’s share of value added generated globally. Even in the case of manufactured goods, it is services (both the ones provided in-house as well as those purchased from outside vendors) and various forms of intangibles (including returns earned on various forms of intellectual property) that capture most of the value added.

Changing governance patterns in European food chains: the rise of a new divide between global players and regional producers
F. Palpacuer and S. Tozanli - 2003

This article traces general trends in European food markets and the strategies of leading firms in selected European food chains (milk, sugar, cereals, meat). The analysis highlights the emergence of a growing divide between the largest downstream firms on the one hand and specialty and upstream producers on the other. The former have adopted globalization and financialization strategies over the past decade and promoted global sourcing under the deregulated conditions of European primary food and agricultural markets while the latter remain anchored in national or regional markets and production systems. Implications of these findings for both Global Value Chain (GVC) analysis and European policy are discussed.

University of Oxford - Department of International Development
SLPTMD Working Paper Series No. 005
Global Value Chains and Technological Capabilities: A Framework to Study Learning and Innovation in Developing Countries
Andrea Morrison, Carlo Pietrobelli and Roberta Rabellotti - 2008

This paper presents a critical review of the Global Value Chain literature in light of the “Technological Capabilities” approach to innovation in LDCs. Participation in GVC is beneficial for firms in LDCs, which are bound to source technology internationally. However, the issues of learning and technological efforts at the firm-level remain largely uncovered by the GVC literature. We propose a shift in the empirical and theoretical agenda, arguing that research should integrate the analysis of the endogenous process of technological capability development, of the specific firm-level efforts and of the mechanisms allowing knowledge to flow within and between different global value chains into the GVC literature.

Review of International Political Economy 12:1 February 2005: 78–104
The governance of global value chains
G. Gereffi (Duke University),J. Humphrey (Institute of Development Studies) and T. Sturgeon (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)

This article builds a theoretical framework to help explain governance patterns in global value chains. It draws on three streams of literature – transaction costs economics, production networks, and technological capability and firm-level learning – to identify three variables that play a large role in determining how global value chains are governed and change. These are:
(1) the complexity of transactions,
(2) the ability to codify transactions, and
(3) the capabilities in the supply-base.
The theory generates five types of global value chain governance – hierarchy, captive, relational, modular, and market – which range from high to low levels of explicit coordination and power asymmetry.
The article highlights the dynamic and overlapping nature of global value chain governance through four brief industry case studies: bicycles, apparel, horticulture and electronics.

Sloan Management Review - Summer 1985
Designing global strategies: Comparative and Competitive Value-Added Chains
Bruce Kogut

O. Sunkel, 1985
The transnational corporate system

There are some crucial questions relating to the TNC which one cannot begin to understand, much less to answer, if one does not have a more realistic picture of contemporary capitalism. The so-called market has in fact been superseded to a significant degree by public and private planning. To a very large extent, the visible hands of the State and the TNC have long replaced the mythical invisible hand of laissez-faire capitalism, if it ever existed. It is not really the individual institution of the TNC as such that is the object of so much attention. There have been individual instances of large world-wide business organizations in the past which have not aroused such great concern. The focus is rather on the emergence of a transnational business system with such a great potential for socially uncontrolled power and influence that international society finds itself forced into a profound reorganization in order to accommodate it.

Papers and Presentation on Global Value Chains published by UNCTAD

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development - 2010
Integrating Developing Countries’ SMEs into Global Value Chains

GVCs are an important unit of analysis for understanding enterprise competitiveness. The activities along GVCs may involve concept, design, production, marketing, distribution, retailing and R&D, and they might even include waste management and recycling.
Depending on the industry needs, each link of the chain performs an activity, and different firms add value at each stage of the production or service process. New transportation, information and communication technologies have driven down the cost of accessing information and trading products and services and facilitate the spatial division of value chains. Accordingly, a certain production process can be located in a particular geographical area because of the location’s competitive advantages. Among the economic determinants triggering the development of GVCs in developing countries, access to natural resources such as oil, mining and agriculture products is paramount.
Additionally, several low-cost locations have integrated into GVCs in selected labour-intensive industries. In Asia, because of the possession of certain specialized skills and trained human resources, IT firms in India, and electronics firms in China, Taiwan Province of China, Malaysia and Singapore have successfully integrated into GVCs. Similarly, but to a lesser extent, in Latin America the existence of a cluster of competitive suppliers made it possible for domestic suppliers of automotive parts and components in Argentina and Brazil and electronics components in Mexico to become first-tier suppliers in GVCs.
Global value chains display different forms of coordination (or “governance structures”). The way in which the activities in the chain are coordinated varies considerably, not only between chains but also at different points in the same chain. A GVC can be “buyer driven” or “producer driven” (Gereffi, 1999). Buyers or producers coordinate or control the GVC process (box 1). Many TN Cs have changed their role from being global producers to becoming global buyers and global coordinators, particularly in the buyer-driven chains (UNIDO , 2001, UNCTAD , WIR 2004, UNCTAD , 2006a).

UNCTAD/DIAE/ED/2009/5 - , 01/03/10

UNCTAD Commission on Enterprise, Business Facilitation and Development
Expert meeting on increasing the participation of developing countries’ SMEs in global value chains
Geneva, 18–19 October 2007
Report of the expert meeting on increasing the participation of developing countries’ SMEs in global value chains

It was noted that, in the automotive sector, domestic suppliers in Mexico and South Africa had only managed to break into the second tier, while the first tier was still dominated by transnational suppliers. In the software sector, the industry in Viet Nam was export-oriented, while the Egyptian software industry had specialized in adapting standard software products of leading brands into Arabic. However, the software industries lacked originality and had little innovative capacity. In the creative industries, emerging clusters in Colombia and Nigeria revealed that local preferences in terms of culture, format

Enhancing the role of SMEs in Global Value Chains
[Presentation] by Prof. Paul H. Dembinski, University of Fribourg - 18/10/2007

GVC: an useful concept but a fuzzy reality>br> - GVC encompasses production and distribution:
the chain of interrelated steps that “add value” through the transformation of primary ingredients into a product or service sold to the final customer or user;
- GVC is a pervasive pattern of organisation on global scale of production and distribution based on more or less lasting relations among enterprises of different sizes (SMEs and also TNCs) scattered around many locations;
- GVC are interesting for academics because they are a specific form of coordination : neither pure market nor vertical integration. Rather vertical interdependence.
- GVC may provide policy makers with a framework for better understanding the strategies and context in which their action is taking place.

Export Diversification and Global Value Chains, based on OECD Business for Development 2007
[Presentation] by Mr. Federico Bonaglia, OECD Development Centre ,
- , 18/10/07

Getting Minority-Owned & Women-Owned SMEs into the Global Value Chain
[Presentation] by Ms. Virginia Littlejohn, Co-founder and CEO, Quantum Leaps, Inc. ,
- , 18/10/07

Integrating Developing Countries SMEs into Global Value Chains
[Presentation] by UNCTAD/DITE, Enterprise Development Branch ,
- , 18/10/07

Links between Local Clusters and Global Value Chains
[Presentation] by Dr. Olga Memedovic, UNIDO Private Sector Development Branch,
- , 18/10/07

UNCTAD Trade and Development Board
Fifty-fourth session Geneva, 1–11 October 2007
Item 2 of the provisional agenda Globalization and inclusive development
Globalization and inclusive development
Note by the UNCTAD secretariat

This note highlights some topical policy issues that could contribute to promoting a more inclusive, pro-poor process of globalization. The issues selected aim to take advantage of the window of opportunity that has opened up as a result of the last five years of unprecedented economic growth. The international community currently faces two broad challenges: first, the current growth trends need to be actively maintained, so as to allow an increasing number of developing countries to reap the benefits of globalization; and, second, there is a need to ensure that the process of globalization becomes more inclusive, so that it benefits countries and sectors of the population that have been left out. A number of issues that require policy attention are highlighted, including aspects relating to trade policy, regional integration, new and innovative financial mechanisms, building productive capacity, the global value-chain, the promises and perils of commodities, climate change and environmental concerns and opportunities, and the role of aid, including aid for trade.

Also available in: French Spanish

Enhancing the participation of small- and medium-sized enterprises in global value chains,
TD/B/COM.3/EM.31/2 - , 09/08/07
Also available in: French Spanish

Provisional Agenda. Expert meeting on increasing the participation of developing countries’ SMEs in global value chains Geneva
, 18–19 October 2007
TD/B/COM.3/EM.31/1 - , 09/08/07
Also available in: French Spanish

Report on the pre-UNCTAD XII event, the conference - Global initiative on commodities: Re-launching the commodities agenda
, Brasilia, Brazil, 7–11 May 2007
TD(XII)/BP/1 - , 20/07/07

Background Paper No. 1 - 19/07/07
Global Value Chains and Clusters in LDCs: What Prospects for Upgrading and Technological Capabilities
by Carlo Pietrobelli, Centre for Research on the Economics of Institutions

"Upgrading" is buzz-word that is increasingly used in policy-related discussions. The word and its use reveals a clear and justified need to move beyond the pursuance of only higher production efficiency. Business scholars use this word extensively (Porter, 1990), economists are more reluctant, and prefer to follow the principle of specialization and comparative advantage, focusing their attention on production efficiency. However, given the existence of imperfections and extra-normal rents in international markets, and considering the different dynamic learning opportunities offered by different sectors and management functions, the idea of upgrading to newer sectors and functions is indeed appealing.
However, most of the literature lacks clarity on this concept. Another branch of literature exploits the concept of technological capabilities (TCs) to explain enterprise learning and competitiveness in developing countries.
This paper will explore and discuss how different forms of industrial organization, and in particular clusters and especially value chains, may affect upgrading, technological capabilities and competitiveness in small and medium-sized enterprises in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs). Policy implications will be derived on the basis of the theoretical analysis and of the empirical evidence presented.

UNCTAD Discussion Paper 183, April 2007
Rethinking industrial policy
by Irfan ul Haque

Despite the hold of the neoliberal orthodoxy on policy making in developing countries, industrial policy remains important for the promotion of industrial development. However, the context for the design of industrial policy has profoundly changed as a result of new rules governing international trade, the rise of global value chains and marketing networks, and other aspects of globalization. Traditionally, the case for industrial policy has been framed in terms of “market failures” but the paper argues that that is not a sufficient basis. After addressing the traditional points of criticism, an attempt is made to outline the “domains” of industrial policy in the current circumstances, especially for industrially lagging countries. As country contexts differ widely there are no satisfactory blueprints for policy making that countries can readily adopt. As in production decisions, considerable ingenuity and innovation is needed in designing policies. This is all the more necessary as the WTO rules have become increasingly stringent and the rise of international trading networks has created new barriers for young firms to enter the world market. These developments have changed the context but not the importance of policy in industrial development. The paper identifies areas where government intervention is needed and can still make a positive difference.

Report of the Commission on enterprise,  business facilitation and development on its Eleventh Session ,
TD/B/COM.3/82 - , 27/03/07
Also available in: French Spanish

Global Value Chains and Technological Capacities: A Framework to Study Industrial Innovation in Developing, Meeting of Experts on FDI, Technology and Competitiveness, Geneva, 8-9 March 2007
- , 28/02/07

UNCTAD´s News published on the Home page from January to June 2007,
- , 10/01/07
Also available in: French Spanish

Global Value Chains for building national productive capacities ,
Note by the UNCTAD secretariat
TD/B/COM.3/79 - , 20/12/06
Also available in: French Spanish

Enhancing the role of SMEs in Global Value Chains
[Presentation] by Mr. Alain Schoenenberger, Eco’Diagnostic / University of Fribourg, Global Value Chain Research Group
- , 06/11/06

Improving the competitiveness of SMEs through enhancing productive capacity
, Agreed recommendations
TD/B/COM.3/L.29 - , 01/03/05
Also available in: French Spanish

UNCTAD Commission on Enterprise, Business Facilitation and Development
Ninth session Geneva, 22–25 February 2005
Item 3 of the provisional agenda
Linkages, value chains, and outward investment: Internationalization patterns of developing countries
Note by the UNCTAD secretariat

The Săo Paulo Consensus stated that UNCTAD should continue its work on enterprise development, taking into account developments in the international economic environment, and pay particular attention to the international dimension in order to identify opportunities for and obstacles to progress in economic development. In recent decades, globalization has greatly affected the business environment for SMEs in developing countries, with international competitiveness becoming increasingly important for their survival. From a policy perspective, it has become of utmost importance to understand under what conditions developing-country firms, and in particular SMEs, can benefit from internationalization processes and whether this could lead to a new and mutually beneficial form of South-South cooperation.
This issues note examines key developments in the area of enterprise internationalization to identify major factors that could enhance the international competitiveness of developing-country firms given the changing environment and rapid globalization. The note discusses opportunities and threats created by globalization for developing-country SMEs and how the latter can better utilize these opportunities and become global players themselves. In particular, it discusses recent trends in outward investment from developing-country firms as a means of accessing strategic assets, technology, skills, natural resources and markets and improving efficiency. It also examines possible forms of integrated production networks, with specific reference to TNC-SME linkages and global value chains.

Also available in: French Spanish

Commodity Atlas,
UNCTAD/DITC/COM/2004/1 - E.04.II.D.23, 01/08/04

From Minor to Major: policy challenges for developing countries in the global music industry ,
TD/401 - , 03/06/04
Also available in: French Spanish

From the Asian Development Outlook 2003 : III. Competitiveness in Developing Asia
Global Value Chains

"However, firms also face many challenges and risks in taking part in GVCs. Under many GVC arrangements, the latecomer partner is often subordinated to the decisions of the buyer in the initial stages of the relationship, and often depends on the MNC for technology and components as well as market access. The MNC sometimes imposes restrictions on the activities of the latecomer firm by, for instance, preventing it from selling in other markets or to other customers. Profits tend to be severely squeezed and, without its own distribution outlets, the latecomer is limited in its post-manufacturing valued added. The heavy dependence on assembly can prevent firms from spreading the risks of production to other parts of the GVC. Also, the arrangement makes it difficult for latecomers to build up the internationa brand image needed to sell high-quality goods directly. This situation is often overcome, though, when the latecomer firm grows, finds new customers, and builds its capacity. "

Papers and Presentations
from the Expert Meeting on Increasing the Participation of Developing Countries’ SMEs into Global Value Chains
(18–19 October 2007)

These presentations are made available in the language and form in which they were received. The views expressed therein are those of the authors/organizations and do not necessarily reflect the views of the UNCTAD secretariat.

GVCs and Local Suppliers from Developing Countries.Opportunities, Threats, Policy Options
[Presentation] by Prof. Carlo Pietrobelli, Professor of Economics, Director of CREI, University of Rome 3, Italy , 18/10/07 , 27 pages

Augurix at a Glance
[Presentation] by Dr. Cecile Besson Duvanel, Augurix Medical Diagnostic, Geneva , 18/10/07 , 17 pages

Benefits of participating in the business linkages program & the requirements to be met by SME’S to be suppliers of KSGL
[Presentation] by Mr. Moris Nagabitho, Kinyara Sugarcane Growers Ltd., Uganda , 18/10/07 , 27 pages

Integrating Developing Countries SMEs into Global Value Chains
[Presentation] by UNCTAD/DITE, Enterprise Development Branch , 18/10/07 , 30 pages

TNCs, the lead players in GVCs?
TNCs are setting up international production systems on the basis of corporate strategies that seek to obtain the optimal configuration of their production process by spreading production that offer significant advantages in production costs and access to third markets

Are the Business Environment Reforms Sufficient to Increase the Participation of SMEs in GVCs?
[Presentation] by Mr. Bede Lyimo, Better Regulation Unit, Ministry of Planning, Economy & Empowerment, United Republic of Tanzania , 18/10/07 , 17 pages

Reforming of Business Environment: Uganda’s Experience
[Presentation] by Mr. Charles Ocici, Entreprise Uganda , 18/10/07 , 3 pages

Environnement des affaires et compétitivité: l’exemple du Sénégal
[Presentation] by Mme. Natou O. Thiam, Expert en Développement des entreprises , 18/10/07 , 22 pages

Characteristics of the most successful supplier development and linkages programmes The case of Mozambique
[Presentation] by Mr. Antonio Luis Macamo, Linkages Division Manager , 18/10/07 , 19 pages

What Makes a Successful Linkage Programme?
[Presentation] by Mr. David Lovegrove, Senior Industrial Advisor, Ireland , 18/10/07 , 16 pages

What are the characteristics of the most successful supplier development and linkages programs worldwide? The SEBRAE Experience in Brazil
[Presentation] by Ms. Eliane Borges, Portfolio Manager, SEBRAE, Brazil , 18/10/07 , 29 pages

Business Linkage Centre (TPM) Total Productive Maintenance
[Presentation] By Mr. Roberto Castillo, Unilever, Vietnam, 18/10/07 , 38 pages

Getting Minority-Owned & Women-Owned SMEs into the Global Value Chain
[Presentation] by Ms. Virginia Littlejohn, Co-founder and CEO, Quantum Leaps, Inc. , 18/10/07 , 16 pages

Linkages and supplier development in a local cluster Experiences from organizing automotive firms in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa
[Presentation] by Mr. Glen Robbins, School of Development Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa , 18/10/07 , 16 pages

A Perspective on Domestic SMEs in the Television International Production Chain in Colombia: the case of 3D-Animation
[Presentation] by Mr. Sascha Furst, Department Head International Business, Universidad EAFIT, Medellin, Colombia , 18/10/07 , 15 pages

A Global Software Player: The Egypt Case
[Presentation] by Mr. Tarek Assaad, General Manager, CID , 18/10/07 , 26 pages

From IMF: International Capital Flows, 2001

Private Capital Flows and Growth
by Deepak Mishra, Ashoka Mody, and Antu Panini Murshid
International capital flows have increased dramatically in recent years, but their impact on developing countries has not been clear. Whereas capital flows have been associated with higher growth in some countries, they have also been associated with a higher incidence of crises. Do the benefits justify the costs?

How Beneficial Is Foreign Direct Investment for Developing Countries?
by Prakash Loungani and Assaf Razin
The resilience of foreign direct investment during financial crises may lead many developing countries to reard it as the private capital inflow of choice. Although there is substantial evidence that investment benefits host countries, they should assess its potential impact carefully and realistically.

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Portal de información sobre las empresas y las marcas
CEPAL: La inversión extranjera en América Latina y el Caribe, 1997
CEPAL: La inversión extranjera en América Latina y el Caribe, 1998
CEPAL: La inversión extranjera en América Latina y el Caribe, 1999
CEPAL: La inversión extranjera en América Latina y el Caribe, 2000
Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe
Inversiones Extranjeras Directas
Hojas Informativas por País
Foreign Investment in Latin America and the Caribbean 2005
La inversión extranjera en América Latina y el Caribe 2005
Foreign investment in Latin America and the Caribbean 2004
Documento informativo Investimento estrangeiro na América Latina e no Caribe 2004
La Inversión extranjera en América Latina y el Caribe 2004
Foreign investment in Latin America and the Caribbean. 2003 Report
La inversión extranjera en América Latina y el Caribe 2003
Foreign Investment in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2003
Foreign investment in Latin America and the Caribbean. 2002 Report
La Inversión Extranjera en América Latina y el Caribe - Informe 2002
Foreign investment in Latin America and the Caribbean. 2001 Report
La Inversión Extranjera en América Latina y el Caribe. Informe 2001
Foreign Investment in Latin America and the Caribbean. 2000 Report
La inversión extranjera en América Latina y el Caribe. Informe 2000
Foreign investment in Latin America and the Caribbean. 1999 Report
La inversión extranjera en América Latina y el Caribe. Informe 1999
Foreign investment in Latin America and the Caribbean. 1998 Report
La inversión extranjera en América Latina y el Caribe. Informe 1998
Foreign investment in Latin America and the Caribbean. 1997 Report
La inversión extranjera en América Latina y el Caribe. Informe 1997

Puro Chile la mémoire du peuple
Projet pour le Premier Sičcle Populaire
Multinationale/ Transnationale

Editeur: Róbinson Rojas

Portail d'information sur les entreprises et les marques