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On Planning for Development:-----International Trade        Aid for Trade
The State of Commodity Dependence 2012
By country and region

Aid for Trade aims to help developing countries, particularly least-developed countries, develop the trade-related skills and infrastructure that is needed to implement and benefit from WTO agreements and to expand their trade.
The success of the initiative depends on creating closer cooperation in national capitals between trade, finance and development officials of WTO member governments. This needs to be matched by close cooperation at the international and regional level among intergovernmental organisations with core responsibilities in these areas and their member governments.

Aid for Trade Initiative

The Aid-for-Trade Work Programme 2010-2011 was issued on 27 November 2009.  The aim of the Work Programme is to keep an on-going focus on Aid for Trade, a “spotlight effect”, which will generate continued impetus to resource mobilization, mainstreaming, operationalization and implementation.  The Work Programme is complemented by an indicative calendar of Aid-for-Trade meetings culminating in a Third Global Review of Aid for Trade in 2011
The calendar will be regularly updated to provide information on progress achieved in the different areas of the Aid-for-Trade initiative.

...The two Global Reviews in 2007 and 2009 have comprehensively demonstrated that Aid for Trade is making progress. Partner countries recognise the need to mainstream trade in their national and regional development strategies, and are making progress towards this objective. Donors are responding by mobilising additonal resources...

      WTO - Statistics on International Trade------------- International Trade Center
UNCTAD - Trade and Development Reports (TADR)
UNCTAD - Handbook of Statistics
UNCTAD - World Investment Reports
The Complete World Development Report Online
UNCTAD - United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
CEPAL REVIEW 98 • August 2009
Determinants of world manufacturing exports to China, 1990-2006
Roberto Álvarez E., Eugenio Figueroa B., María Pía Figueroa Z. and Macarena Palma E.

This paper studies the determinants of manufacturing exports to China. Data from 79 countries for the 1990-2006 period and estimates of gravity equations are used to analyse the effects of countries’ factor endowment, geographical characteristics and degree of economic openness. The results are consistent with the factor abundance model and reveal that economies with a larger human capital endowment export a greater volume of manufactures to China. Having a large economy and being geographically close to China also make a country more likely to export manufactures to it. The results do not indicate that other characteristics of countries, such as openness to trade or an outlet to the sea, play an important role; nor does the endowment per worker of land or capital. The implications of this study should be of interest to economies seeking to benefit from the remarkable dynamism of the Chinese economy by diversifying their exports into manufactures.

UNCTAD Handbook of statistics 2008

Emerging economies are frequently in the spotlight, but overall, industrialized nations continued to dominate global economic activity. They accounted for 71% of global Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2007, although they had only 15% of the world´s population. They were responsible for 58.6% of the value of merchandise exports for the year, and for 71.9% of services exports. On the other hand, the rate of growth of exports of goods and services in 2007 was slightly higher for developing countries than for developed countries.

This year´s handbook provides a broad range of statistics covering individual countries, regions, and the world at large. Among the topics covered are:

  • International merchandise trade, with the most recent 2007 data available, including breakdowns of exports and imports for major products
  • International trade in services
  • Commodity prices, including long-term series and calculations on the instability of prices, and a special focus given to the production and consumption of aluminium and copper
  • International finance, with balance-of-payments statistics and special attention to foreign direct investment (FDI), workers´ remittances, international reserves, official financial flows, and external debt -- all topics of major importance
  • Development indicators linked to national accounts and population data.
From - author update, August 27, 2008
China and The Collapse of Doha
By C. Fred Bergsten
On issues ranging from exchange rates to energy policy, foreign aid, and the multilateral trading system, China's actions over the past few years have challenged some of the most fundamental norms and rules of the existing global order.
China's key role in torpedoing the Doha Round of global trade negotiations in July is the latest, and a critically important, case in point. China has a huge national interest in maintaining the global trading system and enhancing its effectiveness; this system has played a crucial role in facilitating China's breathtaking growth. The widespread rise of anti-China protectionism in the United States and Europe (not to mention many developing countries) could choke off China's exports and sharply curb its growth. The erosion of the global trading system would cause major problems for China and damage the world economy.

From The World Bank Group
World Trade Indicators 2008
Benchmarking Policy and Performance
By R. Islam and G. Zanini

Tariff protection, both with and without the inclusion of preferences, has fallen consistently in all regions and income groups from the mid-1990s to 2007, and especially in low-income countries, where average MFN applied tariffs fell 46 percent (10 percentage points). High-income countries, which were earlier reformers, still have the lowest average tariffs at 6 percent compared to a developing country average of 11 percent. Other measures, such as the World Bank’s Trade (MFN) Tariff Restrictiveness Index (MFN TTRI), confi rm this pattern.
...But average tariffs do not reveal the whole pattern of protection. High-income countries have higher nontariff barriers, greater tariff escalation and dispersion, and much higher maximum tariffs than low-income countries; that is, they protect certain sectors much more than others. Many of these protected sectors and goods are of special interest to developing-country exporters.
...Developing country exporters face higher export hurdles at the upper end of production than at the lower end. Most countries protect finished goods more than unfinished goods, but tariff escalation is higher in the high-income OECD countries than in developing countries. This pattern is amplified in the agriculture sector...

CEPAL REVIEW 93 - December 2007
The comparative advantage fallacy and a rule for convergence
Esteban Pérez Caldentey and Anesa Ali

The gains from trade argument is based on the principle of comparative advantage. However, this principle is predicated on “tacit” axioms, presenting an argument which supports a proposition different to the one it purports to prove. This paper presents an alternative treatment, using a leader-follower model to show that free trade can in fact accentuate differences and growth disparities between countries. More importantly, it argues that the follower economy can catch up with the leader economy only if the ratio between the income-elasticity of the follower country’s exports to the rest of the world and the income-elasticity of its imports is greater than the ratio between the induced productivity of the leader and that of the follower country. This is our rule for convergence.

Notes by Róbinson Rojas - 1998
The poverty of international trade theory
Since David Ricardo's "Economic Principles" were published in 1817, international trade theory has been based on his main tenets, even when "fine tuned" by Heckschen, Ohlin and Samuelson (trying to build a neo-classical framework for the theory), Leontieff and Vernon (attempting the introduction of the concept of technology), and Krugman (oligopoly theory). By and large, with fine tuning and all, still the three basic assumptions of the classical trade theory are the main conceptual structure of the model. That is, capital flows, technology transfer and labour migration are excluded from the model.

Balance of Payments Accounts: a definition
Róbinson Rojas - 1997
Structural deficit on Balance on Payments (notes)
"Neo-classical trade theory will argue that "international prices and costs of production determine how much a country should trade", and, therefore, outward-looking strategies of production are neccesary. Of course, if international prices and costs of production are mainly the business of transnational corporations and not domestic economies, then the neo-classical argument will be valid only for the welfare of transnational corporations and not the host countries".

From The World Bank
Global Agricultural Trade and Developing Countries- 2005
Editors: M. Ataman Aksoy and John C. Beghin
Agricultural Trade Reforms Key To Reducing Poverty
WASHINGTON, January 10, 2005 — With almost 70 percent of the poor people in developing countries living in rural areas, agricultural sector reforms - in particular global trade liberalization - will be crucial in giving them opportunities for better lives, according to a new World Bank report released today.
The report, Global Agricultural Trade and Developing Countries, edited by M. Ataman Aksoy and John C. Beghin, notes that despite the recent framework agreement in Geneva, agricultural protection continues to be among the most contentious issues in global trade negotiations. High protection of agriculture in industrial countries was the main cause of the breakdown of the Cancún Ministerial Meetings in 2003, and remains among the key outstanding issues in the Doha Round of global trade negotiations.

The neoliberal   point of view
Freer Trade?
Special Edition, December 2005 Web Exclusive
Sixty years of multilateral trade negotiations have resulted in ever-lower barriers and ever-higher economic growth worldwide. There is still a chance that the Doha Round — the current series of trade talks — could continue this pattern, but on the verge of the WTO's Hong Kong ministerial meeting, the prospects do not look good. In this special edition of Foreign Affairs, some of the world's top experts on international trade consider what will be necessary for the Doha Round to succeed — and what might happen if it does not.
From the Center for Economic and Policy Research
The Scorecard on Globalization 1980-2000
Twenty Years of Diminished Progress

M. Weisbrot, D. Baker, E. Kraev and J. Chen - July 11, 2001

It is commonly accepted that the increased opening to international trade and financial flows that has occurred in the vast majority of countries in the world has been an overall success. Even critics of globalization have generally accepted that the reforms of the last two decades, in low to middle-income countries, have boosted economic growth rates. They have argued that this growth has left many people behind, and has often been at the expense of the natural environment.
This paper looks at the major economic and social indicators for all countries for which data are available, and compares the last 20 years of globalization (1980-2000) with the previous 20 years (1960-1980). These indicators include: the growth of income per person, life expectancy, mortality among infants, children, and adults, literacy, and education. For economic growth and almost all of the other indicators, the last 20 years have shown a very clear decline in progress as compared with the previous two decades. For each indicator, countries were divided into five roughly equal groups, according to what level the countries had achieved by the start of the period (1960 or 1980). Among the findings:...

Poor Numbers: The Impact of Trade Liberalization on World Poverty
M. Weisbrot, D. Rosnik, and D. Baker - November 18, 2004
Many economists and policy analysts have promoted trade liberalization in rich countries as the most effective way to reduce poverty in the developing world. Cline (2004), one of the leading references on this topic, projected that rich country trade liberalization would lift 540 million people out of poverty. This paper analyzes and corrects this projection. It notes that:....

Going Down with the Dollar: The Cost to Developing Countries of a Declining Dollar
M. Weisbrot, D. Rosnick, adn D. Baker - September 20, 2004
In the years since the East Asian financial crisis in 1997, many developing countries have sought to increase their holdings of foreign reserves, as a way to protect their currencies against financial instability. Since most countries hold most of their reserves in dollars, this build-up in reserves has led to a large accumulation of dollar holdings. These large holdings of dollars could lead to substantial losses in wealth for developing countries. The current account deficit of the United States exceeds $600 billion at an annual rate, or more than 5.7 percent of GDP. This deficit is clearly unsustainable, and will almost certainly result in a large decline in the value of the dollar over the next decade. Such a decline will substantially reduce the value of the dollar reserves held by developing countries.
Based on a sample of reserve holdings among developing countries, this paper shows that the drop in the dollar will lead to a loss in the value of reserve holdings for the average developing country among the group examined of between 1.8 percent and 5.6 percent of GDP.

Dangerous Trends: The Growth of Debt in the U.S. Economy
D. Baker - September 7, 2004
The sharp reversal in the budget situation under the Bush administration, from record surpluses to near record deficits, has received a great deal of attention from the media and the general public. However, two other forms of debt – household debt and foreign debt – have also been rising at an unsustainable pace. The trends in these other forms of debt have gone largely unnoticed, even though the implications for the long-term health of the economy are at least as serious as a continued sharp rise in government debt.
Double Bubble: The Implications of the Over-Valuation of the Stock Market and the Dollar

D. Baker - June 2000
The only way that stocks can again provide returns that include a significant risk premium over government bonds is if they first fall by close to fifty percent in price. At a lower price to earnings ratio, stocks will have a higher dividend yield. Currently the dividend yield (including money paid out as share buybacks) is close to 2.0 percent. If stock prices fell by fifty percent, the dividend yield would rise to 4.0 percent, which is approximately the historic average. This would allow the total return on stocks (dividends plus capital gains) to be more in line with the historic average.
It is important to note that there is no plausible growth path for profits under which current stock valuations would make sense. Even if profits grew far more rapidly than CBO projects, stocks would still be providing returns which would be far below their historic average, and not much above the returns available on government bonds.
World Trade Organisation
"Information about the institution. The WTO is a rules-based, member-driven organization — all decisions are made by the member governments, and the rules are the outcome of negotiations among members."
Trade Justice Movement
The Trade Justice Movement is a coalition of more than 60 members organisations. We campaign for trade justice - not free trade - with the rules weighted to benefit poor people and the environment.
U.S. Government:
Country Reports on Economic Policy and Trade

The State Department web site below is a permanent electronic archive of information released prior to January 20, 2001.  Please see for material released since President George W. Bush took office on that date.  This site is not updated so external links may no longer function.  Contact us with any questions about finding information.
NOTE: External links to other Internet sites should not be construed as an endorsement of the views contained therein.

Foreign Trade Statistics
FOREIGN TRADE is the official source for U.S. export and import statistics and responsible for issuing regulations governing the reporting of all export shipments from the United States. If you're searching for import or export statistics, information on export regulations, commodity classifications, or a host of other trade related topics, this is the place to get the information you need.

Trade and development report 2001

                    Overview:   English
          Aperçu Général:  Francais
    Panorama General:  Castellano
The UNCTAD secretariat has for some time been warning that excessive financial liberalization is creating a world of systemic instability and recurrent crises. A common response has been to blame such crises on misguided policies and crony investment practices in emerging markets. Whether similar accusations will surface as financial excesses and wasteful investments are exposed in the United States by economic slowdown remains to be seen, but they would be no more helpful than they were in the aftermath of the Asian crisis.
Markets can and do get it wrong, and for developing and developed countries alike. The onus is still on policy makers to find preventive measures and appropriate remedies.
                     Part Two:  Reform of the international financial architecture
The increased frequency and virulence of international currency and financial crises, involving even countries with a record of good governance and macroeconomic discipline, suggests that instability is global and systemic. Although there is room to improve national policies and institutions, that alone would not be sufficient to deal with the problem, particularly in developing countries, where the potential threat posed by inherently unstable capital flows is much greater.
A strengthening of institutions and arrangements at the international level is essential if the threat of such crises is to be reduced and if they are to be better managed whenever they do occur. Yet, despite growing agreement on the global and systemic nature of financial instability, the international community has so far been unable to achieve significant progress in establishing effective global arrangements that address the main concerns of developing countries.

         Trade, external financing and economic growth in developing countries. 1999
The belief that rapid integration into the global economy would create more favourable conditions for growth in developing countries has permeated much thinking in development policy in the past two decades. Severe and persistent balance-of-payments crises in the 1980s revealed the full extent to which faster growth in the South had come to depend on a steady rise in export earnings and on assured capital inflows, and how harmful interruptions to these external flows could be. When they occurred, they were interpreted as proof of self-inflicted structural wounds in developing countries resulting from years of inwardoriented development strategies and misguided policies. Close integration into the world economy through rapid liberalization of trade, finance and investment was thus seen as the surest foundation for success, allowing developing countries to overcome resource and foreign-exchange constraints on capital accumulation and growth...
World Investment Report 1998: Trends and Determinants (press)
Important shifts are emerging in the key factors influencing foreign business investments. Governments face new challenges in attracting foreign investment,says UNCTAD Secretary-General Ricupero.
Trade and development report 1999 (overview)
While the developed world suffered little from the Asian financial crisis that broke out in 1997, and even derived some benefits from it, the impact on the rest of the world has been dramatic. Virtually all developing countries and transition economies were affected. It played havoc in East Asia and Russia throughout 1998, set back the progress achieved in Latin America, and in the most seriously affected countries wiped out the fruits of decades of economic growth and poverty reduction. In its wake, growth in the developing world slowed from almost 6 per cent in 1996 to under 2 per cent in 1998, and for the first time in 10 years it was less than in industrial countries. In the transition economies the impact of the Russian crisis was to plunge the region as a whole into recession following positive growth in 1997 for the first time since the beginning of the transition process.
The two largest developing countries, China and India, have been striking exceptions in this otherwise bleak landscape. It is notable that both of these countries had resisted the temptation to pursue premature trade liberalization and rapid integration into the global financial system.
Trade and development report 1998 (overview)
For some time the UNCTAD secretariat has maintained that the world economy needs to grow by at least 3 per cent, year in, year out, if a dent is to be made in unemployment in industrialized countries and poverty in developing countries. Most countries in the South need to grow at twice this rate if they are to overcome their social and technological handicaps and close the income gap with the small club of rich industrial economies. During the 1990s this 3 per cent target has been reached only in 1996-1997, thanks to recovery in Latin America and Africa and continued strong growth in East Asia and the United States.
Last year’s Trade and Development Report argued that international financial instability constituted the single most important impediment to attaining steady and rapid growth. Modern financial markets are organized less to create wealth and employment than to extract rent by buying and selling second-hand assets, and the “discipline” these markets exert on policymakers reinforces the advantages of existing wealth holders. The Report came out once more against “big-bang” financial liberalization in developing countries, pointing out that successful examples of modern industrialization and development distinguished themselves by the ways they managed integration into the global economy.
Trade and Development Report, 1997 (press release 1)
The big story of the world economy since the early 1980s has been increasing integration through the unleashing of market forces. But there is also another story, one that is attracting increasing attention in the 1990s .... social and economic divisions among, and within, countries are widening.
This poses a serious threat of a political backlash against globalization, one that is as likely to come from the North as from the South. Such a backlash could reverse beneficial reforms achieved in developed and developing countries over the past decade. And, it may provoke a roll back of some of the more longstanding achievements of economic integration. The 1920s and 1930s provide a stark, and disturbing, reminder of just how quickly faith in markets and economic openness can be overwhelmed by political events.
Trade and Development Report, 1997 (press release 2)
Growth in the world economy this year will again continue to be too slow to make a significant dent in poverty in the South and unemployment in the North, UNCTAD forecasts in its annual Trade and Development Report 1997 (text here) (216 pages). Despite success in reducing inflation almost everywhere, expectations of faster growth have so far not been fulfilled. Since 1990, the world economy has been growing slower than in the previous decade, and the outlook is for a continuation of slow growth. Meanwhile, global trade imbalances similar to those of the 1980s have reappeared.
From the World Trade Organization
World merchandise exports/imports by region and selected economies.1980/1998
Value of exports and imports by region and country, 2000
OECD.-Imports of tropical woods, 1995
Selected countries: plywood production, 1970-1995
International trade: exports. Data for 1990
International trade: imports. Data for 1990
Exports early 1990s. All economies. In US$.
Exports early 1990s. Free-market economies. As % of total.
Non-fuel commodities: international prices 1980-1996
World Trade 1988-1998 (in volume)
Chicago Board of Trade
The Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT® ), established in 1848, is a leading futures and futures-options exchange. More than 3,600 CBOT member/stockholders trade 50 different futures and options products at the CBOT by open auction and electronically. Volume at the Exchange in 2005 surpassed 674 million contracts, the highest yearly total recorded in its history.
Institute for International Economics:
Working papers
In 1994 the Institute launched a series of working papers. The series is intended to convey the preliminary results of our ongoing research. The research described in these papers is preliminary and has not gone through the usual review process for Institute publications. The views expressed in these papers are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the individual members of the Institute's Board or Advisory Committee. We welcome feedback from readers and encourage you to convey your comments and criticisms directly to the authors.

Trade and gender                 Trade policy
Foreign Policy IN FOCUS

Patrick Bond, September 10, 2010
Dodging World Bank Schizophrenia: The looting of Africa continues?
Reinvestment is negligible and the prices, royalties and taxes paid are inadequate to compensate the wasting-away of Africa’s natural wealth. Anti-extraction campaigns by (un)civil society are the only hope for a reversal of these neocolonial relations.
Though it’s easy to prove, using even the World Bank’s main study of natural resource economics, apparently the looting allegation is controversial. When I made it during a Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) interview last week, the World Bank’s chief economist for Africa, Shanta Devarajan, immediately contradicted me, claiming (twice) that I am not in command of ‘the facts.’
G.J. Bannister and K. Thugge,
International Trade and Poverty Alleviation, 2001
How does trade liberalization affect the poor, and how can they be protected against its negative short-term effects?
documents and papers
From United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) - 2003

Making Global Trade Work for People

Trade and human development have a complex relationship. Understanding their interaction requires understanding the complexity of trade policy and human development as part of broader development policy
(This text is compulsory reading for my students.
Dr. Róbinson Rojas)

Corporate Europe Observer (1999)
TNC control over Global Trade Politics
The subject of this special issue of the Corporate Europe Observer is the World Trade Organisation, which in the first four years of its existence has built up a dark environmental and social record. Large corporations have been the satisfied beneficiaries of its treaties, while communities and small farmers around the world have suffered from WTO-promoted ‘free trade’. This outcome is hardly surprising, as corporate lobby groups have been closely involved in the shaping of many of the WTO agreements. The WTO's model of economic development is increasingly identified as being incompatible with ecological sustainability. In its rulings in trade disputes on bananas, beef hormones and numerous other products, the WTO has put trade above all else, overruling environmental, social, consumer and health considerations.
More Newsletters

Papers and reports from Oxfam:
2010 - 2009 - 2008 - 2007 - 2006 - 2005 - 2004 - 2003 - 2002 - 2001
Oxfam policy papers and reports on trade and livelihoods

All costs, no benefits: How TRIPS-plus intellectual property rules in the US-Jordan FTA affect access to medicines.
March 2007
The USA continues to impose TRIPS-plus rules on developing countries, thus preventing poor people from accessing inexpensive, generic medicines. Jordan was required under the terms of its WTO accession package and its free trade agreement (FTA) with the USA to introduce TRIPS-plus rules. Medicine prices have increased drastically, and TRIPS-plus rules were partly responsible for this increase. Furthermore, stricter levels of intellectual property protection have conferred few benefits with respect to foreign direct investment, domestic research and development, or accelerating introduction of new, effective medicines. Medicine prices will continue to rise in Jordan, but the country will be unable to use TRIPS safeguards to reduce their cost. Other developing countries implementing or considering FTAs with TRIPS-plus rules should consider the consequences for public health.

Signing Away The Future: How trade and investment agreements between rich and poor countries undermine development.
March 2007
The quiet advance of trade and investment agreements between rich and poor countries threatens to deny developing countries a favourable foothold in the global economy. Driven by the USA and the European Union, these agreements impose far-reaching rules that place severe restrictions on the very policies developing countries need in order to fight poverty.

Pricing Farmers out of Cotton: The costs of World Bank reforms in Mali
March 2007
With global trade talks stalled at the World Trade Organisation (WTO), rich-country cotton subsidies remain unabated, hurting poor cotton farmers. World Bank led reforms to privatise the Malian cotton sector, including the adoption of a new price- setting mechanism, are further exacerbating the dire conditions in cotton-producing communities. A minimum level of price stability is vital for income security in the cotton sector and to prevent further slides into poverty. The wider donor community should provide adequate funds to finance a cotton-sector support fund, as well as invest in rural extension services and sustain capacity building of farmers to enable them to maximise their returns from new market opportunities.

Robbing the Poor to Pay the Rich? How the United States keeps medicines from the world’s poorest
December 2003
Impressive advances in medicine and technology have boosted health and extended life expectancy – but not for everyone. Vital new medicines for diseases such as HIV/AIDS are priced out of reach of the millions of sick people in the developing world, in part due to global patent rules which restrict the availability of affordable generic versions of patented medicines. In 2001, all members of the World Trade Organization adopted the ‘Doha Declaration’, promising to prioritize public health over private patent rights and to promote ‘access to medicines for all’. This paper examines how the government of the United States is contravening this commitment by using technical assistance, bilateral and regional trade agreements, and the threat of trade sanctions to ratchet up patent protection in developing countries. This policy benefits the influential U.S. pharmaceutical industry while pushing medicines further out of the reach of poor people.

The Euro-Mediterranean Agreements: Partnership or Penury?
November 2003
Impressive advances in medicine and technology have boosted health and extended life expectancy – but not for everyone. Vital new medicines for diseases such as HIV/AIDS are priced out of reach of the millions of sick people in the developing world, in part due to global patent rules which restrict the availability of affordable generic versions of patented medicines. In 2001, all members of the World Trade Organization adopted the ‘Doha Declaration’, promising to prioritize public health over private patent rights and to promote ‘access to medicines for all’. This paper examines how the government of the United States is contravening this commitment by using technical assistance, bilateral and regional trade agreements, and the threat of trade sanctions to ratchet up patent protection in developing countries. This policy benefits the influential U.S. pharmaceutical industry while pushing medicines further out of the reach of poor people.

Running into the Sand: Why failure at the Cancun trade talks threatens the world’s poorest people
September 2003
In September 2003 world trade ministers meet in Cancun Mexico to start a new phase in the Doha ‘development round’. The meeting provides an opportunity to reform the unfair trade rules that systematically disadvantage the world’s poorest countries. Urgent action is needed to stop agricultural dumping, protect access to affordable medicines, improve market access, and prevent damaging new rules on foreign investment. Failure to deliver will undermine efforts to tackle global poverty and further damage the credibility of the World Trade Organisation.

The Emperor’s New Clothes: Why rich countries want a WTO investment agreement
May 2003
Despite an overcrowded agenda and the lack of progress on matters crucial to development, rich countries, especially members of the European Union, are pushing for the launch of investment negotiations at the ministerial meeting of the World Trade Organisation in Cancun in September 2003. When properly regulated, foreign investment can contribute to sustainable development. However, the proposed WTO agreement on investment will establish rules that developing countries do not need and cannot afford, enhancing investors’ ‘rights’ while undermining governments’ capacity to pursue pro-development policies. This is why Oxfam calls on WTO members to reject the launch of investment negotiations in Cancun.

Make Trade Fair in the Americas: Three Reasons to Say No to the FTAA
February 2003

Europe and the Coffee Crisis: A Plan for Action
February 2004

Liberia: critical time to end the violence - a briefing note
November 2003


Shattered Lives: the case for tough international arms control - Oxfam International/Amnesty International report

Resources selected from CAFOD's archive:
"CAFOD is the Catholic Agency for Overseas Development, the official overseas development and relief agency of the Catholic Church in England and Wales. CAFOD believes that all human beings have a right to dignity and respect, and that the world's resources are a gift to be shared equally by all men and women, whatever their race, nationality or religion.
Underpinning CAFOD's work is a deeply held set of values that are central to its ethos and identity. We act based on principles of compassion, solidarity, stewardship and hope. Confronted by immense poverty and suffering, CAFOD's most fundamental response is compassion - standing alongside excluded communities, sharing resources, uniting in prayer, defending rights and challenging the systems that keep people poor.
CAFOD draws its inspiration from Scripture, the Church's social teaching, and the experiences and hopes of the poor. Our mission is to promote human development and social justice in witness to Christian faith and Gospel values."

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Comercio internacional
UNCTAD: Trade and development report 2001
                    Overview:   English
          Aperçu Général:  Francais
    Panorama General:  Castellano
                     Part Two:  Reform of the international financial architecture
CNUCD: Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas sobre Comercio y Desarrollo

Commerce exterieure
UNCTAD: Trade and development report 2001
                    Overview:   English
          Aperçu Général:  Francais
    Panorama General:  Castellano
                     Part Two:  Reform of the international financial architecture
CNUCD: Conference des Nations Unies sur le Commerce et le Developpement