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The political economy of development
This academic site promotes excellence in teaching and researching economics and development, and the advancing of describing, understanding, explaining and theorizing for planning for development.
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On Planning for Development:               On Climate change
NASA: Earth Observatory
Global Warming Fact Sheet
Over the last five years, 600 scientists from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change sifted through thousands of studies about global warming published in forums ranging from scientific journals to industry publications and distilled the world’s accumulated knowledge into this conclusion: “Warming of the climate system is unequivocal.”
Global climate change: NASA's Eye on Earth - Vital signs of the planet

IPCC Fifth Assessment Synthesis Report

Climate Change 2014. Synthesis Report
1 November 2014

1. Observed Changes and their Causes
Human influence on the climate system is clear, and recent anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases are the highest in history. Recent climate changes have had widespread impacts on human and natural systems.
1.1 Observed changes in the climate system
Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and since the 1950s, many of the observed changes are unprecedented over decades to millennia. The atmosphere and ocean have warmed, the amounts of snow and ice have diminished, and sea level has risen.
From The New York Times, 30 March 2014

Panel’s Warning on Climate Risk: Worst Is Yet to Come

JUSTIN GILLIS - MARCH 30, 2014 - The New York Times

YOKOHAMA, Japan — Climate change is already having sweeping effects on every continent and throughout the world’s oceans, scientists reported Monday, and they warned that the problem is likely to grow substantially worse unless greenhouse emissions are brought under control.
The report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, a United Nations group that periodically summarizes climate science, concluded that ice caps are melting, sea ice in the Arctic is collapsing, water supplies are coming under stress, heat waves and heavy rains are intensifying, coral reefs are dying, and fish and many other creatures are migrating toward the poles or in some cases going extinct.

From the International Institute for Environment and Development - December 2009 - IIED, CLACC

Climate change and the urban poor. Risk and resilience in 15 of the world's most vulnerable cities

Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya, Bangladesh, Benin, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Sudan, Nepal, Zimbabwe, Uganda, Zambia, Malawi
Urban, Climate Change

"This report outlines lessons learnt regarding the principal effects of climate change on 15 cities
in low-income countries, and what makes them vulnerable to these effects. Coastal cities are susceptible to a rise in sea level and are made vulnerable by the low-lying land they are often built on, while dryland cities suffer from scarce water resources due to extended periods of climate change-induced drought. In these and other inland cities, the level of poverty, the rapid pace of urbanization and a lack of education about climate change increase vulnerability and aggravate the effects of climate change. Innovative urban policies and practices have shown that adaptation to some of these effects is possible and can be built into development plans. These include community-based initiatives led by organizations formed by the urban poor, and local governments working in partnership with their low-income populations".

Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Medio Ambiente
Oficina Regional para América Latina y el Caribe
Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean

United Nations Environment Programme
Environment for development
News Center

Impacts of Climate Change Coming Faster and Sooner: New Science Report Underlines Urgency for Governments to Seal the Deal in Copenhagen

Washington/Nairobi, 24 September 2009 -The pace and scale of climate change may now be outstripping even the most sobering predictions of the last report of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC). An analysis of the very latest, peer-reviewed science indicates that many predictions at the upper end of the IPCC's forecasts are becoming ever more likely. Meanwhile, the newly emerging science points to some events thought likely to occur in longer-term time horizons, as already happening or set to happen far sooner than had previously been thought.

 Going for a Green New Deal in Copenhagen

Copenhagen, 18 December 2009 - "If we don't reach a climate deal, one of the failed victims should not be the economy." Those were the opening words of Mr. Achim Steiner, UN Under-Secretary General and Executive Director of the UN Environment Programme at an event entitled Green Economy: Implementing a New Climate Deal at the UN Climate talks in Copenhagen. Four countries, Brazil, the Republic of Korea, the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal and the Democratic Republic of Congo took to the floor explaining how green jobs, growth and sustainability are essential for their very survival and future economic growth.

Copenhagen, 19 December 2009 - Nations Seal a Deal on Climate Change at UN Talks

A Chatham House Report
Who Owns Our Low Carbon Future? Intellectual Property and Energy Technologies
by Bernice Lee, Ilian Iliev and Felix Preston, September 2009
Download Paper here
Download executive summary

Ensuring access to climate-friendly technologies at affordable prices is a critical issue for international public policy - and one that cuts across economic, legal, security and geopolitical concerns. To keep the rise in average global temperatures below 2C, global greenhouse gas emissions must peak before 2020 and be reduced to 50-85 per cent below 2000 levels by 2050. Achieving these ambitious targets requires a critical mass of low carbon investment, innovation and deployment that meets mid- and long-term goals. The implications for corporate strategies and business models are profound.
This report examines two issues: patent ownership of climate-friendly technologies, and the rate of technology diffusion. A polarized debate continues between proponents of strengthening intellectual property rights (IPR) regimes to encourage innovation of climate technologies on the one hand, and those calling for more IP-related flexibilities to ensure access to key technologies by developing countries on the other.
'The report makes a series of practical recommendations for more rapid diffusion of new technologies on a basis that would be profitable for both the inventor in the developed country and for the company who puts the technology into action somewhere else. This report shows how important an agreement in Copenhagen could be'. - Ambassador John Bruton, EU Ambassador to the US, October 2009. Read

Further Resources
More information about the Chatham House project - Trade, Finance and Climate Change: Building a Positive Agenda for Developing Countries
Chatham House is holding a conference on Powering the Low Carbon Economy from 1-2 March 2010.

From Global Development and Environment Institute
Working paper No. 08-03
Policies for Funding a Response to Climate Change
By Brian Roach - July 2008
Specifically, the paper suggests that CERA funds be used to offer low-interest loans to private firms and to form private-public partnerships pursuing the long-term development of clean energy technologies. Loan repayment and the eventual profitability of some partnerships will at least partially fund payments to CERA holders when they retire. Using reasonable assumptions, a simulation analysis demonstrates the financial feasibility of the program and the conditions in which the program would be fully self-funding.

Ecological Macroeconomics: Consumption, Investment, and Climate Change
Working paper 08-02
Jonathan M. Harris - July 2008
The challenge of reducing global carbon emissions by 50-85 per cent by the year 2050, which is suggested by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007a) as a target compatible with limiting the risk of a more-than-2ºC temperature increase, clearly conflicts with existing patterns of economic growth, which are heavily dependent on increased use of fossil fuel energy. While it is theoretically possible to conceive of economic growth being “delinked” from fossil fuel consumption, any such delinking would represent a drastic change from economic patterns of the last 150 years.
Current macroeconomic theory is heavily oriented towards an assumption of continuous, exponential growth in GDP. The historical record shows GDP growth is strongly correlated with a parallel record of increasing fossil energy use and CO2 emissions. A path of reduced carbon emissions would require major modifications in economic growth patterns. Climate change is part of an inter-related group of environmental issues associated with growth limits. These include population growth, agricultural production, water supplies, and species loss. To achieve a low-carbon path requires population stabilization, limited consumption, and major investments in environmental protection and social priorities such as public health, nutrition, and education. Macroeconomic theory must be adapted to reflect these new realities.
A reclassification of macroeconomic aggregates is proposed to distinguish between those categories of goods and services that can expand over time, and those that must be limited to reduce carbon emissions. This reformulation makes it clear that there are many possibilities for environmentally beneficial economic expansion. New forms of Keynesian policy oriented towards ecological sustainability, provision of basic social needs such as education and health care, and distributional equity can provide a basis for a rapid reduction in carbon emissions while promoting investment in human and natural capital.
From Natural Resources Defense Council

The cost of climate change
What We'll Pay if Global Warming Continues Unchecked

Global warming comes with a big price tag for every country in the world. The 80 percent reduction in U.S. emissions needed to stop climate change may not come cheaply, but the cost of failing to act will be much greater. New research shows that if present trends continue, the total cost of global warming will be as high as 3.6 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). Four global warming impacts alone -- hurricane damage, real estate losses, energy costs, and water costs -- will come with a price tag of 1.8 percent of U.S. GDP, or almost $1.9 trillion annually (in today's dollars) by 2100. We know how to avert most of these damages through strong action to reduce the emissions that cause global warming. But the longer we wait, the more painful -- and expensive -- the consequences will be.

From - 7 October 2007
Climate Change And Entire Landscapes On The Move
By Stephen Leahy - Inter Press Service
BROOKLIN, Canada - The hot breath of global warming has now touched some of the coldest northern regions of world, turning the frozen landscape into mush as temperatures soar 15 degrees C. above normal.
Entire hillsides, sometimes more than a kilometre long, simply let go and slid like a vast green carpet into valleys and rivers on Melville Island in Canada’s northwest Arctic region of Nunavut this summer, says Scott Lamoureux of Queens University in Canada and leader of one the of International Polar Year projects.

From The Independent, UK - 7 April 2007
How the worst effects of climate change will be felt by the poorest
Humanity will be divided as never before by climate change, with the world's poor its disproportionate victims, according to a new United Nations report.
- Scientists walk out in protest at China's intransigence
- Leading article: The world's biggest polluters can no longer ignore the evidence
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has been established by WMO and UNEP to assess scientific, technical and socio- economic information relevant for the understanding of climate change, its potential impacts and options for adaptation and mitigation.
The reports by the three Working Groups provide a comprehensive and up-to-date assessment of the current state of knowledge on climate change.
-- Working Group I "The Physical Science Basis"
-- Working Group II "Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability"
-- Working Group III "Mitigation of Climate Change"
The Synthesis Report integrates the information around six topic areas -more-

2 February 2007
Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis
Summary for Policymakers
This Summary for Policymakers was formally approved at the 10th Session of Working Group I of the IPCC, Paris, February 2007
From the BBC - London - 2 February 2007
Humans blamed for climate change
Global climate change is "very likely" to have a human cause, an influential group of scientists has concluded.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) said temperatures were probably going to increase by 1.8-4C (3.2-7.2F) by the end of the century.
Climate Change Futures - 2006
Health, Ecological and Economic Dimensions

The Problem: Climate is Changing, Fast - Trend Analyses: Extreme Weather Events and Costs - Climate Change Can Occur Abruptly - The Climate Change Futures Scenarios - Infectious and Respiratory Diseases - Malaria - West Nile Virus - Lyme Disease - Carbon Dioxide and Aeroallergens - Extreme Weather Events - Heat Waves - Case 1. European Heat Wave and Analogs for US Cities - Case 2. Analog for New South Wales, Australia - Floods - Natural and Managed Systems - Forests - Agriculture - Marine Ecosystems - Case 1. The Tropical Coral Reef - Case 2. Marine Shellfish - Water - Financial Implications - Risk Spreading in Developed and Developing Nations - The Limits of Insurability - Business Scenarios - Constructive Roles for Insurers and Reinsurers - Optimizing Strategies for Adaptation and Mitigation - Summary of Financial Sector Measures - Conclusions and Recommendations - Policies and Measures- Appendix A. Summary Table/Extreme Weather Events and Impacts - Appendix B. Additional Findings and Methods for The US Analog Studies of Heat Waves - Appendix C. Finance: Property Insurance Dynamics - Appendix D. List of Participants, Swiss Re Centre for Global Dialogue - Bibliography

From Physics Today - Issue 8 - August 2003
The Discovery of Rapid Climate Change     
The discovery of global warming

Only within the past decade have researchers warmed to the possibility of abrupt shifts in Earth's climate. Sometimes, it takes a while to see what one is not prepared to look for.
By Spencer Weart
How fast can our planet's climate change? Too slowly for humans to notice, according to the firm belief of most scientists through much of the 20th century. Any shift of weather patterns, even the Dust Bowl droughts that devastated the Great Plains in the 1930s, was seen as a temporary local excursion. To be sure, the entire world climate could change radically: The ice ages proved that. But common sense held that such transformations could only creep in over tens of thousands of years.
In the 1950s, a few scientists found evidence that some of the great climate shifts in the past had taken only a few thousand years. During the 1960s and 1970s, other lines of research made it plausible that the global climate could shift radically within a few hundred years. In the 1980s and 1990s, further studies reduced the scale to the span of a single century. Today, there is evidence that severe change can take less than a decade. A committee of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) has called this reorientation in the thinking of scientists a veritable "paradigm shift." The new paradigm of abrupt global climate change, the committee reported in 2002, "has been well established by research over the last decade, but this new thinking is little known and scarcely appreciated in the wider community of natural and social scientists and policymakers."

From the BBC - London - 21 December 2006
It's hard to explain, Tom, why we did so little to stop global warming
Looking back, 40 years on, we were intoxicated with an idea of individual freedom that was little more than greedy egotism
By Madeleine Bunting
Monday November 6, 2006 - The Guardian
Poor you - they've set you a difficult question for your school essay. I'll try to help, although I still find it difficult to understand myself, let alone explain to a grandson, why we were so slow in tackling climate change. I would love to be with you to talk about it all because I think about very little else now, but I don't have any carbon allocation to travel to the new settlements in Scotland, so here I sit in the library by the window overlooking a London I don't recognise these days. I've taken a day off our senior citizens' vegetable plot to walk here and queue for my internet slot.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
Essential Background -- Documentation -- Meetings
Kyoto Protocol
Cooperation & Support -- Adaptation
National Reports -- GHG Emissions Data -- Methods & Science
Parties & Observers -- Press -- Secretariat

6 November 2006
-- The United Nations Climate Change Conference - Nairobi 2006 got underway today with calls for action and a stark warning that climate change is fast proving to be one of the greatest challenges in the history of humankind. The two-week conference is the twelfth Conference of the 189 Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the second meeting of the 166 Parties to the Kyoto Protocol.
 Pressrelease (131 kB)     Arabic (146 kB)     Chinese (176 kB)     Russian (197 kB)

New Report Underlines Africa’s Vulnerability to Climate Change.
5 November 2006, Nairobi
-- A new report on impacts, vulnerability and adaptation in Africa, released by the Secretariat of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and based on data from bodies including the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) indicates that the continent’s vulnerability to climate change is even more acute than had previously been supposed.
Stern Review on the economics of climate change
The Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change will be published on Monday 30th October 2006. Sir Nicholas Stern will be presenting the conclusions at the Royal Society.
Sir Nicholas Stern, Head of the Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change, gave a keynote lecture to the Oxford Institute of Economic Policy as part of their distinguished lecture series entitled ‘What is the Economics of Climate Change?’ on the evening of Tuesday 31 January. This paper sets out the key approaches and questions for the Stern Review.
Stern Review final report - full text

From The Economist - 7 September 2006
The Heat is On
Global warming, it now seems, is for real. Emma Duncan examines the nature of the problem, and possible solutions
Getty Images
THE world's climate has barely changed since the industrial revolution. The temperature was stable in the 19th century, rose very slightly during the first half of the 20th, fell back in the 1950s-70s, then started rising again. Over the past 100 years, it has gone up by about 0.6°C (1.1°F).
So what's the fuss about? Not so much the rise in temperature as the reason for it. Previous changes in the world's climate have been set off by variations either in the angle of the Earth's rotation or in its distance from the sun. This time there is another factor involved: man-made “greenhouse gases”.
From Le Monde Diplomatique - April 2006
Planet in Peril: Atlas of Current Threats to People and the Environment the English translation of Le Monde diplomatique's recently published Atlas 2006. It is the result of a long-standing cooperation between Le Monde diplomatique and GRID-Arendal...
These pages offer a holistic and well-researched analysis of today's global issues and their impact on human population and the environment. Written by an international team of specialists, these pages from the Atlas illustrate through text and maps, graphics and diagrams the interplay between population and the world's ecosystems and natural resources both in the short and long terms. It brings together a wealth of information from the most up-to-date sources on such key issues as climate change, access to water, exploitation of ocean resources, nuclear energy and waste, renewable energy, weapons of mass destruction, causes of industrial accidents, waste, export, hunger, genetically modified organisms, urban development, access to health care and ecological change in China...
Polar ice caps melting faster Global warming is not affecting the planet evenly and most of the existing models forecast that it will be greater in the northern hemisphere. With an overall increase of 2°C, temperatures in the Arctic could increase by a factor of two or three. The southern hemisphere, would also be affected, though less severely...
GM organisms, too much, too soon The issue of genetically modified organisms draws together strands from the debate on the global market and the concept of progress. It is a perfect illustration of how market forces come into play much more quickly than the precautions that seem appropriate given the current state of research. We are consequently already eating genetically engineered foodstuffs without it being possible to guarantee they are entirely safe. China a key factor in tomorrow's climate China is fast becoming the workshop of the 21st century world. But a shortage of raw materials abroad and increasingly serious environmental problems at home are already threatening continued growth.
-List of all available maps...
-Order (in English) from
-See a summary of LMD's Atlas (in French)
-Order LMD's Atlas (in French)

From CERES - 21 March 2006
2006 Corporate Governance and Climate Change: Making the Connection
The 2006 Corporate Governance and Climate Change: Making the Connection report includes a 30-page summary report comprised of the executive summary, the climate governance scoring criteria, the 100 company scores and sector-specific findings. The report also includes two to three page profiles on each of the companies evaluated.

Current Reports - 2009 Reports - 2008 Reports - 2007 Reports - 2006 Reports - 2005 Reports - 2004 Reports - 2003 Reports - 2002 Reports

23 February 2006
Take part in the largest climate experiment ever
We need the computer power you're not using. Join in the largest climate prediction experiment ever, developed by climate scientists for the BBC using the Met Office climate model.
We need thousands of people to help
Trying to predict climate change is hard. There are lots of factors involved – air temperature, sea temperature and cloud cover all play a part – as do dozens of other variables. Therefore, there are a huge number of calculations involved.
One solution is for scientists to use the largest supercomputer they can find. But even the biggest supercomputers are only so good. We think you can do better. Using a technique known as distributed computing, we’re hoping to harness the power of thousands of PCs around the world. If 10,000 people sign up, we’ll be faster than the world’s biggest computer. And we’re hoping to be even better than that.
Guide to climate change
How does the greenhouse effect work - and how hot might it get?
The University of Wisconsin-Madison
Center For Climatic Research
From BBC News - 24 Novemebre 2005
CO2 "highest for 650,000 years"
Current levels of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane in the atmosphere are higher now than at any time in the last 650,000 years. That is the conclusion of new European studies looking at ice taken from 3km below the surface of Antarctica. The scientists say their research shows present day warming to be exceptional. Other research, also published in the journal Science, suggests that sea levels may be rising twice as fast now as in previous centuries.

Climate pact: For good or bad?
Earth - melting in the heat?
Climate summit postponed
Arctic ice 'disappearing quickly'
US climate talks 'disappointing'
World scientists urge CO2 action
Q&A: The Kyoto Protocol

Climate "warmest for millenium"
Trade can 'export' CO2 emissions
Last-minute climate deals reached
Q&A: Blair's climate strategy
Water builds the heat in Europe
'Gas muzzlers' challenge Bush

Climate Change/Global Warming
The roof of the world is changing. Almost 95 per cent of Himalayan glaciers are shrinking - and that kind of ice loss has profound implications, not just for Nepal and Bhutan, but for surrounding nations, including China, India and Pakistan
Scientists have compiled one of the first comprehensive pictures of what the world might be like when climate change begins to trigger a dramatic increase in epidemics, disease and death
Friends of the Earth - 8 November 2005
Britain: Young people take action on climate change
Sixty per cent of young people, aged 8-14, are concerned that the world will suffer the effects of climate change when they are adults and more than seventy per cent of them already take action at home or school to save energy, a new survey reveals today. The results are published as part of Friends of the Earth's activity week for schools `Shout about climate change', which runs from 7-11 November 2005.
RRojas Databank is a member of Development Gateway hosted by The World Bank
Millenium Ecosystem Assessment
30 March 2005
Experts Warn Ecosystem Changes Will Continue to Worsen, Putting Global Development Goals At Risk
A landmark study released today reveals that approximately 60 percent of the ecosystem services that support life on Earth – such as fresh water, capture fisheries, air and water regulation, and the regulation of regional climate, natural hazards and pests – are being degraded or used unsustainably. Scientists warn that the harmful consequences of this degradation could grow significantly worse in the next 50 years.
“Any progress achieved in addressing the goals of poverty and hunger eradication, improved health, and environmental protection is unlikely to be sustained if most of the ecosystem services on which humanity relies continue to be degraded,” said the study, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) Synthesis Report, conducted by 1,300 experts from 95 countries. It specifically states that the ongoing degradation of ecosystem services is a road block to the Millennium Development Goals agreed to by the world leaders at the United Nations in 2000.
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Synthesis Report
pdf, 6,773 KB
Popularized Version of Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Synthesis Report
Cleaner Production
The UNIDO cleaner production (CP) programme aims at building national CP capacities, fostering dialogue between industry and government and enhancing investments for transfer and development of environmentally sound technologies. Through this programme, UNIDO is bridging the gap between competitive industrial production and environmental concerns. CP is more than just a technical solution. It has a widespread application at all decision-making levels in industry, with the chief focus on adoption of cleaner technologies and techniques within the industrial sector. Costly end-of-pipe pollution control systems are gradually replaced with a strategy that reduces and avoids pollution and waste throughout the entire production cycle, from efficient use of raw materials, energy and water to the final product.
Industrial Governance and Statistics
Investment and Technology Promotion
Industrial Competitiveness and Trade
Private Sector Development
Sustainable Energy and Climate Change
Montreal Protocol
Environmental Management
D. Stipp (January 26, 2004)
The Pentagon's Weather Nightmare
The climate could change radically, and fast. That would be the mother of all national security issues.

World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) Follow-up
9 April 2004:
Farming is biggest global environmental threat, says new book
The Copenhagen Consensus Projectorganised by Denmark's Environmental Assessment Institute with the co-operation of The Economist, aims to consider and to establish priorities among a series of proposals for advancing global welfare. The initiative was described in  Economics Focus of March 6th.
Copenhagen Consensus 2004 (oficial website)
Human Development Report 2007-2008
Human Development and Climate Change
Climate change is the defining human development challenge of the 21st Century. Failure to respond to that challenge will stall and then reverse international efforts to reduce poverty. The poorest countries and most vulnerable citizens will suffer the earliest and most damaging setbacks, even though they have contributed least to the problem. Looking to the future, no country—however wealthy or powerful—will be immune to the impact of global warming.
The Human Development Report 2007/2008 shows that climate change is not just a future scenario. Increased exposure to droughts, floods and storms is already destroying opportunity and reinforcing inequality. Meanwhile, there is now overwhelming scientific evidence that the world is moving towards the point at which irreversible ecological catastrophe becomes unavoidable. Business-as-usual climate change points in a clear direction: unprecedented reversal in human development in our lifetime, and acute risks for our children and their grandchildren.
Selected background papers

Leiserowitz, Anthony - 2007
"Public Perception, Opinion and Understanding of Climate Change"
Natural scientists have described global warming as perhaps the preeminent environmental risk confronting the world in the 21st century. Meanwhile, social scientists have found that public risk perceptions strongly influence the way people respond to hazards. What the public perceives as a risk, why they perceive it that way, and how they will subsequently behave are thus vital questions for policy makers attempting to address global climate change, in which the effects are delayed, have inequitable distributions of costs and benefits, and are beyond the control of any one group. In this situation, public support for or opposition to proposed climate policies will be greatly influenced by the perceived risks of global warming. Further, “scientists need to know how the public is likely to respond to climate impacts or initiatives, because those responses can attenuate or amplify the impacts”. This thematic paper summarizes international public perception, opinion and understanding of global climate change and reports results from an in-depth study of public climate change risk perceptions, policy preferences and individual behaviors in the United States.

Arroyo, Vicki, and Peter Linguiti. "Current Directions in the Climate Change Debate in the United States"

Barker, Terry, and Katie Jenkins. "The Costs of Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change"

Boykoff, Maxwell T, and J. Timmons Roberts. "Media Coverage of Climate Change"

de la Fuente, Alejandro, and Ricardo Fuentes. "The Impact of Natural Disasters on Children Morbidity in Rural Mexico"

  Fuentes, Ricardo, and Papa Seck. "The Short and Long-Term Human Development Effects of Climate-Related Shocks"

Henderson, Caspar. "Carbon Budget—the agenda for mitigation"

  IGAD, ICPAC. "Climate Change and Human Development in Africa"

O’Brien, Karen, and Robin Leichenko. "Human Security, Vulnerability and Sustainable Adaptation"

Osbahr, Henny. "Building resilience"

Perelet, Renat. "Central Asia"

Perelet, Renat, Serguey Pegov and Mikhail Yulkin. "Climate Change"

Rahman, A. Atiq, Mozaharul Alam, Sarder Shafiqul Alam, Md. Rabi Uzzaman, Mariam Rashid and Golam Rabbani. "Risks, Vulnerability and Adaptation in Bangladesh"

Reid, Hannah, and Saleemul Huq. "International and National Mechanisms and Politics of Adaptation"

Seck, Papa. "Links between Natural Disasters, Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Risk Reduction"

Watson, Jim, Gordon MacKerron, David Ockwell and Tao Wang. "Technology and carbon mitigation in developing countries"

Brown, Oli. "Climate change and forced migration"

Carvajal, Liliana. "Impacts of Climate Change on Human Development"

Conceição, Pedro, Yanchun Zhang and Romina Bandura. "Brief on Discounting in the Context of Climate Change Economics"

Conde, Cecilia, Sergio Saldaña, and Víctor Magaña. "Thematic Regional Paper"

de Buen, Odón. "Decarbonizing Growth in Mexico"

de la Fuente, Alejandro. "Private and Public Responses to Climate Shocks"

de la Fuente, Alejandro. "Climate Shocks and their Impact on Assets"

Dobie, Philip, Barry Shapiro, Patrick Webb and Mark Winslow. "How do Poor People Adapt to Weather Variability and Natural Disasters Today?"

Gaye, Amie. "Access to Energy and Human Development"

Kelkar, Ulka, and Suruchi Bhadwal. "South Asian Regional Study on Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation"

Khoday, Kishan. "Climate Change and the Right to Development"

Krznaric, Roman. "For God’s Sake, Do Something!"

Kuonqui, Christopher. "Responding to Clear and Present Dangers"

Li, Junfeng. "Mitigation Country Study"

Mathur, Ritu, and Preety Bhandari. "Living Within a Carbon Budget"

Matus Kramer, Arnoldo. "Adaptation to Climate Change in Poverty Reduction Strategies"

Menon, Roshni. "Famine in Malawi"

Newell, Peter. "The Kyoto Protocol and Beyond"

Tolan, Sandy. "Coverage of Climate Change in Chinese Media"

Volpi, Giulio. "Climate Mitigation, Deforestation and Human Development in Brazil"

Winkler, Harald, and Andrew Marquard. "Energy Development and Climate Change"

Yue, Li, Lin Erda and Li Yan. "Impacts of, and Vulnerability and Adaptation to, Climate Change in Water Resources and Agricultural Sectors in China"

Arredondo Brun, Juan Carlos. "Adapting to Impacts of Climate Change on Water Supply in Mexico City"

Bambaige, Albertina. "National Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change Impacts"

Birch, Isobel, and Richard Grahn. "Pastoralism"

Canales Davila, Caridad, and Alberto Carillo Pineda. "Spain Country Study"

Chaudhry, Peter, and Greet Ruysschaert. "Climate Change and Human Development in Viet Nam"

Cornejo, Pilar. "Ecuador Case Study"

Donner, Simon D. "Canada Country Study"

Lemos, Maria Carmen. "Drought, Governance and Adaptive Capacity in North East Brazil"

Meinshausen, Malte. "Stylized Emission Path"

Nangoma, Everhart. "National Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change Impacts"

Nguyen, Huu Ninh. "Flooding in Mekong River Delta, Viet Nam"

Orindi, Victor A., Anthony Nyong and Mario Herrero. "Pastoral Livelihood Adaptation to Drought and Institutional Interventions in Kenya"

Painter, James. "Deglaciation in the Andean Region"

Pederson, Peter D. "Japan"

Regmi, Bimal R., and A. Adhikari. "Country Case Study"

Salem, Boshra. "Sustainable Management of the North African Marginal Drylands"

Schmid, Jürgen. "Mitigation Country Study for Germany"

Seck, Papa. "The Rural Energy Challenge in Senegal"

Sullivan, Rory. "Australia Country Study"

Trigoso Rubio, Erika. "Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation in Peru"

It is time to Turn Up the Heat
Few corporations or public figures are now stupid enough to deny that climate change is happening, or that we need to reduce our emissions of greenhouse gases. Instead, most of them now claim to be on the side of the angels. They make public statements or publish reports designed to persuade us that they are “working towards sustainability”.
In a few cases, they really are. But for every genuine reformer, there are half a dozen who are simply greenwashing their existing practices. The people who will destroy the ecosystem are not, or not only, sneering industrialists in pinstriped suits, but nice-looking people in open-necked shirts who claim that they are just as concerned as the rest of us to save the planet.

This site aims to ensure that they don’t get away with it. Its purpose is to expose the fudged figures, dodgy claims and empty public relations campaigns of the charming people who are wrecking the biosphere

BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2006
Full time series since 1965

International Energy Agency
- Oil Markets Reports
- World Energy Outlook
- Key World Energy Statistics 2004
Energy Information Administration (US)
World Energy and Economic Outlook 2004
Róbinson Rojas
Preliminary notes on energy consumption and population growth. 1880-2003
Preliminary data on energy use per capita and cycles. 1971-2001
Preliminary data on population, energy consumption and cycles. 1965-2003
Planet Under Pressure
A six-part BBC News Online series looking at some of the most pressing environmental issues facing the human race today. By Alex Kirby BBC News Online environment correspondent

Part 1: Species under threat
Part 2: World water crisis
Part 3: Energy crisis
Part 4: Feeding the world
Part 5: Climate change
Part 6: Fighting pollution
Why the Sun seems to be "dimming"
Horizon: Global Dimming
Journal of World-Systems Research:
Number 2 (Summer 2003)
On Globalization and the Environment
Andrew K. Jorgenson & Edward L. Kick
Globalization and the Environment
Alf Hornborg
Cornucopia or Zero-Sum Game? The Epistemology of Sustainability
Stephen G. Bunker
Matter, Space, Energy, and Political Economy: The Amazon in the World-System
Peter Grimes & Jeffrey Kentor
Exporting the Greenhouse: Foreign Capital Penetration and CO2 Emissions 1980–1996
J. Timmons Roberts, Peter E. Grimes & Jodie L. Manale
Social Roots of Global Environmental Change: A World-Systems Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Emissions
R. Scott Frey
The Transfer of Core-Based Hazardous Production Processes to the Export Processing Zones of the Periphery: The Maquiladora Centers of Northern Mexico
Thomas J. Burns, Edward L. Kick, & Byron L. Davis
Theorizing and Rethinking Linkages Between the Natural Environment and the Modern World-System: Deforestation in the Late 20th Century
Review Essay
Andrew K. Jorgenson
Lateral Pressure and Deforestation    A Review Essay of Environmental Impacts of Globalization and Trade: A Systems Study by Corey L Lofdahl

Book Reviews
Franz J. Broswimmer
Ecocide: A Short History of Mass Extinction of Species
Reviewed by Florencio R. Riguera
Arthur Mol and Frederick Buttel (eds)
The Environmental State Under Pressure

Reviewed by Bruce Podobnik
Sustainable energy and climate change
Industrial energy is essential to economic and social development and to improving the quality of life. Indeed, the availability of affordable and sustainable energy to all people is critical to the achievement of the MDGs, and its contributions can help to meet the targets in various ways. In particular, energy is a prerequisite for poverty alleviation, as targeted in MDG 1, since it enables income-generating activities and the establishment of micro-enterprises. Similarly, energy helps to alleviate hunger and meet most of the other social and welfare-related MDGs by providing the light and power that the achievement of these goals critically depends on.
The discovery of global warming
A hypertext history of how scientists came to (partly) understand what people are doing to change the Earth's climate
Tiempo Climate Cyberlibrary
Global warming and the Third World (University of East Anglia)

GEsource Geography and Environment Gateway

Led by the GEsource team at the University of Manchester, GEsource is a free online catalogue of high quality Internet resources in geography and environmental science. Resources are selected, catalogued and indexed by researchers and other specialists in their respective fields.
[Synopsis] [Search] [Oil Depletion] [Economic Theory] [Scientific Consensus] [Food, Land, Water and Population] [Climate Change] [Disease] [Moral Theory] [Carrying Capacity] [Tragedy of The Commons] [Sustainability] [Ecology] [Systems] [Odds & Ends]
Ethical Trade Currents
Issue 2
Summer 2004

Climate, Energy and Poverty
OECD: Headquarters

Sustainable development and the new economy
Analysing the Nexus of Sustainable Development and Climate Change: An Overview (pdf, 478Kb,English)
View long abstract  09-Apr-2003
Mohan Munasinghe
This paper is a background document to the OECD Development and Climate Change Project. The analysis sketches out a broad framework to address the nexus of sustainable development and climate change.
Related documents:
Development and Climate Change Project - (English)
Science, the Environment, Economics and Sustainable Development (pdf, 111Kb,English)
View long abstract  19-Jun-2003

Environmental Priorities for China Sustainable Development (pdf, 287Kb,English)
View long abstract  03-Mar-2004

MODIS: rapid fire response system

The MODIS Rapid Response System was developed to provide daily satellite images of the Earth's landmasses in near real time. True-color, photo-like imagery and false-color imagery are available within a few hours of being collected, making the system a valuable resource for organizations like the U.S. Forest Service and the international fire monitoring community, who use the images to track fires; the United States Department of Agriculture Foreign Agricultural Service, who monitors crops and growing conditions; and the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the United States Air Force Weather Agency, who track dust and ash in the atmosphere.
The science community also uses the system in projects like the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), which studies particles like smoke, pollution, or dust in the atmosphere. More information about science and application partners, including links, is provided on our applications page. Captioned interpreted images for educators, the media, and the public are available through the Earth Observatory. The system is freely available everyone--scientists, operational users, educators, and the general public

New Scientist:
Climate Change
Global Environment Report
World Summit on Sustainable Development 2002
K. Bruno, J. Karliner & C. Brotsky:
Greenhouse Gangsters vs. Climate Justice
CorpWatchNovember 1st, 1999
This report documents how the companies not only contribute to global warming but also use their enormous power to DENY the problem, DELAY solutions, DIVIDE their opposition, DUMP their problems in the developing world, and DUPE the public into believing the problem is solved.

United Nations :
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
The Convention and Kyoto Protocol
Agenda 21
Tracking Earth satellites
The Albert Einstein Archive

The Einstein Archives Online Website provides the first online access to Albert Einstein’s scientific and non-scientific manuscripts held by the Albert Einstein Archives at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and to an extensive Archival Database, constituting the material record of one of the most influential intellects in the modern era.
The site allows viewing and browsing of approx. 3,000 high-quality digitized images of Einstein’s writings, available for viewing in two sizes: a standard resolution image, as well as a high-resolution image for closer inspection. This digitization of more than 900 documents written by Einstein was produced by the Jewish National & University Library’s Digitization Project and was made possible by generous grants of David and Fela Shapell

RRojas Databank is a United Nations Development Programme Exchange Link selection
Global Environment Outlook 1

Global Environment Outlook 2

Global Environment Outlook 3
CIESIN (Columbia University)
World Data Center for Human Interactions in the Environment
The Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) is a center within the Earth Institute at Columbia University. CIESIN works at the intersection of the social, natural, and information sciences, and specializes in on-line data and information management, spatial data integration and training, and interdisciplinary research related to human interactions in the environment.

World Resources Institute:
Agriculture and food
Biodiversity and protected areas
Business and economics
Climate change and energy
Coastal and marine ecosystems
Forests, grasslands and drylands
Governance and institutions
Population, health and human well-being
Resource and materials use
Water resources and freshwater ecosystems
CorpWatch: Climate Justice
David O’Connor, 2000, OECD:
Global capital flows and the environment in the 21st Century
Centre for European Economic Research(ZEW)
Letter written in the year 2070
Article published in the magazine "Crónicas de los Tiempos", in April 2002
(This is a presentation file (.pps) or .pdf

Education for Sustainability
Postgraduate courses on
Environment and
Development Education at
London South Bank University

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- Complete list of development themes
We stand for peace and justice
..." I stand for a world whose political, economic, and social institutions foster solidarity, promote equity, maximize participation, ...” ...
Full text here
Project for the First People's Century
"..."we... believe that the huge majority of the world's people are by now bitterly opposed to neo-con policies, which make a total..."
Full text here

Puro Chile la memoria del pueblo
Proyecto para el Primer Siglo Popular
Cambios climáticos

Director: Róbinson Rojas
Comercio international - Estadisticas
Educación para el Desarrollo Sustentable
Instituto de Recursos Mundiales:
Recursos Mundiales 2000-2001
Informes Control Ciudadano:
2004: Miedos y miserias. Obstáculos a la seguridad humana
2003: Los pobres y el mercado
2002: El impacto social de la globalización en el mundo
2001: La distribución de la riqueza
2000: Políticas nacionales contra la pobreza
1999: La globalización no está beneficiando a quienes más la necesitan
1998: La equidad
1997: La pobreza
1996: La pobreza
Otras publicaciones
Naciones Unidas :
Programa 21
Instituto del Tercer Mundo

El Instituto del Tercer Mundo ha ampliado y renovado el portal "Choike", un portal dedicado a
mejorar la visibilidad de las ONGs del sur en Internet.
Choike es la palabra con que los Mapuches designan la Cruz del Sur. Al señalar al sur, Choike ayuda a los usuarios a encontrar los destinos del sur en la red y de esa forma contribuye a aumentar la visibilidad y el impacto de lo que producen y publican las organizaciones de la sociedad civil en países en desarrollo.

Revista del Sur
Visite la última edición en línea de nuestra revista mensual.

Tercer Mundo Económico
Visite la última edición en línea de nuestro boletín mensual.

Ver más noticias y documentos:
Banco Mundial
Banco Comercial
Servicios públicos

Cumbre de Johannesburgo 2002

Situación de los bosques del mundo, 1997, 1999, 2001
Cumbre Mundial sobre Alimentación. Cinco años después. Junio 2002
El Estado Mundial de la Agricultura y la Alimentación 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 2000, 2001
El Estado de la Inseguridad Alimentaria en el Mundo 1999, 2000, 2001
Perspectivas del Medio Ambiente 2
(2000) ( Sumario )

Perspectivas del Medio Ambiente Mundial GEO3
30 marzo 2005
Expertos previenen que empeoran los cambios en los ecosistemas y peligran los objetivos del desarrollo mundial
Hoy se dio a conocer un estudio sin precedentes que revela que el 60% de los servicios de los ecosistemas que permiten la vida sobre la Tierra - como el agua dulce, la pesca, y la regulación del aire, el agua y el clima, de los desastres naturales y de las pestes - se están degradando o se los usa de manera no sostenible. Los científicos previenen que las consecuencias perniciosas de esa degradación pueden aumentar significativamente en los próximos 50 años.
“Cualquier progreso que se alcance en la consecución de los objetivos de erradicar la pobreza y el hambre, mejorar la salud y proteger el medio ambiente, probablemente no será sostenible si la mayoría de los servicios de los ecosistemas de los que depende la humanidad continúan degradándose”, afirma el estudio titulado Evaluación de los Ecosistemas del Milenio - Informe de síntesis, llevado a cabo por 1300 expertos de 95 países. En particular, el estudio afirma que la degradación actual de los servicios de los ecosistemas es un obstáculo para el logro de los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio, que los líderes del mundo adoptaron en las Naciones Unidas en 2000.

Evaluación de los Ecosistemas del Milenio.Informe de síntesis. Borrador final. 2005.  pdf, 1,162 KB
Acción Ecológica
Petróleo - Fumigaciones y Plan Colombia - Urbana - Bosques - Tratado de Libre Comercio - Minería - Transgénicos - Deuda Ecológica - Plaguicidas - Manglares - Biodiversidad - Soberanía Alimentaria - Otros Temas
De Acción Ecologica:
Agroterrorismo y Armas biológicas
Creemos en la paz y en la justica
..."Creo en un mundo cuyas instituciones políticas, económicas y sociales fomenten la solidaridad,  promuevan la equidad, maximicen la participación,... .”...
Lea texto completo
Proyecto para el Primer Siglo Popular
"...creemos que la abrumadora mayoría de la población mundial se opone fieramente a las politicas neoconservadoras,   las cuales son una negación de los principios básicos de libertad y democracia. ...".
Lea texto completo

Puro Chile la mémoire du peuple
Projet pour le Premier Siècle Populaire
Changements climatiques

Editeur: Róbinson Rojas
Commerce extérieure - Statistiques
Education pour un Développement Durable
OECD: Développement durable et nouvelle économie
Nations Unies :
Action 21
Sommet Mondial de l'Alimentation. Cinq ans Après (juin 2002)
Evaluation des Ressources Forestièrs
Sommet Mondial sur le développement durable 2002
Sommet de Johannesbourg 2002

Situation des forêts du monde, 1999, 2001
Sommet Mondial de l'Alimentation. Cinq ans Après (juin 2002)
La Situation Mondiale de l'Agriculture et de l'Alimentation 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 2000, 2001
L'état de l'insécurité alimentaire dans le monde 1999, 2000, 2001
L'avenir de l'environnement
mondial 3
GEO-3 (2002)
Le site francophone de le développement durable

Je suis pour la paix et la justice
"Je suis pour un monde dont les institutions politiques, économiques et sociales nourrissent la solidarité, promeuvent l'équité, maximisent la participation, célèbrent la diversité et encouragent la démocratie totale. Je suis pour la paix et la justice et, mieux, je m'engage à travailler pour la paix et la justice.”
tout le texte ici
Projet pour le Premier Siècle Populaire
"Nous ... pensons que la vaste majorité de la population mondiale est maintenant sévèrement opposée aux politiques néo-conservatrices, qui se moquent totalement des principes fondamentaux que sont la liberté et la démocratie. Nous proposons donc un cadre d’action pour l’établissement d’une véritable liberté et d’une véritable démocratie..."...
lire la declaration ici

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