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The political economy of development
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On Planning for Development:
 Urbanization and Development  Urbanization     Population*     Agglomeration economies  The right to the city
Castellano - Français   Editor: Róbinson Rojas Sandford
From WIDER working papers 2011
United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)

The work of UNFPA encompasses a wide range of issues (see menu bar). However, the three main areas of focus — reproductive health, women's empowerment, and population and development strategies — are inextricably linked. The ability to make free and informed childbearing decisions lies at their intersection.

Population issues   About     Worldwide   News   State of world population   ICPD & MDG follow up
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In the rural environment, land fragmentation, eroded slopes and degraded soils are contributing to poverty, hunger and migration. The unplanned rapid growth of cities, fed partly by migrants from rural areas, is creating intense pressure on local ecosystems and has, in some cases, overwhelmed environmental resources. Millions have settled in slums and shantytowns without adequate shelter and basic services, including clean water and sanitation.

Migration is a significant contributor to urbanization, as people move in search of social and economic opportunity. Environmental degradation and conflict may drive people off the land. Often people who leave the countryside to find better lives in the city have no choice but to settle in shantytowns and slums, where they lack access to decent housing and sanitation, health care and education—in effect, trading in rural for urban poverty.

United Nations Organization - Department of Economic and Social Affairs - Population Division
World Population Policies 2009

From UNU-WIDER working papers series 2010
From UN-HABITAT CITIES WITHOUT SLUMS: Sub-Regional Programme for Eastern and Southern Africa
Situation Analysis of Informal Settlements in Kampala
- 2007

Kampala is both the administrative and commercial capital city of Uganda situated on about 24 low hills that are surrounded by wetland valleys, characterized by an imprint of scattered unplanned settlements. This urban form is attributed to the dualism, which arose between the local Kibuga and Kampala Township or Municipality. The former was largely unplanned and unsanitary while the latter was fully planned and highly controlled. The emergency of slums in Kampala City has been gradual and sustained over a long period of time. It is attributed to the failure of Kampala Structure Plans to cater for the growth and development of African neighbours. Other factors that have contributed to this growth include: the rapid urban population growth, which has overwhelmed city authorities; land tenure systems which are complicated and multiple, together with poverty and low incomes amongst the urban population.






From United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)
State of the World Population 2009
How do population dynamics affect greenhouse gases and climate change? Will urbanization and an ageing population help or hinder efforts to adapt to a warming world? And could better reproductive health care and improved relations between women and men make a difference in the fight against climate change? Find the answers in the State of World Population 2009.
The whole world has been talking about carbon credits, carbon trading and emissions targets. But not enough has been said about the people whose activities contribute to those emissions or about those who will be most affected by climate change, especially women.
The climate-change debate needs to be reframed, putting people at the centre. Unless climate policies take people into account, they will fail to mitigate climate change or to shield vulnerable populations from the potentially disastrous impacts.

Previous Years' Reports

From "State of the World Population 2004", UNFPA
The Cairo Consensus at Ten: Population, Reproductive Health and The Global Effort to End Poverty

Migration and Urbanisation
During the past ten years, migration has increased, both within and between countries, and the phenomenon has grown in political importance.
Recognizing that orderly migration can have positive consequences on both sending and receiving countries, the ICPD Programme of Action (Chapters IX and X) called for a comprehensive approach to managing migration. It emphasized both the rights and well-being of migrants and the need for international support to assist affected countries and promote more interstate cooperation around the issue.

U.S. Census Bureau
Population Clocks

Total Middyear Population of the World. 1950-2050
Country Rankings
Largest countries for any year, 1950 to 2050.
World Population Information
Global population trends, links to historical population estimates, population clocks, and estimates of population, births, and deaths occurring each year, day, hour, or second.
Historical Estimates of World Population (-10000-1950
Population and Development/United Nations
From the World Bank database
World Bank Discussion Paper No. 415
Facets of Globalization. International and local dimensions of development
S. Yusuf, S. Evenett and J. Wei, editors
October 2001
The chapters in this volume underscore the transformative role of globalization and urbanization, and show the interplay between these forces. 
Trade reform and liberalized foreign investment regimes have contributed to the spatial reallocation of economic activity toward cities, especially those cities that can attract and nurture human capital and strong connections to other markets.
Global factors have, therefore, reinforced agglomeration economies in shifting economic clout toward cities, and in so doing they may be exacerbating regional disparities in incomes.
Cities Alliance Annual Reports

State of World Population 2012

By Choice, Not By Chance: Family Planning, Human Rights and Development

This flagship report analyzes data and trends to understand who is denied access and why. It examines challenges in expanding access to family planning. And it considers the social and economic impact of family planning as well as the costs and savings of making it available to everyone who needs it. The report asserts that governments, civil society, health providers and communities have the responsibility to protect the right to family planning for women across the spectrum, including those who are young or unmarried.
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State of World Population 2011

People and Possibilities in a World of 7 Billion

Seven billion people will inhabit the earth on 31 October. This year's State of World Population report, People and Possibilities in a World of 7 Billion, looks at the the dynamics behind the numbers. It explains the trends that are defining our world of 7 billion and documents actions that people in vastly different countries and circumstances are taking in their own communities to make the most of their--and our--world. The report makes the case for sound planning and investing in people.
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From Conflict and Crisis to Renewal 2010

Generations of Change

The release of the 2010 edition of the State of World Population report coincides with the 10th anniversary of UN Security Council resolution 1325, which recognizes and seeks to address the vulnerability of women and girls to violence during and after armed conflict, and the absence or low level of women’s representation in efforts to prevent war, build peace and restore devastated societies.
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At the Frontier

Young People and Climate Change

This youth supplement to UNFPA's flagship State of the World Population Report addresses climate change through the perspectives and experiences of seven young people (from Brazil, Marshall Islands, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Philippines and U.S.A.). It explores how environmental changes are affecting their lives, and what further climatic changes could mean for young people's lives, livelihoods, health, rights and development.
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State of World Population 2009

Facing a Changing World: Women, Population and Climate

This year's flagship report argues that reproductive health care, including family planning, and gender relations could influence the future course of climate change and affect how humanity adapts to rising seas, worsening storms and severe droughts. Women, especially impoverished women in developing countries, bear the disproportionate burden of climate change, but have so far been largely overlooked in the debate about how to address problems of rising seas, droughts, melting glaciers and extreme weather, the report concludes.
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Generation of Change: Young People and Culture

Youth Supplement: State of World Population 2008

This Youth Supplement to UNFPA's State of the World Population 2008 focuses on the interactions among culture, gender and human rights and the critical importance of culturally sensitive approaches for effective development policies and programmes. The report, which is the third in a series, addresses culture as it shapes and nurtures the lives of young people and shows how young people develop their own subcultures, which are often different from and may conflict with the dominant culture. The youth report points out the value to young people of protecting the culture in which they grew up, but it also speaks on behalf of their right to embrace their own cultures in their own ways.  
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State of World Population 2008

Reaching Common Ground: Culture, Gender and Human Rights

Culture is and always has been central to development. As a natural and fundamental dimension of people's lives, culture must be integrated into development policy and programming. This report shows how this process works in practice. The starting point of the report is the universal validity of the international human rights framework. The focus is therefore on discussing and showcasing how culturally sensitive approaches are critical for the realization of human rights in general and women's rights in particular.
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State of World Population 2007

Unleashing the Potential of Urban Growth

In 2008, for the first time, more than half of the world’s population will be living in urban areas. By 2030, towns and cities will be home to almost 5 billion people. The urban population of Africa and Asia will double in less than a generation. This unprecedented shift could enhance development and promote sustainability—or it could deepen poverty and accelerate environmental degradation.
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Growing Up Urban

State of World Population 2007: Youth Supplement

This is the second edition of the Youth Supplement to UNFPA’s State of World Population. The 2007 report focuses on urbanization; the Youth Supplement addresses the challenges and promises of urbanization as they affect young people.
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State of World Population 2006

A Passage to Hope: Women and International Migration

Today, half of all international migrants—95 million—are women and girls. Yet, despite substantial contributions to both their families at home and communities abroad, the needs of migrant women continue to be overlooked and ignored. The State of World Population 2006 report, A Passage to Hope: Women and International Migration, examines the scope and breadth of female migration, the impact of the funds they send home to support families and communities, and their disproportionate vulnerability to trafficking, exploitation and abuse.
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State of World Population 2005

The Promise of Equality: Gender Equity, Reproductive Health and the Millennium Development Goals

How do we improve the lives of the nearly 3 billion individuals living on less than two dollars a day? How can we enable all individuals — male and female, young and old — to protect themselves from HIV? To save the lives of more than 500,000 women who die each year in childbirth? What will it take to show young people living in poverty that they have a stake in development and a hope for the future? For perhaps the first time in history, questions such as these are not simply rhetorical. They have answers: answers that go to the very heart of what it means to be a woman or a man, wealthy or poor.
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State of World Population 2004

The Cairo Consensus at Ten: Population, Reproductive Health and The Global Effort to End Poverty

Countries are making real progress in carrying out a bold global action plan that links poverty alleviation to women's rights and universal access to reproductive health. Ten years into the new era opened by the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, the quality and reach of family planning programmes have improved, safe motherhood and HIV prevention efforts are being scaled up, and governments embrace the ICPD Programme of Action as an essential blueprint for realizing development goals.
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State of World Population 2003

Making 1 Billion Count: Investing in Adolescents' Health and Rights

Some 1.2 billion people--one person in five--are between ages 10 and 19, the largest number of adolescents in history. Half of them are poor; one in four live in extreme poverty, on less than $1 a day. This year's State of the World Population report examines their condition, in the context of changing social norms and lifestyles, including weakening of family support systems, amid globalization and urbanization.
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State of World Population 2002

People, Poverty and Possibilities

The State of the World Population 2002 report is a contribution to the discussion and a guide to action. This publication characterizes poverty by reviewing its many dimensions and looks at several of the key issues including, poverty and gender, poverty and health and poverty and education. It outlines a framework and provides recommendations to meet the poverty eradication goal of reducing the number of poor in half, by 2015. This publication comes complete with expert analysis, prescriptions for the future and a wealth of statistics, graphs and indicators.
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State of World Population 2001

Footprints and Milestones: Population and Environmental Change

Human activity is altering the planet on an unprecedented scale, the report points out. More people are using more resources with more intensity and leaving a bigger "footprint" on the earth than ever before. The report examines the close links between environmental conditions, population trends, and prospects for alleviating poverty in developing countries. It finds that expanding women's opportunities and ensuring their reproductive health and rights are critically important, both to improve the well-being of growing human populations and to protect the natural world.
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State of World Population 2000

Lives Together, Worlds Apart: Men and Women in a Time of Change

The report examines a broad range of evidence from around the world showing that systematic discrimination against women and girls causes extensive suffering and lost opportunities for both women and men, and holds back efforts to reduce poverty, improve health, stem the spread of HIV/AIDS and slow rapid population growth.
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State of World Population 1999

6 Billion: A Time for Choices

Women are having fewer children than ever before, and population growth has slowed from 2.0 to 1.3 per cent in 30 years. But large families in the recent past mean that there are many more women of childbearing age. Global population is still rising by about 78 million people a year. Half the world is under 25 and there are over a billion young people between 15 and 24, the parents of the next generation.
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State of World Population 1998

The New Generations

More young people than ever are entering their childbearing and working years. At the same time, the number and proportion of people over age 65 are increasing at an unprecedented rate. Our future will be shaped by how well families and societies meet the needs of these growing "new generations": education and health -- including reproductive health -- for the young, and social, medical and financial support for the elderly.
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State of World Population 1997

The Right to Choose: Reproductive Rights and Reproductive Health

Reproductive Rights and Reproductive Health gaps and failures in reproductive health care result in millions of deaths and permanent injuries, mostly to women in developing countries. The State of World Population 1997 report details progress and problems in attaining the right to reproductive and sexual health, and related rights to sexual and reproductive self-determination and security. It reviews the international human rights agreements that define and protect these rights, and examines the effects of denying them to millions of women and men.
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State of World Population 1996

Changing Places: Population, Development and the Urban Future

Within ten years, more than half the people in the world will be living in cities. Most of the urban population increase will be in developing countries. Investment in social development--in health, education and a better life for women--will be the key to whether urbanization will improve the lives of people or increase human misery.
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On Development
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Puro Chile la memoria del pueblo
Proyecto para el Primer Siglo Popular

Sector Informal:
C. Ball: La economía informal
Habilidades y competencias para el sector informal en América Latina: Una revisión de la literatura sobre programas y metodologías de formación, María Antonia Gallart, 2002 (ILO)
Programa IFP/SKILLS (Economía informal ) Capacitación laboral para el sector informal en Colombia - Jaime Ramírez Guerrero, Ginebra, OIT, 2003
Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo

Desarrollo Urbano:

Puro Chile la mémoire du peuple
Projet pour le Premier Siècle Populaire

L'economie informelle en Afrique