Counter visits from more than 160  countries and 1400 universities (details)

The political economy of development
This academic site promotes excellence in teaching and researching economics and development, and the advancing of describing, understanding, explaining and theorizing for planning for development.
About us- Castellano- Français - Dedication
Home- Themes- Reports- Statistics/Search- Lecture notes/News- People's Century- Puro Chile- Mapuche

On Planning for Development: the case of  People's Republic of China                  Editor: Róbinson Rojas Sandford
Mao Zedong selected works The Cultural Revolution Taiwan China: official information  Lewis Growth Model in China
Global Times | 2012-9-18
By Liu Linlin
The Ring of Poverty

Zhao Hanwen lives in Xinglong county, Hebei Province, about 150 kilometers away from Tiananmen Square. Although the distance is not that great geographically, Zhao and his wife inhabit a world that is vastly different from the capital.
Zhao and his fellow villagers are the last group of people near Beijing who still make a living farming. They drink water from wells and live in conditions that most Beijing residents would find unbearable. It takes them five hours to drive just 50 kilometers due to the poor road conditions in the mountains, according to a report in the 21st Century Business Herald

From Agricultural University of Hebei, P.R.China
By ZHAO Junyan and ZHANG Pengtao - 2008
Game Analysis on Coordinated Development in Beijing and Tianjin and Poverty-stricken Around Beijing and Tianjin

The existence of poverty belts around Beijing and Tianjin restricts ecological security and economic development in Jing-Jin-Ji (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei) regions. This paper defines firstly the scope of poverty belts around Beijing and Tianjin, and regarding on Beijing and Tianjin and the poverty belts around Beijing and Tianjin as the study area, then selects dynamic model and static model in perfect information, applies respectively to the game analysis on relationship of the Central government and local governments, of local governments by using game theory methods, finally draws the appropriate conclusions to promote regional coordinated development.

Xinhua Insight: Poverty belt around Beijing seeks green breakthroughs

Prosperous Beijing besieged by poor counties

Zhicheng Liang - June 2006
Threshold Estimation on the Globalization-Poverty Nexus. Evidence from China

China has experienced rapid integration into the global economy and achieved remarkable progress in poverty reduction over the last two decades. In this paper, by employing panel data covering twenty-five Chinese provinces over the period of 1986- 2002, and applying the endogenous threshold regression techniques, we empirically investigate the globalization-poverty nexus in China, paying particular attention to the nonlinearity of the impact of globalization on the poor. Estimation results provide strong evidence to suggest that there exists a threshold in the relationship between globalization and poverty: globalization is good for the poor only after the economy has reached a certain threshold level of globalization.

ADB. Technical Assistance Consultant’s Report
Project Number: 42127-01 - July 2009
Study on Elimination of Several Major Problems of the Poverty Belt around Beijing and Tianjin

This consultant’s report does not necessarily reflect the views of ADB or the Government concerned, and ADB and the Government cannot be held liable for its contents. (For project preparatory technical assistance: All the views expressed herein may not be incorporated into the proposed project’s design. People’s Republic of China: Facility for Policy Reform and Capacity Building III - (Financed by PATA 7313-PRC)
Sub-project 1.11: Study on Elimination of Several Major Problems of the Poverty Belt around Beijing and Tianjin

From Conference Papers, 8th International Telecommunications Society (ITS) Asia-Pacific Regional Conference,
Taiwan, 26 - 28 June, 2011: Convergence in the Digital Age
Provided in Cooperation with: International Telecommunications Society (ITS)
ECONSTOR: Der Open-Access-Publikationsserver der ZBW – Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft
The Open Access Publication Server of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics

160 characters for change: China's mobile urban-rural divide

Fugazzola, Caterina, University of San Francisco, June 2011
At the end of May 2002, China officially became the biggest mobile market of the world, surpassing any other country in the world with its 170 million mobile phone users1. The steady expansion of this market is far from uniform, as the development of information and communication technologies (ICTs) assumes a very different face in the urban, highly industrialized cities than in the less-developed countryside.
Such difference has accelerated the process of social and economic polarization initiated in 1978 with Deng Xiaoping's Open Door Policy, which marked the beginning of Chinese marketization under the declared plan of “letting some people get rich first.” It was years later, during the 1990s and especially after the 1997 financial crisis, that the real change in the government's strategy began to be concretely felt on a citizen level; the official introduction of the term “globalization” as a positive force for economic development “was accompanied by a rhetoric carefully constructed to justify it,” a rhetoric that minimized the negative effects of globalization portraying it “as a process which can be brought under control by the state.”

White Paper by the Government of People's Republic of China - 2010
China-Africa Economic and Trade Cooperation

"China is the largest developing country in the world, and Africa is home to the largest number of developing countries. The combined population of China and Africa accounts for over one-third of the world's total. Promoting economic development and social progress is the common task China and Africa are facing.
During their years of development, China and Africa give full play to the complementary advantages in each other's resources and economic structures, abiding by the principles of equality, effectiveness, mutual benefit and reciprocity, and mutual development, and keep enhancing economic and trade cooperation to achieve mutual benefit and progress. Practice proves that China-Africa economic and trade cooperation serves the common interests of the two sides, helps Africa to reach the UN Millennium Development Goals, and boosts common prosperity and progress for China and Africa."

From The World Bank - 2008
Building Bridges
China’s Growing Role as Infrastructure Financier for Africa

Vivien Foster, William Butterfield, Chuan Chen and Nataliya Pushak

In recent years, a number of emerging economies have begun to play a growing role in the finance of infrastructure in Sub-Saharan Africa. Their combined resource flows are now comparable in scale to traditional official development assistance (ODA) from OECD countries or to capital from private investors. These non-OECD financiers include China, India, and the Gulf states, with China being by far the largest player.
This new trend reflects a much more positive economic and political environment in Sub- Saharan Africa. Real GDP growth in the region has been sustained at 4 to 6 percent now for a number of years, and has benefited from an improved investment climate. The rise of the Chinese and Indian economies has fueled global demand for petroleum and other commodities. Africa is richly endowed with these and faces a historic opportunity to harness its natural resources and invest the proceeds to broaden its economic base for supporting economic growth and poverty reduction. In this context, south-south cooperation provides a channel through which the benefits of economic development in Asia and the Middle East can be transferred to the African continent, through a parallel deepening of trade and investment relations.

Executive Summary
Read on Economic Inequality, Poverty, Social Exclusion and Corruption in China
Real-World Economics Review Blog
2 February 2010
Wither China?
from  Lewis L. Smith
The biggest “wild card in the oil deck” is no longer some yet-to-be-commercialized technology. Nor is it a country harboring nests of terrorists. Nor it is a producing country like Iraq, Iran, Qatar or Saudi Arabia.  It is China, a net consumer.
In part, this is because of China’s economic, energy, environmental, military and political importance. However, the main reasons are two  —   the uncertainty surrounding the country’s  future and the uncertainty as to future actions of its government in the international sphere.
At $4.2 trillion [2008] , China’s economy is the third largest in the world, after the USA and Japan. By 2020, it will be the second largest.  From 1988 to 2008, its gross domestic product grew at extraordinary average annual rate compounded, almost 10%. It has the second largest army in the world.

Foreign Direct Investment, Domestic Investment, and Economic Growth in China: A Time Series Analysis
Sumei Tang, E. A. Selvanathan and S. Selvanathan - 2008
In this paper, we investigate the causal link between foreign direct investment (FDI), domestic investment and economic growth in China for the period 1988-2003. Towards this purpose, a multivariate VAR system with error correction model (ECM) and the innovation accounting (variance decomposition and impulse response function analysis) techniques are used. The results show that while there is a bi-directional causality between domestic investment and economic growth, there is only a single-directional causality from FDI to domestic investment and to economic growth. Rather than crowding out domestic investment, FDI is found to be complementary with domestic investment. Thus, FDI has not only assisted in overcoming shortage of capital, it has also stimulated economic growth through complementing domestic investment in China.

Foreign Direct Investment from China, India and South Africa in Sub-Saharan Africa: A New or Old Phenomenon?
John Henley, Stefan Kratzsch, Mithat Külür, and Tamer Tandogan - 2008
The burgeoning literature on outward foreign direct investment from emerging markets has largely focused on analysing the motives of investors as reported by parent companies. This paper, instead, focuses on firm-level investments originating from China, India or South Africa in fifteen host countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The analysis is based on a sub-set of firms drawn from the overall sample of 1,216 foreign-owned firms participating in the UNIDO Africa Foreign Investor Survey, carried out in 2005. The sample of investments originating from China, India and South Africa is analysed in terms of firm characteristics, past and forecast performance in SSA over three years and management’s perception of ongoing business conditions. Comparisons are made with foreign investors from the North. The paper concludes that while investors in SSA from the three countries are primarily using their investment to target specific markets, they are largely operating in different sub-sectors. While there appear to be specific features that firms from a given country of origin share, there are no obvious operating-level features they all share apart from market seeking.

Approaching a Triumphal Span: How Far Is China Towards its Lewisian Turning Point?
Fang Cai - 2008
With the aid of an analytical framework of the Lewis model revised to reflect the experience of China, this paper examines the country’s dualistic economic development and its unique characteristics. The paper outlines the major effects of China’s growth as achieved during the course of economic reform and the opening-up of the country: the exploitation of the demographic dividend, the realization of comparative advantage, the improvement of total factor productivity, and participation in economic globalization. By predicting the long-term relationship between the labour force demand and supply, the paper reviews the approaching turning point in China’s economic development and examines a host of challenges facing the country in sustaining growth.

China in the World Economy: Dynamic Correlation Analysis of Business Cycles
Jarko Fidrmuc and Ivana Bátorová - 2008
We analyse the business cycles in China and in selected OECD countries between 1992 and 2006. We show that, although negative correlation dominates for nearly all countries, we can also see large differences for various frequencies of cyclical developments. On the one hand, nearly all OECD countries show positive correlations of the very short-run developments that may correspond to intensive supplier linkages. On the other hand, business cycle frequencies (cycles with periods between 1.5 and 8 years) are typically negative. Nevertheless, countries facing a comparably longer history of intensive trading links tend to show also slightly higher correlations of business cycles with China.

Comparing Regional Development in China and India
Yanrui Wu - 2008
Economic growth in China and India has attracted many headlines recently. As a result, the literature comparing the two Asian giants has expanded substantially. This paper adds to the literature by comparing regional growth, disparity and convergence in the two economies. This is the first of its kind. The paper presents a detailed examination of economic growth in the regions of China and India over the past twenty years. It also provides an assessment of regional disparity in the two countries and investigates whether there is any evidence of regional convergence during the period of rapid economic growth. It attempts to identify the sources of regional disparity and hence draw policy implications for economic development in the two countries in the near future.

The Impact of Reform on Economic Growth in China: A Principal Component Analysis
Ligang Song and Yu Sheng - 2008
The study decomposes the sources of Chinese growth by first making a distinction between technological progress and technical efficiency in the growth accounting framework, and then identifying a series of reform programmes, such as urbanization, structural change, privatization, liberalization, banking and fiscal system reforms as the key components in institutional innovation which facilitate the improvement of technical efficiency and through which economic growth. These components are then incorporated into the model specification, which is estimated based on a panel dataset by applying the principal component analysis (PCA) to eliminate the multicollinearity problem. The results show that urbanization, liberalization and structural change in the form of industrialization are the most important components in contributing to the improvement of technical efficiency and hence growth, highlighting the importance of government policies aimed at enhancing further urbanization, openness to trade and industrial structural adjustments to sustain the growth momentum in China. The study also found that the potential for further enhancing growth through technical efficiency in China is considerable, which can be realized by deepening state-owned enterprises (SOEs) restructuring, and banking and fiscal system reform.

Measuring the Competitive Threat from China
Rhys Jenkins - 2008
In recent years there has been a growing literature that analyses the threat which Chinese exports pose to the exports of other developing countries. The paper provides a critique of the standard measures of export similarity which have been used to estimate the threat from China in these studies. Two alternative indices, the static and the dynamic index of competitive threat, are developed and estimated for 18 developing countries and compared with estimates for the standard measures. It is shown that the latter tend to underestimate the extent to which countries are threatened by China. They also distort both the rankings of countries according to the extent to which they face competition from China and the direction of change in the competitive threat over time.

Trade Expansion of China and India: Threat or Opportunity
Mahvash Saeed Qureshi and Guanghua Wan - 2008
By exploring the export performances and specialization patterns of China and India, we assess their trade competitiveness and complementarity vis-à-vis each other as well as with the rest of the world. Our analysis indicates that (i) India faces tough competition from China in the third markets especially in clothing, textile and leather products; (ii) there is a moderate potential for expanding trade between the two countries; (iii) China poses a challenge for the East Asian economies, the US, and most of the European countries especially in medium-technology industries; (iv) India appears to be a competitor mainly for its neighbouring South Asian countries; and (v) complementarity exists between the imports of China and India, and the exports of the US, some European states and East Asian countries, especially Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand, implying opportunities for trade expansion; and finally (vi) the export structure of China is changing with the exports of skill intensive and high-technology products increasing and those of labour-intensive products decreasing gradually. This suggests that challenges created by China in traditional labour-intensive products might reduce in the long run.

Jeffrey Henderson - 2008
China and the Future of the Developing World: The Coming Global-Asian Era and its Consequences
The rise of China as an economic and political ‘driver’ of the global economy is likely to be one of the defining moments of world history. Its dynamism and international expansion are on the verge of creating a ‘critical disruption’ in the global order that has held sway for over 60 years. As such, China is beginning to reshape the world, presaging a new phase of globalization: a ‘global-Asian era’. This new era is likely to be distinct from any of the earlier phases of globalization and China’s global footprint, in terms of its business, economic and political actions and their geopolitical implications, is likely to be markedly different from what has gone before. This paper offers a framework by which we can begin to understand the coming global-Asian era (GAE) and some of its consequences, particularly as the latter are surfacing in the developing world. Having discussed the nature and dynamics of the GAE, the paper turns to sketch a series of vectors (trade, aid and energy security) along which the GAE is beginning to impact on developing countries. The paper argues that, at least for these vectors, the Chinese-driven GAE is providing opportunities as well as dangers for national development projects. It concludes by briefly speculating on the viability of the GAE.

Jarko Fidrmuc and Ivana Bátorová - 2008
China in the World Economy: Dynamic Correlation Analysis of Business Cycles
We analyse the business cycles in China and in selected OECD countries between 1992 and 2006. We show that, although negative correlation dominates for nearly all countries, we can also see large differences for various frequencies of cyclical developments. On the one hand, nearly all OECD countries show positive correlations of the very short-run developments that may correspond to intensive supplier linkages. On the other hand, business cycle frequencies (cycles with periods between 1.5 and 8 years) are typically negative. Nevertheless, countries facing a comparably longer history of intensive trading links tend to show also slightly higher correlations of business cycles with China.

Haider A. Khan - 2008
China’s Development Strategy and Energy Security: Growth, Distribution and Regional Cooperation
This paper analyses both global and regional approaches to solving problems of energy security and ecological imbalance by addressing specifically the problems of China’s energy security. China’s growing energy dependence has become a major concern for both economic and national security policymakers in that country. The ambitious goal of modernization of the economy along the lines of the other newly industrialized economies (NIEs) of Asia has succeeded only too well, and it is difficult to reorient economic priorities. If examined rigorously, such an economic strategic assumption can be seen to entail the goal of creating further technological capabilities. In particular, China seems to be firmly committed to the creation of a largely self-sustaining innovation system as part of a knowledge-based economy of the future. Such innovation systems, called positive feedback loop innovation systems or POLIS have been created by advanced countries, and NIEs such as South Korea and Taiwan are proceeding to create these as well. But this will add to its energy burden and further dependence on the US as the power which controls the key sea lanes. Only a strategic reorientation to building a self-sustaining POLIS and appropriate

Jun Zhang - 2008
China’s Economic Growth: Trajectories and Evolving Institutions
This paper investigates the institutional reason underlying the change in the trajectory of economic growth in post-reform China, and argues that the trajectory of growth was much more normal during the period of 1978-89 than in the post-1989 era. In the former period, growth was largely induced by equality-generating institutional change in agriculture and the emergence of non-state industrial sector. In the latter period, growth was triggered by the acceleration of capital investments under authoritarian decentralized hierarchy within self-contained regions. Such a growth trajectory accelerates capital deepening, deteriorating total factor productivity and leads to rising regional imbalance. This paper further argues that the change in the trajectory of growth is the outcome of changes in political and inter-governmental fiscal institutions following the 1989 political crisis.

Yuqing Xing - 2008
China’s Exports in ICT and its Impact on Asian Countries
This paper analyses China’s ICT exports growth in its two major markets Japan and the US from 1992 to 2004. It focuses on ICT products classified in SITC 75, 76 and 77. The empirical results show that Chinese exports had maintained two-digit annual growth during the period. The growth was much higher than the corresponding growth of the overall markets. By 2004, Chinese ICT exports accounted for 26 per cent of the total Japanese imports and 19 per cent of the total imports of the US in ICT products. In addition, the paper investigates whether the rapid growth of Chinese ICT exports crowded out that of other Asian countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea and Thailand. The empirical analysis shows that the crowding out effect differs across countries and products. The exports of Singapore and Philippines have been negatively affected by the growth of Chinese exports, but no crowding effect existed at all with Indonesia’s exports

Rhys Jenkins - 2008
China’s Global Growth and Latin American Exports
China’s global expansion has led to concerns amongst other developing country exporters that they will be displaced by Chinese competition in their export markets. The paper develops a new index to measure the extent of the competitive threat which countries face from China, which is then applied to empirical data on US imports from China and 18 Latin American countries. It also presents new estimates of the impact of China on the value of Latin American exports to the US over the past decade, using an extension of constant market share analysis. It finds that, contrary to many previous studies, China has had a significant impact on the exports of a number of Latin American countries and that this has increased since China joined the WTO in 2001.

Yongqing Wang and Guanghua Wan - 2008
China’s Trade Imbalances: The Role of FDI
China has been running a large trade surplus with the rest of the world, particularly with the USA and EU. This has caused considerable diplomatic tensions and tremendous pressure on the Chinese currency. Existing analytical studies, however, mostly focus on real exchange rate and income as determinants of China’s trade imbalances. Little attention has been given to the role of inflow and outflow of foreign direct investment (FDI). The purpose of this paper is to fill in this gap in the literature by adding FDI to China’s trade balance model. Fitting aggregate annual data from 1979 to 2007 to SURE (Seemingly Unrelated Regression Equations) and later ARDL (Autoregressive Distributed Lags) models, we find that although outflow FDI does not play an important role in determining Chinese trade flows and trade balance, inflow FDI contribute significantly to Chinese exports and thus its trade surplus with the rest of the world. Interestingly, devaluation of the Chinese currency Yuan is found not to affect Chinese trade balance. We also find that both Chinese income and the income of the world play important roles in Chinese trade imbalance. Finally, we find that Chinese trade imbalance is stable.

Daniela Marconi and Valeria Rolli - 2008
Comparative Advantage Patterns and Domestic Determinants in Emerging Countries: An Analysis with a Focus on Technology
During the last two decades a number of emerging economies have become deeply engaged in technology-intensive production. This has been reflected in their international trade specialization shifting from labour-intensive goods towards capital-intensive ones, and in rapid productivity gains across all manufacturing activities. The paper investigates for a sample of sixteen emerging countries, the linkages between the pattern of revealed comparative advantages (RCAs), captured by a modified version of the Lafay index of international trade specialization, and the competitiveness structure of the domestic manufacturing sector, measured by a set of industry and country-specific variables. Positive and large RCAs are found to be associated with low unit labour costs in both low-technology (high labour-intensive) and medium- or high-tech sectors. On the other hand, domestic accumulation of physical capital is associated with positive and large RCAs in medium- or high technology sectors. The international disadvantage (negative RCAs) in technology-intensive production tends to deepen for countries with low human capital, whereas it diminishes for countries with large domestic markets importing technology through foreign capital goods.

Yanrui Wu - 2008
Comparing Regional Development in China and India
Economic growth in China and India has attracted many headlines recently. As a result, the literature comparing the two Asian giants has expanded substantially. This paper adds to the literature by comparing regional growth, disparity and convergence in the two economies. This is the first of its kind. The paper presents a detailed examination of economic growth in the regions of China and India over the past twenty years. It also provides an assessment of regional disparity in the two countries and investigates whether there is any evidence of regional convergence during the period of rapid economic growth. It attempts to identify the sources of regional disparity and hence draw policy implications for economic development in the two countries in the near future.

Kunwang Li, Ligang Song, and Xingjun Zhao - 2008
Component Trade and China’s Global Economic Integration
China’s engagement in the so-called international fragmentation of production – namely ‘cross-border dispersion of component production/assembly within vertically integrated manufacturing industries’ – has become an increasingly important form of its economic integration into the regional as well as the global economy. The paper presents the recent trend of trade in parts and components between China and its main trading partners. Applying an adjusted gravity modelling method, the paper explores how China’s pattern of trade in parts and components is being determined. The paper found that China’s rapid economic growth, increasing market size and economies of scale, foreign direct investment and infrastructure development including transportation and telecommunications are important factors in explaining China’s rapid increase of bilateral trade in parts and components with its trading partners. The paper also found that the spatial distance and transportation costs have significant negative impacts on China’s trade of parts and components suggesting that the reduction in transportation costs by technological innovation and investment could enhance trade in parts and components, and thereby deepen the process of international specialization involving China and its main trading partners. The paper argues that given the prospects of the rapid growth of the Chinese economy, its current and planned massive investments in R&D and in infrastructure, its continual policies in attracting FDI and its rapid move towards liberalizing its services sectors including its financial sectors, the scope for China and its trading partners to benefit from the process of international fragmentation of production is tremendous.

From Finance and Development - March 2008
Africa's Burgeoning Ties With China
Jian-Ye Wang and Abdoulaye Bio-Tchané
At the same time that Africa has a responsibility to maximize the benefits of its economic relationship with China and other nations, China has an important role to play in ensuring that its economic partnership with African countries is mutually beneficial.
(244 kb, pdf file)

From The Guardian - 29 December 2007
China abandons plans for huge dam on Yangtze
By David Stanway in Beijing
The Guardian
China has abandoned controversial plans to build a huge dam which would have submerged one of the country's most renowned tourist areas and forced the relocation of 100,000 residents in the south-western province of Yunnan.
In a rare and high-profile victory for China's environmental movement, the project at Tiger Leaping Gorge on the upper reaches of the Yangtze river was scrapped during a meeting in the provincial capital, Kunming.

New Left Review 46, July-August 2007
The Chinese Road
Cities in the Transition to Capitalism

By Richard Walker and Daniel Buck
Modern China is undergoing a relentless process of transformation, from the forests of construction cranes in its coastal cities to the gargantuan infrastructure projects in its interior. Its economic trajectory has been equally dramatic: China is now ranked 4th in the world by gdp, rising from 11th in 1990. A range of developments testify to its rapid progress along the path to a capitalist economy: the commodification of land and labour, emergence of private firms, formation of finance capital, among many others.
Yet China scholars have been curiously reluctant to apply the classic Marxist idea of a transition to capitalism—and its corollary, primitive accumulation—to the Chinese case. Instead, they quite loosely use terms such as globalization, marketization, post-socialism, reform era and market socialism, seemingly unaware of how closely the transformations under way in China compare with the development of capitalism in Europe and North America—not to mention many other ‘late developers’ in Asia and Latin America.
The PRC’s breakneck transition to capitalism seen through the prism of 19th-century Europe and America, as its cities rehearse the processes analysed by Marx: commodification of land and labour, formation of markets and capitalist elites. What lessons might the West’s past hold for China’s future?

United Nations Development Program: China
UNDP is the UN's global development network, advocating for change and connecting countries to knowledge, experience and resources to help people build a better life. We are on the ground in 166 countries, working with them on their own solutions to global and national development challenges. As they develop local capacity, they draw on the people of UNDP and our wide range of partners.
In China, UNDP fosters human development to empower women and men to build better lives. As the UN’s development network, UNDP draws on a world of experience to assist China in developing its own solutions to the country’s development challenges. Through partnerships and innovation, UNDP works to achieve the Millennium Development Goals and an equitable Xiao Kang society by reducing poverty, strengthening rule of the law, promoting environmental sustainability, and fighting HIV/AIDS.

From the Asian Development Bank
Methodology of Country Poverty Alleviation in China
A report on methods, guidelines and processes

Table of Contents, Acknowledgements, and Executive Summary [ 33 pages ]

  1. Principles and philosophy underlying County Poverty Alleviation Planning (CPAP) 42 pages
    • Introduction
    • Institutional Change, Governance and Important Poverty Policies
    • Motivation for Change in National Poverty Policy
    • Monitoring Poverty Reduction
    • Principles of County Poverty Alleviation Planning (CPAP)
    • The Poverty Pyramid: A Structural and Philosophical Framework for CPAP
  2. Poor Village Identification [ 31 pages ]
    • Methods and Procedures
    • Procedures and methods
  3. Village Poverty Reduction Planning [ 16 pages ]
    • Principles
    • Methods and procedures
    • SWOT & proposal feasibility analysis
    • Beneficiary analysis
    • From project ideas to technical specifications, indicative budgets, and resource bids
    • Presentation of a Simple village logframe
  4. Integration of CPAP into Development Planning [ 20 pages ]
    • Introduction
    • Procedures and methods
  5. The Economic Perspectives on Poverty Reduction in Rural China [ 12 pages ]
    • Identifying sources of income in poverty counties
    • Economic aspects of livelihood systems of the poor
    • Production potential and constraints in China’s Poverty CountiesAnalyzing the industrial and agricultural basis for poverty reduction planning of county
    • Poverty Reduction in Poverty Counties
    • Rural credit and market-oriented microfinance for poverty reduction
    • Recommendations and Conclusions
  6. A Sociological Research on Poverty in China [  22 pages ]
    • The general characteristics
    • Causes of poverty
    • Participatory poverty evaluation on the vulnerable groups
    • Organizing the participation of poor women in the poverty alleviation planning
    • Analysis on the village and county poverty alleviation development planning
    • Function of non-government organizations in planning and developing of poverty alleviation programs
    • The issue of migration in poverty alleviation
    • Recommendations and policy implications for the planning of participatory poverty alleviation at the county level
  7. Infrastructure Issues in County Poverty Alleviation Planning of China [  27 pages ]
    • Impacts of Infrastructure Development on Poverty
    • Poverty Characteristics and Needs for Infrastructure
    • Costs and Benefits of Infrastructure Investment
    • Poor Participation in Infrastructure Construction and Maintenance
    • Prioritization of Infrastructure Investment
    • Regional Development and Infrastructure
  8. A Sociological Research on Poverty in China [ PDF: 319 KB | 32 pages ]
    • Introduction
    • Summary of the training courses
    • Annex
  9. Appendixes [  99 pages ]
    • Poverty Alleviation and Community Development Planning for Haizigou Village, Xiaobazi Township, Fengning County, Hebei Province
    • Development of Poverty Reduction Planning Methodology
    • Poverty Alleviation and Development Program

    List of Tables

From the data files of the World Bank
How to Order
Dancing with the giants: China, India, and the global economy - 2007
Authors: Yusuf, Shahid and Winters, L. Alan
Abstract: This report takes a dispassionate and critical look at the rise of China and India, and asks questions about this growth: Where is it occurring? Who is benefiting most? Is it sustainable? And what are the implications for the rest of the world? The book considers whether the Giants' growth will be seriously constrained by weaknesses in governance, growing inequality, and environmental stresses, and it concludes that this need not occur. However, it does suggest that the Chinese and Indian authorities face important challenges in keeping their investment climates favorable, their inequalities at levels that do not undermine growth, and their air and water quality at acceptable levels. The authors also consider China's and India's interactions with the global trading and financial systems and their impact on the global commons, particularly with regard to climate. The book finds that the Giants' growth and trade offer most countries opportunities to gain economically. However, many countries will face strong adjustment pressure in manufacturing, particularly those with competing exports and especially if the Giants' technical progress is strongly export- enhancing. For a few countries, mainly in Asia, these pressures could outweigh the economic benefits of larger markets in, and cheaper imports from, the Giants; and the growth of those countries over the next fifteen years will be slightly lower as a result. The Giants will contribute to the increase in world commodity and energy prices but they are not the principal cause of higher oil prices. The Giants' emissions of CO2 will grow strongly, especially if economic growth is not accompanied by steps to enhance energy efficiency. At present, a one-time window of opportunity exists for achieving substantial efficiency improvements if ambitious current and future investment plans embody appropriate standards. Moreover, doing so will not be too costly or curtail growth significantly. From their relatively small positions at present, the Giants will emerge as significant players in the world financial system as they grow and liberalize. Rates of reserve asset accumulation likely will slow, and emerging pressures will encourage China to reduce its current account surplus.


Invasive Snail, Other Species Threaten China's Eco-Security
Zijun Li – September 12, 2006 – 5:03am
Over the past three months, the Amazonian Snail, also known as the golden apple snail, has wreaked havoc on public health and agricultural land in China. Since June, the city of Beijing has reported 131 cases of people infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis, a lungworm parasite carried by the mollusk, which is native to South America.

China to Invest in "Combustible Ice" As New Energy Source, Bringing Potential Environmental Threats
Yingling Liu – September 7, 2006 – 5:51am
Over the next decade, China plans to invest 800 million RMB (US $100 million) in the development of methane gas hydrate—so-called “combustible ice”—to meet its rising energy demand and alleviate heavy dependence on fossil fuels.

Acid Rain Affects One-Third of China; Main Pollutants Are Sulfur Dioxide and Particulate Matter
Zijun Li – August 31, 2006 – 12:32am
Acid rain caused by worsening air pollution now affects one-third of China’s landmass, threatening soil quality and food safety, according to Sheng Huaren, vice chairman of the standing committee of China’s National People’s Congress.

China to Charge for Urban Sewage Treatment Later This Year
Zijun Li – August 24, 2006 – 8:03pm
China's urban citizens will soon be facing higher water bills as the country imposes a new charge for city sewage treatment later this year.

China's Income Gap Widening; ADB Says Addressing Rural Poverty is the Solution
Zijun Li – August 22, 2006 – 5:18am
A recent study by China’s National Development Reform Commission reports that the country’s Gini Index, a measure of household income distribution, has reached 0.4 (up from 0.37 in 2003), indicating that the rich-poor gap nationwide continues to grow.
From The World Bank - September 2006
Africa's Silk Road:
China and India's New Economic Frontier

China and India Breaking New Economic Ground in Africa; South-South Trade and Investment Create Imbalance, Opportunities
From Monthly Review - July-August 2006
Conditions of the Working Classes in China
By Robert Weil
This article is based primarily on a series of meetings with workers, peasants, organizers, and leftist activists that I participated in during the summer of 2004, together with Alex Day and another student of Chinese affairs. It is part of a longer paper that is being published as a special report by the Oakland Institute. The meetings took place mainly in and around Beijing, as well as in Jilin province in the northeast, and in the cities of Zhengzhou and Kaifeng in the central province of Henan. What we heard reveals in stark fashion the effects of the massive transformations that have occurred in the three decades following the death of Mao Zedong, with the dismantling of the revolutionary socialist policies carried out under his leadership, and a return to the "capitalist road," leaving the working classes in an increasingly precarious position. A rapidly widening polarization-in a society that was among the most egalitarian-is occurring between extremes of wealth at the top and growing ranks of workers and peasants at the bottom whose conditions of life are daily worsening. Exemplifying this, the 2006 Fortune list of global billionaires includes seven in mainland China and one in Hong Kong. Though their holdings are small compared to those in the United States and elsewhere, they represent the emergence of a full-blown Chinese capitalism. Rampant corruption unites party and state authorities and enterprise managers with the new private entrepreneurs in a web of alliances that are enriching a burgeoning capitalist class, while the working classes are exploited in ways that have not been seen for over half a century.
From United Nations University
World Institute for Development Economic Research:

Martin Ravallion:
Externalities in Rural Development: Evidence for China
(PDF 226KB)
The paper tests for external effects of local economic activity on consumption and income growth at the farm household level using panel data from four provinces of post-reform rural China. The tests allow for nonstationary fixed effects in the consumption growth process. Evidence is found of geographic externalities, stemming from spillover effects of the level and composition of local economic activity and private returns to local human and physical infrastructure endowments. The results suggest an explanation for rural underdevelopment arising from underinvestment in certain externality-generating activities, of which agricultural development emerges as the most important.

RP2004/56 Yin Zhang and Guanghua Wan: Output and Price Fluctuations in China’s Reform Years: What Role did Money Play? (PDF 219KB)

RP2004/55 Yin Zhang and Guanghua Wan: What Accounts for China’s Trade Balance Dynamics? (PDF 216KB)

RP2004/54 Yin Zhang and Guanghua Wan: China’s Business Cycles: Perspectives from an AD–AS Model (PDF 191KB)

RP2006/48 Justin Yifu Lin, Mingxing Liu, Shiyuan Pan, and Pengfei Zhang: Development Strategy, Viability, and Economic Institutions: The Case of China (PDF 206KB)

From The Economist - 10 August 2006
Chaos in the classroom
An education policy torn between the market and the state
The students at Shengda Economics, Trade and Management College, in the quiet rural town of Longhu, in the central province of Henan, are among the most privileged in China. So why did they go on a rampage at the beginning of summer? In June thousands of them stormed through the grounds of their college, smashing windows and throwing stones at police cars. It was one of the biggest and most unruly protests on a university campus reported in China since the 1980s.
From The Economist - 30 March 2006
The white peril
China is starting to worry about the size and impact of the foreign investment it has so assiduously courted.
“HEAVEN help China,” said a front-page headline last December in China Industry News, a normally staid state-owned daily paper. For four months, the newspaper had been running a series of reports into takeovers of Chinese machine manufacturers by foreign companies. If such buy-outs of key firms were allowed to continue unfettered, the newspaper quoted “experts” as saying, China would lose the high-value-added core of industry built up by the “hard struggle of successive generations” since the communist takeover in 1949.
From The Economist - 16 March 2006
Commuting poverty
Poor peasants surround Beijing

“EUROPEAN cities with an African countryside” is how a report published in China this month describes the gap between booming Beijing, the nearby port-city of Tianjin and a “belt of poverty” around them. It is an exaggeration. No Chinese city has western European levels of development, and African-style deprivation is rarely seen in China. Yet the gap is huge and growing. For increasingly vocal critics of China's imbalanced development, it is a particularly alarming example."
From The New York Times - 12 March 2006
A Sharp Debate Erupts in China Over Ideologies
By Joseph Kahn
"For the first time in perhaps a decade, the National People's Congress, the Communist Party-run legislature now convened in its annual two-week session, is consumed with an ideological debate over socialism and capitalism that many assumed had been buried by China's long streak of fast economic growth.
The controversy has forced the government to shelve a draft law to protect property rights that had been expected to win pro forma passage and highlighted the resurgent influence of a small but vocal group of socialist-leaning scholars and policy advisers. These old-style leftist thinkers have used China's rising income gap and increasing social unrest to raise doubts about what they see as the country's headlong pursuit of private wealth and market-driven economic development.
BBC World - 23 November 2005
China city braces for toxic spill
Residents of one of China's biggest cities are bracing for the arrival of a toxic chemical spill following an industrial accident on its river. Authorities have shut off water to Harbin after confirmation that the accident 10 days ago sent pollution downstream towards the city.  "Benzene levels were 108 times above national safety levels," said China's Environment Protection Administration.
China's murky waters
An alert about industrial pollution threatening the Chinese city of Harbin has cast the spotlight on the huge challenge China faces improving its water system, as the BBC's Nick Mackie reports from Chongqing. In the forested hills above the smoggy central Chinese city of Chongqing, a tiny brook trickles through the tall bamboo. It is called the Qingshuixi, or "pure stream". Among the trees, a metre-high concrete dam forms a pool that holds around a barrel of clear water. This is the reservoir for over 30 households who live 100 metres downhill and collect their supplies in buckets. In a country where booming headlines boast near-double digit growth, this may seem primitive. But the families here are actually lucky, and certainly better off than the Chinese government's estimate of 360 million people who lack access to safe drinking water

Clean water crisis
30 June 2005
China's rapid economic growth has left its rivers polluted and more than 300 million people without clean drinking water, a top lawmaker has said. The lawmaker, Sheng Huaren, said laws to prevent pollution had failed. Beijing has asked local authorities to improve water standards, but with no promise of funding it is unlikely any action will be taken. A BBC correspondent in Beijing says more than 90% of urban China already suffers from some degree of water pollution.
From - June 5 2005
Rumsfeld: China's Military Buildup a Threat
The Associated Press
Saturday, June 4, 2005; 6:44 AM
SINGAPORE -- China's military buildup, particularly its positioning of hundreds of missiles facing Taiwan, is a threat to Asian security, Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld said Saturday.
Rumsfeld rebuked China at a regional security conference here, saying it was pouring huge resources into its military and buying large amounts of sophisticated weapons despite facing no threat from any other country.
The official Chinese answer to Rumsfeld's attack
Don Quixote in the Pentagon
Since the formation of the new interim Iraqi government and the shift of US army's main task to the training of new army and police for Iraq, senior officers of the Pentagon, like Don Quixote, are again seeking new rivals worldwide, thus beginning to preach the "China threat theory", of whom, the most energetic trumpeter is Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld.
14 April 2005 - From The New York Times
Rural Chinese Riot as Police Try to Halt Pollution Protest
By Jiam Hardley
Thousands of people rioted Sunday in a village in southeastern China, overturning police cars and driving away officers who had tried to stop elderly villagers from protesting against pollution from nearby factories, witnesses said Wednesday.
By Wednesday afternoon, the witnesses say, crowds convened in the village, Huaxi, in Zhejiang Province to gawk at a stunning tableau of destroyed police cars and shattered windows. Police officers were reported to be barring reporters from the scene, but local people reached by telephone said villagers controlled the riot area.
From The Economist - 10 April 2005
The silent majority
Beihe village, Shandong
A rare look inside a Chinese village
IN A country where 800m people, about 60% of the population, live in the countryside on an average income of less than a dollar a day, rural backwardness weighs heavily on the minds of China's leaders as they dream of joining the ranks of the world's leading economies. And in a country whose Communist Party came to power on the back of a peasant rebellion, distant memories of the vehemence of rural discontent arouse fears that unless something is done to make peasants happier, China will be plunged into turmoil. To assess China's future, it is crucial to understand the countryside. But it is not easy. Despite China's increasing openness to prying foreign eyes, the dynamics of village life remain hidden away. Although the Chinese media report extensively on rural problems, foreign journalists require government approval to conduct interviews in the countryside (as indeed, in theory, they do for any off-base reporting in China).
1 March 2005
The U.S. and China - The Global Economy's Odd Couple

By Guy Pfeffermann and Bernard Wasow
The United States and China are united in some strange ways, including that they are both experiencing greater income inequality. They also engage in some other risky economic policies. Guy Pfeffermann and Bernard Wasow explore the reasons behind the U.S.-Chinese cycle of mutual dependence.
3 books that can change your mind in 2005 about the geo-politic and geo-economic dynamics going on
Interviews by Jorge Nascimento Rodrigues , editor of, January 2005

The China Factor and the Overstretch of the US hegemony
George Zhibin Gu, Chinese consultant based in Shenzhen and author of the forthcoming "China's Global Reach" (Haworth Press, US)
Chalmers Johnson, president of the Japan Policy Research Institute and author of "The Sorrows of Empire" (Metropolitan Books, US)
André Gunder Frank, associate of the Luxembourg Institute for Education and International Studies and author of the forthcoming "ReOrient the Nineteenth Century" (a sequel of his 1998's "ReOrient")
Note by Róbinson Rojas: I recommend A. G. Frank paper "Meeting Uncle Sam -without clothes..." for a deeper understanding of his remarks in the above interview
Published in Monthly Review website, January 2005
On December 24, 2004, Maoists in China get three year prison sentence for leafleting
When liberal writers Liu Xiaobo and Yu Jie were recently (and briefly) detained by Chinese police, there was a world wide chorus of denunciation. The liberal writers' endorsement of the U.S. aggression in Iraq made them even more heroic in the eyes of the Murdoch-dominated press. Not surprisingly, there has been no coverage whatsoever of a more egregious case of crackdown on dissent—because it is dissent from the left. On December 21, 2004, four Maoists were tried in Zhengzhou for having handed out leaflets that denounced the restoration of capitalism in China and called for a return to the “socialist road.”
Rivers Run Black, and Chinese Die of Cancer
September 12, 2004
By JIM YARDLEY, The New York Times
Note by Róbinson Rojas: This investigation by Jim Yardley illustrates what the Chinese capitalist ruling class is doing in China to make of its economy a "powerhouse" for the enrichment of the few and the suffering of the many. This is what some of  us define as  "savage capitalism". Of course, this local environmental catastrophe help to make even more dramatic the global environmental catastrophe, both driven by the partnership between the Chinese capitalist class and the international capitalist class. It seems to me that international public action is necessary to stop this crime against the Chinese population and life on planet earth.
OECD document:
Environmental Priorities for China Sustainable Development (pdf, 287Kb,English)
View long abstract  03-Mar-2004

China's growing pains
Aug 19th 2004
From The Economist print edition
The dark side of China's stunning boom includes pollution and a collapsing state health-care system
China's Land Grabs Raise Specter of Popular Unrest
Peasants Resist Developers, Local Officials
By Edward Cody
Washington Post Foreign Service
October 5, 2004
FUZHOU, China -- A half-dozen policemen burst into Lin Zhengxu's home and grabbed him as he awoke from an afternoon nap. After beating and kicking him, family and neighbors recalled, the policemen immobilized Lin's arms by pulling his shirt halfway over his head. Then they tried to carry him off to jail. But the police had not counted on Lin's friends and neighbors. After years of fighting back against the government's seizure of their rice paddies and vegetable plots, they fought to help the man leading their battle.
D. T. Rowland, 1992
Family characteristics of internal migration in China
Social factors and family considerations play an important part in shaping migration patterns and influencing outcomes
China's economic reforms likely to increase internal migration
(October 2002) Despite the restrictions and economic penalties associated with migration in China, large numbers of rural Chinese are leaving their villages for cities and coastal provinces, and many more will likely do so now that China is a full member of the World Trade Organization (WTO).
From The Economist - April 2000
Demystifying China. A Survey
Cai Fang, 2000
The invisible hand and visible feet: internal migration in China
As a part of traditional planned economy, population migration and labor mobility in China were strictly controlled by the authorities before the 1980s. To be more precise, cross-regional migration was controlled by public security departments and it was almost impossible to make any rural-urban migration without authoritative plans or official agreement; Industrial transfer of labor force was controlled by departments of labor and personnel management, and there was no free labor market at all. But the most strictly controlled were the transfer from rural to urban areas, and from farmers to non-agricultural workers. This control has functioned through the Household Registration System (Hukou System), a typical Chinese registration system of permanent residence that segregates rural and urban areas strictly.

Chen Chunlai, 1997:
Provincial characteristics and foreign direct investment location decision within China
Chen Chunlai, 1997:
The location determinant of Foreign Direct Investment in developing countries
Chen Chunlai, 1997:
Comparison of investment behaviour of source countries in China
I. Ramonet, August 2004
China wakes up and alarm the world
Human Rights in China
Shanghai Urban Environment Project
DP 2001/76 Qingxuan Meng and Mingzhi Li: New Economy and ICT Development in China  

Laixiang Sun: Economics of China's Joint-Stock Co-operatives

DP2002/13 Jiahua Che: From the Grabbing Hand to the Helping Hand: A Rent Seeking Model of China's Township-Village Enterprises 

Moscow Takes Charge of Chinese-Russian Trade Relations
Moscow's fear of Beijing's encroaching economic power is prompting Russia to erect trade barriers against its southern neighbor. Russia will continue to sell China oil and weapons -- but on Russian terms.
Country Economic Memorandum (WB 15/Sept./2003)
China. Promoting Growth with Equity

"International experience suggests that the effect of globalization on economic growth, poverty and income distribution can vary significantly among countries, and that its impact depends crucially on national policies. This report assesses the possible patterns of inequality in China in the future, and outlines policy options that could help accomplish China ' s objective of growth with equity. For sustaining growth, the report emphasizes the freer flow of resources and goods and services in the economy, to be achieved by domestic market integration and flexibility. The report suggests that the cost of market fragmentation and rigidities is high, and highlights measures to reduce local protectionism, facilitate migration, and commercialize the banking sector. To optimize the results of domestic market integration and promote growth with equity, the report proposes a package of policy actions that would promote new job opportunities, especially in the less developed regions, and raise returns on farm labor and land. Among these, the report highlights investing in people, promoting the diffusion of technology, facilitating urban agglomeration, expanding services and enhancing farmers ' prospects. Finally, the report tackles the social, economic and fiscal risks that may threaten future growth and distributional performance. In particular, it suggests extending different types of formal social security in both urban and rural areas, for fixing the inter- government fiscal system in order to facilitate the provision of public services, and for managing fiscal risk beyond the government budget and officially recognized debt..."
World Bank: World Development Indicators 2001 for China
Background of NIPR's China Research
China Dimensions Data Collection:
A variety of socioeconomic data including Geographic Information System (GIS) databases that cover the administrative regions of China, presented at a scale of 1:1,000,000. These databases may be integrated with agricultural, land use, environmental, and socioeconomic data to track China's economic growth, population increases, and environmental change.
IIASA: Can China feed itself? A System for Evaluation of Policy
In Focus: China in the WTO: the debate
Haishun Sun Dilip Dutta: China's economic growth during 1984-93: a case of regional dualism
T. Heberer: The peasantry as the motive force for change in the People's Republic of China
In Focus: The big issues in U.S.-China relations:the silent debate
China's intelligence on U.S. nuclear arsenal:
Stolen Technology Used in Three Years (Financial Times)

Overview of the Cox report
PRC Theft of U.S. Nuclear Warhead Design Information
High Performance Computers (Edited by Dr. Róbinson Rojas)
Satellite Launches in the PRC - Loral
Satellite Launches in the PRC - Hughes
U.S. Export Policy Toward the PRC
Launch Site Security in the PRC
Manufacturing Processes
PRC Missile and Space Forces
Commercial Space Insurance
The Cox Report
(The United States House of Representatives)
Washington Post: China
CIA World Factbook 1997: China
The World Bank: East Asia and the Pacific
Inside China Today — Service of the European Information Network, Inc.
Reuters : China to shutter small steel plants ( January 2000)
Dai Xiaohua: 'East Asian Model': A few problems, but it works
China's Financial Reform: Achievements and Challenges.
B. Naughton
Institutional Implications of WTO Accession for China.
R. Steinberg

D.Welker: The Chinese Military-Industrial Complex Goes Global, 1997
M. Noland: China and the international economic system, 1995

Amei Zhang: Economic Growth and Human Development in China, 1996
Y. Fernandez and P. Tonchev: China in East Asia: from isolation to a regional superpower status (1998)

China Academic Journal Publications

China WWWVL-Internet Guide for China Studies

Human rights in China

China Informed
Society for Anglo-Chinese Understanding
The South China Morning Post Internet Edition
China News Digest
Digital Chinese Library (University of California)
Yahoo on China

China and the IMF
China-US Relations...........................Back
M. Noland: US-China Economic Relations-1996
United States Trade
Taiwan.......                                                     .Back
Asia and the Pacific
Taiwan statistical yearbooks
National Statistics
Government Information Office
Taiwan Security Research
Cultural Revolution....................................Back
Decision Concerning The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (Adopted on 8 August 1966, by the CC of the CCP)
Chang Chun-chiao:On Excercising All-round Dictatorship over the bourgeoisie
Yao Wen-yuan:On The Social Basis Of The Lin Piao Anti-Party Clique
Routledge Encyclopaedia of Philosophy: Chinese Marxism
R.Rojas:Class Stratification in the Chinese Countryside (1979)
R.Rojas:Class Analysis in Socialist China (1977)
R.Rojas:The Chinese attempt to build a socialist society (notes)
R.Rojas:On the cultural revolution (1968)
R.Rojas:The end of the Chinese revolution (1978)
International Trade..............................Back
Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China
Statistics on Imports and Exports
China: Exports 1985-1996
China: Imports 1985-1996 China: Trade by country, 1993-1996
Ninth Ministerial Meeting of the Group of 77 and China on Globalization (1999)
Hong Kong...........................            .........Back
HK Government Information Centre
Hong Kong Trade Development Council
Washington Post: Hong Kong
Apple Daily
Asia Times
Express News

Hong Kong Commercial Daily
Hong Kong Racing Journal

Hong Kong Standard
Ming Pao
The Saint News Sing Tao
South China Morning Post
Ta Kung Pao
Mao Zedong selected works................Back
On class analysis
Analysis of the classes in Chinese society (1926)
How to differentiate the classes in the rural areas (1933)
On political and economic work
Report on an investigation of the peasant movement in Hunan (1927)
Why is it that red political power can exist in China? (1928)
On correcting mistakes ideas in the Party (1929)
Pay attention to economic work (1933)
Our Economic Policy (1934) Be concerned with the well-being of the masses, pay attention
to methods of work (1934)
On protracted war (1938)
In memory of Norman Bethune (1939)
On new democracy (1940)
On epistemology
On Practice. On the relation between knowledge and practice, between knowing and doing (1937)
On Contradiction (1937)
On the Ten Great Relationships (1956)
On the Soviet betrayal of the socialist revolution
On Khrushchov's phoney communism and its historical lessons (1964)
Refutation of the so-called party of the entire people (1964)
The polemic on the general line of the international communist movement
On bureaucratic socialism
Reading Notes on the Soviet Text ‘Political Economy’  (1961-1962)
Concerning ‘Economic Problems of Socialism in the USSR’  (November 1958)
Critique of Stalin’s ‘Economic Problems of Socialism in the USSR’

Read also:
Mao Zedong Works - Marxists Internet  Archive
Texts by Mao Zedong published by the Maoist Internationalist Movement

Official information from People's Republic of China:
Premier Wen delivers gov't work report
to CPPCC Annual Session 2009
GDP to grow by 8%            

CPI to rise around 4%

Fiscal deficit budget of 950 bln yuan

To allocate 42 bln yuan to offset unemployment

Urban unemployment rate under 4.6%

Urban employment to increase by over 9 million
43 bln yuan to build low-rent houses 120 bln yuan added to boost agriculture

NPC,  CPPCC Annual Sessions 2009

5 March 2011
NPC starts annual session 2011
Key targets of China's 12th five-year plan
China strives to readjust income distribution to stop yawning gap
China targets 7% annual growth of per capita urban and rural income in next five years

China on the global financial crisis 2008
China Facts and Figures:
2006 2005
2004 2003 2002 2001

National Bureau of Statistics of China
Home - Agency Information - Statistical Data - Statistical Communiqués
Laws & Regulations - Statistical Standards - Programs & Indicators - International Cooperation - Publications

China Statistical Yearbook  2008
From the official Chinese government web portal:
White Papers

China View - Xinhua online

China Internet Information Center

Institute of World Economics and Politics
Chinese Academy of Social Sciences

From the Institute of World Economics and Politics Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Beijing, CHINA 2007
Transition and Health Status in China
By Lu Aiguo
Transition to market in China has been commonly viewed as highly successful. Compared with other transition economies, China’s economic performance is indeed quite outstanding. Since the onset of the reforms in 1978, GDP has grown at the annual rate of about 9%, which is now 10 times as it was in 1979. Per capita national income grew from less than 100 in 1978 to over 1,500 USD in 2006. As a result, China undoubtedly becomes wealthier and the overall standards of living are improved notably. According to conventional wisdom, rapid growth of national wealth should be followed by favorable human development records, especially the rising health status of the population. This paper discusses health outcomes during market transition in China. After a brief presentation of the health profile, an assessment of government policies in health sector is provided which are deemed largely responsible for the changes in health status. In the concluding remarks, a few lessons are drawn from the Chinese experiences in health sector during transition.

From The People's Daily - Beijing - 16 March 2007
China's parliament adopts enterprise income tax law
China's parliament, the National People's Congress, adopted the enterprise income tax law Friday morning with 2,826 votes for and 37 against, and 22 abstentions, a key signal of a phase-in end of superior treatments to foreign investors for two decades.
The 60-article law was ratified by the lawmakers as they concluded their 11.5-day annual full session at the Great Hall of the People in downtown Beijing. The law is due to take effect on Jan. 1,2008.
The voting result, announced by NPC Standing Committee Chairman Wu Bangguo, was warmly applauded by lawmakers. Four legislators did not cast their votes.
The law, which sets unified income tax rate for domestic and foreign companies at 25 percent, came after years of criticism that the original dual income tax mechanism is unfair to domestic enterprises.
2 March 2007
Official report points to widening income gap in China
Salaries have grown steadily in China over the past 15 years, but the income gap has widened significantly, according to a report by the National Development and Reform Commission.  
Urbanites earn three times as much as rural dwellers on average, according to the report. In 2005 the top 10 percent of city earners earned nine times as much as the poorest 10 percent and in rural areas the gap was a factor of 7.  

China Education and Research Network
China in a globalizing world
Report on the work of the government
Delivered at the Fourth Session of the Tenth National People's Congress on March 5, 2006, by Wen Jiabao, Premier of the State Council
Part I    Part II    Part III
Obstructers of cross-Straits relations doomed to fail: Chinese Premier (10:54, March 05, 2006)
Facts and figures: China's drive to build socialist new countryside (10:23, March 05, 2006)
Facts and figures: China's major achievements in 2005 (10:23, March 05, 2006)
Facts and figures: China's major targets for 2006 (10:23, March 05, 2006)
China pledges elimination of rural compulsory education charges in two years (10:20, March 05, 2006)
China to cut energy consumption by 4 percent in 2006 (10:04, March 05, 2006)
China to spend 14% more in building "new countryside" (10:04, March 05, 2006)
China hikes sci-tech input by 19.2%, jump-starting drive for "innovative country" (09:52, March 05, 2006)
China to see 7.5 percent annual growth in next 5 years (10:04, March 05, 2006)
China expects 8% growth in 2006: Premier Wen (10:25, March 05, 2006)
Premier Wen delivers report on the work of the government (10:32, March 05, 2006)
China's defense budget to exceed 280 billion yuan (09:39, March 05, 2006)

The second generation of migrant workers
Year 2005

Peripheral Citizens -- The 2nd Generation Migrant Worker - December 31
Towards True Urbanization - December 28
China's Floating Citizens - December 27
1 Million Migrant Workers in Shanghai Join Trade Unions - December 16
East China Migrant Workers Seek Spouses Through Haste Marriage - December 16
Equal Opportunities for Education - November 29
Rise in Rural Divorces - November 29
Migrant Workers Struck in Loosening Wedlock - November 25
Cities Urged to Open Wider to Migrant Workers - November 18
Migrant Workers Becoming Rural Middle Class - November 15
'Small Potatoes' Help Keep Order - November 02
Mobiles Better Migrant Workers' Lives - October 21
Migrant Workers Barred from Tourist Resort - October 19
Name, But Do Not Shame, Migrant Workers - October 10
Specific Migrant Workers' Rights Reg Issued - September 16
Outstanding Migrant Workers Praised - September 13
Hangzhou's Migrant Workers to Get Resident Status by 2010 - September 12
Long, Hard Road to Retrieve Defaulted Wages - July 17
Guangdong to Adopt New Laws to Protect Workers' Rights - June 03
Urban, Rural Children as Equals - June 01
Nation Seeks Inter-provincial Labor Cooperation - June 01
Chinese Construction Workers Join Trade Unions - May 30
Migrants Search for a New Life - April 27
Migrants Learn About Legal Rights - April 19
Address by President Hu Jintao of China at the Opening Ceremony of the 2005 FORTUNE Global Forum
Beijing - 16 May 2005
The theme of the Forum, "China and the New Asian Century", gives full expression to the widespread interest in the prospects of development in China and Asia as a whole, as well as in the impact of their development on global economic growth. It also shows that with surging economic globalization, China and Asia arequickly becoming a new growth engine for the world while the global boom is also generating more important opportunities for China and Asia. Continued mutually-beneficial economic cooperation and rising interdependence among the world's countries will usher in an even better future for global economy in development.
5 March 2005
Third Session. 10th National People's Congress
From Xinjua News agency:
-- Wen Reiterates Longing for Harmonious Society
-- Premier: China Targets 8% Growth in 2005
-- Chinese Mainland Keeps Working for Resumption of Cross-Strait Talks
-- All Agricultural Taxes to Be Scrapped in 2006
-- Govt Proposes US$1.3b on Reemployment in 2005
-- China to Finish Trimming 200,000 Troops This Year
-- Four-point Guidelines on Cross-Straits Relations Set Forth by President Hu (Full Text) >
China issues white paper on employment
Beijing.-(26 April 2004).- The 13,290-word White Paper in square Chinese characters notes that China has a population of nearly 1.3 billion, and therefore, to solve the employment issue in the country is a strenuous, arduous and pressing task.
In Detail  |  Full Text  |  China's employment problem

China moves to raise employment in rural areas
National Bureau of Statistics of China:
Agency Information - Laws & Regulations
Statistical Standards - Survey programs
Statistical Indicators - New Release - Statistical Data
International Cooperation - News and coming events
Related links
China Internet Information Center:
National Economic and Social Development 2003 - Focus on Constitutional Amendment - China: Facts and Figures - China Statistics - That Was the Year That Was (2003) - "Three Represents" - Government White Papers - Press Conferences - China News and Report - National Development Zones - Development of China's Market Economy - Profits of industrial enterprises - White Papers of the Government - Investment in China FAQ - WTO China Updates - China's Religious Affairs - Leading Universities in China - China's First Manned Space Flight
National Economic and Social Development 2003
Development Gateway: China
Statistical communique of the People's Republic of China on the 2002 national, economic and social development
1st part--- 2nd part
February 28, 2003
China 2002
Facts and Figures


Environmental protection

Financial Situation in China in 1996
Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation
Almanac of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation:
I/E Statistic / Foreign Investment / Foreign Economic Cooperation
Embassy of the P.R.C. in the U.S.A
China Education and Research Network
China: 20 years of reforms
Gross National Product & Annual Growth Rate [Chart]
Amount of Foreign Capital Actually Utilized [Chart]
Total Investment in Fixed Assets [Chart]
Output of Grain [Chart]
Government Revenue and expenditure [Chart]
Total Retail Sales of Consumer Goods [Chart]
Foreign Reserve [Chart]
Students Enrollment in Institutions of Higher Education [Chart]
Number of Major National Achievements in Scientific & Technological Research [Chart]
Agricultural Statistics of the People's Republic of China, 1949-1990
296 tables on:
Basic Social and Economic Indicators - Grain Statistics - Fiber and Oilseed Statistics - Economic and Other Crop Statistics - Livestock Statistics - Agricultural Input Statistics - Agricultural Price Statistics - Costs of Agricultural Production - Agricultural Trade Statistics - Consumption and Expenditure
National Statistics of the People's Republic of China, 1990-2002
48 tables on:
National Accounts - Balance of Payments - Trade - External and Domestic Debt - Money and Credit - Fiscal Accounts - Agriculture - Industry - Wages - Employment - Investment - Energy - Transport

more ...White Papers of the Government

China At a Glance
Constitution of the PRC
CPC and State Organs
Chinese Leadership
White Papers of Chinese Government
Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping
English Websites in China
State Statistics Bureau:
China's Industrial Structure and Trade (1993)
China's individually owned economy (1989)
Units/people engaged in tertiary industry (1994)
Production and Investment Picking Up -January-September 1998
Statistical communique of the People's Republic of China on the 1998 national economic and social development
Budget deficit 1998= 96 billion/Budget deficit 1999=150 billion
Decision of the CPC Central Committee on Several Major Issues Concerning Agriculture and Rural Work (October 14, 1998)
Li Rongxia: Agriculture Enters New Development Stage (1999)
China Expedites Agricultural Legislation (1999)
Cai Jin: Trend of China's Grain Supply
What will farmers grow in 1999?
Fu Chen/J. Davis:Land reform in China since de mid-1980s
An Yunqi: Changing Political, Social Attitudes of Chinese Workers (1982-1997)
Huang Ying: Beijing completing census on migrant workers (1997)
Xie Liangjun: Coal mine fatalities spark safety guidelines (1997)
China Worker's Daily defends laid off women workers in Hebei (1997)
Workers get overdue money after boss flees (1997)
Workers should set up plan to rate bosses (1997)

China's environmental situation 1999: worsening

Air pollution cost: 110 billion yuan per year

State Environmental Protection Administration

Shanghai: Urban Environment Project
Jiang Zemin: Report to the 15th Congress. (1998)
Ninth National People's Congress (1998)
Second Session of Ninth NPC/CPPCC -1999
 Li Peng: Report on work of government. March 1998
Excerpts from Premier Zhu Rongji's first press conference. 19/03/98
Government Restructuring and Macroeconomic goals.- 1998
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China
National Bureau of Statistics
State Economic & Trade Commission
More Links
  China Light Industry Information
  China Chemical Network
  Economic & Technological Development Zones
  Tsinghua University
   Peking University
  Fudan University
  Shanghai JiaoTong University
  Renming University
  More Links
  China Travel Service
 China International Travel Service
  International Channel of Tanfo Online
  Near China
Media...............                             .............Back
Xinhua News Agency
Politics - Economics - Technology - Education - Digest - Information - Military - Sports - Others
  People's Daily
China At a Glance - Constitution of the PRC - CPC and State Organs - Chinese Leadership - White Papers of Chinese Government - Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping - English Websites in China
China Internet Information Center
  China Daily
  China Radio International
  China Centeral Television Station
  Beijing Review
  Shanghai Daily
  Dalian Daily
  South China Morning Post
  People's Liberation Army Daily
China Today
General Information - Art & Humanities - Cities & Provinces - Culture & Tradition - Diplomatic Missions - Education & School - Entertainment - Finance & Banking - Government - Health & Medicine - History & Dynasties - Investment & Stock - IT & Computer - International Trade - Law & Justice - Media & Publication - Military & Army - Organizations - People & Society - Personal & Hobby - Real Estates - Reference & Library - Science & Tech. - Shopping & Auction - Social Science - Sports & Recreation - Statistics & Data  - Travel & Tour - Who's Who
China Statistical Yearbook

Education for Sustainability
Postgraduate courses on
Environment and
Development Education at
London South Bank University

- Part time distance learning
- Full time at the University

- Come visit us at

- Notes for lectures
- Notes and papers

- Globalization
- Global Value Chains
- Integrated International

- International Division of

- Transnational Corporations
- The Triad ( U.S.A, Japan, E.U.)

- Dependency Theory
- Planning for Development
- The Developmental State
- The Neo-liberal State
- Development Economics
- The future of development

- Foreign Direct Investment
- Factor Payments to Abroad
- The New Economy in

- International Trade

Back to Global Economic Prospects for Develeping Countries

--World Development Indicators
---(the complete series)

--World Development Reports
---(the complete series)

-- Selected World Development
--- Indicators (the complete series)

--World Investment Reports
---(the complete series)

--World Investment Reports
---(selected statistics)

-- Planning for Development

UNCTAD areas of work:
Globalization and Development
Development of Africa
Least Developed Countries
Landlocked Developing Countries
Small Island Developing States
International Trade and

Services Infrastructure
Investment, Technology and
Enterprise Development

The following databases on-line are available:
Commodity Price Statistics
Foreign Direct Investment
Handbook of Statistics
ICT Statistics
Millennium Indicators

Digital Library:
-- News
-- Main publications
-- UNCTAD Series
-- Basic documents
-- Issues in Brief
-- Newsletters
-- Statistical databases
-- Globalization and
----- Development Strategies

-- Economic Development in
----- Africa

-- International trade
-- Dispute Settlement - Course
----- Modules

-- Investment, Technology and
-----Enterprise Development

-- Services Infrastructure for
--- Development and Trade
----- Efficiency

-- Monographs on Port
----- Management

-- Technical Cooperation
-- Discussion papers
-- G-24 Discussion papers
-- Prebisch Lectures
-- Transnational Corporations
----- Journal

-- Publications Survey 2006-

World indicators on the environment

World Energy Statistics - Time Series

Economic inequality

Other related themes:
- Aid
- Bureaucracy
- Debt
- Decentralization
- Dependency theory
- Development
- Development Economics
- Economic Policies
- Employment/Unemployment
- Foreign Direct Investment
- Gender
- Human Rights
- Human Development
- Hunger
- Inequality/social exclusion
- Informal sector
- Labour Market
- Microfinance
- Migration
- Poverty
- Privatization
- State/Civil Society/

- Sustainable Development
- Transnational Corporations
- Urbanization

- Complete list of development themes

Puro Chile la memoria del pueblo
Proyecto para el Primer Siglo Popular

Director: Róbinson Rojas
De New Left Review:

Qin Hui: Campesinado y privatización en la China actual

¿Adónde se dirige la República Popular China? Uno de sus intelectuales más iconoclastas, tras describir sus orígenes al calor de la Revolución Cultural, ofrece una consistente y ambiciosa perspectiva comparativa sobre la estrategia del Estado chino respecto a los problemas de la propiedad de la tierra y de la actividad industrial. ¿Qué destino aguarda al campesinado chino tras la incorporación del país a la Organización Mundial del Comercio?

De El Militante - 22 Diciembre 2004
El capitalismo significa guerra contra la clase obrera
Por Heiko Khoo
Detrás del boom de la economía china se ocultan enormes contradicciones, una próxima crisis y el precio terrible que pagará la clase obrera por la economía de mercado.

Libro blanco sobre la situación y política de China respecto al empleo
El empleo constituye lo fundamental para la vida del pueblo y condición previa y vía básicas del pueblo para el mejoramiento de su vida. China tiene una población de cerca de 1.300 millones de personas y es el país con más numerosa población del mundo. Enfrenta tareas pesadas, duras y urgentes en cuanto a la solución del problema de empleo.(Más)
Centro Internet de Información sobre China
Organos estatales de la República Popular China
Sistema judicial de China
Sistema politico de China
Libros blancos del gobierno chino
Los Hutongs de Beijing
Hechos y cifras 2003
Hechos y cifras 2002
Hechos y cifras 2001
China ABC 2003
China ABC 2002
China ABC
Beijing Informa

Información de la Oficina Nacional de Estadísticas en Beijing:
|Agricultura | Industria y construcción |Inversión en activos fijos |Transporte, correos y telecomunicaciones |Finanzas, valores y seguros |Comercio interior | Economía hacia el exterior |Aumenta continuamente la competitividad empresarial

Producto Interno Bruto

Total de Ingresos y Egresos Fiscales del Estado y Tasa de Crecimiento

Rendimiento Per Cápita de los Principales Productos Industriales y Agrícolas


Nivel e Indice de Consumo de los Habitantes

Saldo de Deudas Externas

Composición de Desempleados Urbanos por Razones de Desempleo y por Edades
Depósitos de Ahorro en las Zonas Urbanas y Rurales (Fin de Año)
Número de Mercancías de Consumo Durables
Por 100 Familias Rurales a Fin de Año
Superficie Habitacional Completada y Condiciones
Habitacionales de los Residentes Urbanos y Rurales
Condiciones Habitacionales de las Familias Rurales
Ingreso Anual Per Cápita de las Familias Urbanas y
Rurales y el Indice Relacionado
Condiciones Básicas de las Familias Urbanas
Compras Anuales de Principales Mercancías Per Cápita en las Familias Urbanas
Número de Principales Mercancías de Consumo Durables
Por Cada 100 Familias Urbanas a Fin de Año
Estadísticas Básicas sobre las Entidades Públicas Urbanas
Número de Vehículos Privados
Estadísticas Básicas sobre Fondos de Bienestar y Socorro Sociales
Personas Receptoras de Subsidios o Fondos de Socorro
Estadísticas Básicas de los Sindicatos
Número de Matrimonios y Divorcios
Estadísticas Básicas sobre Abogados, Notariado y Mediación
Superficie Construida de Edificios Mediante la Construcción Básica
Venta de Viviendas Comerciales
Egresos Gubernamentales para las Pensiones y el Bienestar Social
Datos Básicos sobre la Seguridad Social
Composición de los Ingresos y Gastos de los Habitantes Urbanos y Rurales

Puro Chile la mémoire du peuple
Projet pour le Premier Siècle Populaire

Editeur: Róbinson Rojas

Information Internet sur la Chine
Les grottes de Huashan
Hutongs de Beijing
Grippe aviaire
Les évènements majeurs en 2003
Les fêtes traditionnelles chinoises
Les deux rives du détroit de Taiwan
Connaissances générales sur la Chine
Chine: faits et chiffres 2003
La structure de l'Etat
Le régime législatif de Chine
Le régime politique chinois
Le système judiciaire chinois
Livres blancs du gouvernement chinoise
Beijing Information
Publication du livre blanc « L'emploi en Chine : situation et politique »
Le Bureau de l'information du Conseil des affaires d'Etat a publié le 26 avril le livre blanc « L'emploi en Chine : situation et politique ». C'est le premier livre blanc publié par la Chine sur la situation et la politique de l'emploi.