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From the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development - UNCTAD
UNCTAD XII
Accra - Ghana
20-25 April 2008


Report of the Secretary-General of UNCTAD to
UNCTAD XII on
Globalization for Development: Opportunities and Challenges
, 85 Pages

UNCTAD News: UNCTAD XII Special Issue

Cover, Content
- Preface: From Midrand to Accra

I. New realities and persistent challenges
A. Significant advances
B. Apprehension
C. Persistent challenges
D. The capital flows paradox
E. From "getting prices right" to "getting development right"

II. Coherence in global policymaking: Multilateralism at a crossroads
A. Systemic imbalances in global finance and a new mercantilism
B. The case for a multilateral effort in global finance
C. Sustainable financing for sustained development
D. Redressing asymmetries in the multilateral trading system

III. Key trade and development issues in the current global economic environment
A. The emergence of the "new South"
B. Energy security
C. Mobility and development: Labour integration
D. Services: The new trade and development frontier
E. Commodities: Sustaining the new growth trend
F. Environment, climate change and development: The challenges ahead
G. Technology and innovation for trade and competitiveness

IV. Strengthening productive capacities, trade and investment: The enabling environment
A. The global framework and the enabling environment
B. National policies to promote an enabling environment

V. Strengthening UNCTADĺs role, impact and neffectiveness
A. Improving the working methods of UNCTAD
B. Enhancing UNCTADĺs role in emerging issues
C. Enhancing UNCTADĺs role in the context of United Nations reform.

Background Statistical Charts and Tables for the
Report of the Secretary General of UNCTAD to UNCTAD XII
Globalization for Development: Opportunities and Challenges

List o f charts and tables 

Chart 1.- GDP per capita (log scale) in selected developing countries and regions compared to the G7, 1970-2005
Chart 2.- Real GDP growth, 1995-2006
Chart 3.- Real investment, 1995-2006
Chart 4.- Real consumption, 1995-2006
Chart 5.- Real exports of goods and services, 1995-2006
Chart 6.- Real imports of goods and services, 1995-2006
Chart 7.- Employment (1996=100) and unemployment (percent) 1996-2006
Chart 8.- Current account balance as percent of GDP, 1995-2006
Chart 9.- Unit labour costs, 1993-2006
Chart 10.- Real effective exchange rates, 1995-2006
Chart 11.- Official Development Assistance from DAC donors, 1988-2005
Chart 12.- Real short-term interest rate and real GDP growth, 1986-2006, South and South-East Asia / South and South East Asia, including China
Chart 13.- Real short-term interest rate and real GDP growth, 1986-2006, Latin America / Latin America, less Brazil
Chart 14.- Real short-term interest rate and real GDP growth, 1997-2006, Eastern European economies 
Chart 15.- Real short-term interest rate and real GDP growth, 1986-2006, Sub-Saharan Africa
Chart 16.- Real short-term interest rate and real GDP growth, 1970-2006, United States / European Union
Chart 17.- Governance and per capita income growth, selected groups of economies, 1996-2006

Table 1.- Real domestic product
Table 2.- Current account
Table 3.- Trade in merchandise: Total exports
Table 4.- Trade in services: Total exports
Table 5.- Direct Investment in reporting economy (FDI inward)
Table 6.- Aid to GNI ratio, developing economies
Table 7.- Official Development Assistance from All Donors to Developing Countries
Total, Economies in Transition; Heavely Indebted Poor Countries
Disbursment


Globalization for Development: Opportunities and Challenges

Theme:

Addressing the opportunities and challenges of globalization for development.

By now it is widely acknowledged that globalization has generated remarkable wealth and prosperity for particular countries and particular industries. But those benefits have not reached large swathes of the world population; in numerous developing countries, and even within some of the more prosperous countries, there are many people who have not benefited or who are even worse off. Given that globalization will continue for the foreseeable future, the conference will explore ways to harness globalization to raise living standards, reduce poverty and ensure sustainable development.

Sub-themes:

  • Enhancing coherence at all levels for sustainable economic development and poverty reduction in global policy-making, including the contribution of regional approaches.

    Coherence is about making sure that international policies work in tandem towards our common goals. This therefore includes ensuring that the multilateral, rules-based trading regime is better aligned to help find solutions to key issues on agricultural market access, domestic support in agriculture, industrial tariffs and services. It may also require the adjustment of regional integration agreements, to ensure that they help rather than hinder the international trading system and its development objectives.

    Coherence may also include the global financial system, which by comparison with the trade system is far less regulated, and has failed in the past to protect some economies from the disastrous impacts of external economic shocks that can overturn years of careful planning and austerity. At the same time, many of the countries most vulnerable to external shocks are in great need of financing to develop and to reduce poverty. Regulating private capital flows and speculation while also raising the funds that developing countries need to stabilize their economies requires coherence - coherence, or agreement, between developing and developed countries and among developing countries themselves.

  • Key trade and development issues and the new realities in the geography of the world economy.

    Over the past 15 years or so, developing countries have accounted for a growing share of world trade and investment, and that share continues to soar. The result is a totally new landscape for world economic relations, one in which the countries of the South are not only doing more business with one another, but are increasingly trading with and investing in developed countries.

    Rising demand and prices for oil, gas and other commodities mean booms for some countries, but economic hardship for others. The continuing exploitation and consumption of fossil fuels is devastating the climate, requiring the development of alternative energy sources, such as biofuels.

    All of these reali-ties will have huge ramifications for trade and development. Issues to be addressed at UNCTAD XII include how developing countries that are prospering from the boom can better translate their revenues into long-term development gains.

  • Enhancing an enabling environment at all levels to strengthen productive capacity, trade and investment: mobilizing resources and harnessing knowledge for development.

    Productive capacities, trade and investment are interlinked and mutually reinforcing elements of the national and international economic structure. There is a great deal of cumulative causation between them.

    Reflecting this, an enabling environment needs to operate simultaneously at the global level -- through policies that promote an open and equitable environment -- and at the national level, through policies that foster growth, investment and entrepreneurship, as well as technology, innovation and employment.

    Critical international issues here include the global finance and trade systems (including the intellectual property rights systems); the rise of South-South cooperation and integration; and the role of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and international investment agreements.

    National level policy issues include macroeconomic policy and the complementary trade and industrial policies that can help to boost competitiveness, technological upgrading, and domestic value-added.

  • Strengthening UNCTAD: enhancing its development role, impact, and institutional effectiveness.

    As the world changes and globalization becomes a more powerful force, UNCTAD must constantly refine its efforts to help developing countries. As the United Nations focal point for trade and development, and the interrelated issues of finance, investment, technology and sustainable development, it brings more than four decades of experience to the service of development.

    UNCTAD's 12th ministerial conference offers a forum to discuss ways of improving the organization's working methods. It will also help ensure that it delivers high-quality and sharply focused research and analysis; that the intergovernmental machinery is action-oriented and effective; and that UNCTAD's technical cooperation activities help create beneficial synergies and add greater value, for example by contributing to the "One UN" concept.
  • TD/439,
    (4/23/2008),
    3 Pages
    PDF available in: English   
  • TD/L.399,
    (4/23/2008),
    4 Pages
    PDF available in: English   
  • TD/L.398/Add.4,
    (4/22/2008),
    2 Pages
    PDF available in: English    Franšais   
  • TD/435,
    (4/20/2008),
    4 Pages
    PDF available in: English    العربية    中文    Русский   
  • TD/L.402,
    (4/22/2008),
    3 Pages
    PDF available in: English   
  • TD/L.398/Add.3,
    (4/22/2008),
    1 Pages
    PDF available in: English    Franšais   
  • TD/L.398/Add.2,
    (4/21/2008),
    2 Pages
    PDF available in: English    العربية    中文    Русский   
  • TD/L.400,
    (4/20/2008),
    2 Pages
    PDF available in: English   
  • TD/437,
    (4/21/2008),
    11 Pages
    PDF available in: English   
  • TD/438,
    (4/21/2008),
    2 Pages
    PDF available in: English    Franšais    العربية    中文    Русский   
  • TD/L.398/Add.1,
    (4/14/2008),
    3 Pages
    PDF available in: English    Franšais    Espa˝ol    العربية    中文    Русский   
  • TD/436,
    (4/20/2008),
    6 Pages
    PDF available in: href="http://www.unctad.org/en/docs//td436_en.pdf" target="_blank">English    Franšais    Espa˝ol   
  • TD/434,
    (4/19/2008),
    7 Pages
    PDF available in: English    Franšais    Espa˝ol    العربية    中文    Русский   
  • TD/Inf.40,
    (4/19/2008),
    2 Pages
    PDF available in: English    Franšais    Espa˝ol    العربية    中文    Русский   
  • TD/L.398,
    (4/9/2008),
    41 Pages
    PDF available in: English    Franšais    Espa˝ol    العربية    中文    Русский   
  • TD/433,
    (4/14/2008),
    10 Pages
    PDF available in: English    Franšais    العربية    中文    Русский   
  • TD/432,
    (4/2/2008),
    3 Pages
    PDF available in: English    Franšais    Espa˝ol    العربية    中文    Русский   
  • TD/431,
    (3/31/2008),
    8 Pages
    PDF available in: English    Franšais    Espa˝ol    العربية    中文    Русский   
  • TD(XII)/PC/3,
    (3/19/2008),
    5 Pages
    PDF available in: English    Franšais    Espa˝ol    العربية    中文    Русский   
  • TD/414/Add.1,
    (3/19/2008),
    2 Pages
    PDF available in: English    Franšais    Espa˝ol    العربية    中文    Русский   
  • TD/430,
    (3/10/2008),
    7 Pages
    PDF available in: English    Franšais    Espa˝ol    العربية    中文    Русский   


  • TD/429,
    (2/28/2008),
    3 Pages
    PDF available in: English    Franšais    Espa˝ol    العربية    中文    Русский   
  • TD/424,
    (2/29/2008),
    11 Pages
    PDF available in: English    Franšais    Espa˝ol    العربية    中文    Русский   
  • TD/422,
    (2/14/2008),
    12 Pages
    PDF available in: English    Franšais    Espa˝ol    العربية    中文    Русский   
  • TD/426,
    (2/11/2008),
    7 Pages
    PDF available in: English    Franšais    Espa˝ol    العربية    中文    Русский   
  • TD/425,
    (2/11/2008),
    17 Pages
    PDF available in: English    Franšais    Espa˝ol    العربية    中文    Русский   
  • TD/423,
    (2/7/2008),
    4 Pages
    PDF available in: English    Franšais    Espa˝ol    العربية    中文    Русский   
  • TD/421,
    (2/8/2008),
    10 Pages
    PDF available in: English    Franšais    Espa˝ol    العربية    中文    Русский   
  • TD/420,
    (2/8/2008),
    6 Pages
    PDF available in: English    Franšais    Espa˝ol    العربية    中文    Русский   
  • TD/414,
    TD/414/Add.1,
    (2/8/2008),
    7 Pages
    PDF available in: English    Franšais    Espa˝ol    العربية    中文    Русский   
  • TD(XII)/PC/2,
    (2/5/2008),
    6 Pages
    PDF available in: English    Franšais    Espa˝ol    العربية    中文    Русский   
  • TD/419,
    (1/17/2008),
    3 Pages
    PDF available in: English    Franšais    Espa˝ol    العربية    中文    Русский   
  • TD/417,
    (1/17/2008),
    3 Pages
    PDF available in: English    Franšais    Espa˝ol    العربية    中文    Русский   
  • TD/427,
    (2/7/2008),
    3 Pages
    PDF available in: English    Franšais    Espa˝ol    العربية    中文    Русский   
  • TD/416,
    (1/17/2008),
    4 Pages
    PDF available in: English    Franšais    Espa˝ol    العربية    中文    Русский   
  • TD/418,
    (1/18/2008),
    3 Pages
    PDF available in: English    Franšais    Espa˝ol    العربية    中文    Русский   
  • TD(XII)/BP/4,
    (1/17/2008),
    13 Pages
    PDF available in: English   
  • TD(XII)/BP/3,
    (12/10/2007),
    10 Pages
    PDF available in: English   
  • TD(XII)/BP/2,
    (11/30/2007),
    PDF available in: English   
  • TD/415,
    (11/30/2007),
    10 Pages
    PDF available in: English    Franšais    Espa˝ol    العربية    中文    Русский   
  • TD(XII)/PC/1,
    (11/13/2007),
    28 Pages
    PDF available in: English    Franšais    Espa˝ol    العربية    中文    Русский   
  • TD/B/54/7,
    (8/27/2007),
    8 Pages
    PDF available in: English    Franšais    Espa˝ol    العربية    中文    Русский   
  • TD(XII)/BP/1,
    (7/20/2007),
    19 Pages
    PDF available in: English    Franšais    Espa˝ol    العربية    中文    Русский   
  • TD/413,
    (7/4/2007),
    85 Pages
    PDF available in: English    Franšais    Espa˝ol    العربية    中文    Русский   




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