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On Planning for Development: New Public Management
A Paper Prepared for the 2010 Conference Of the International Public Management Network
“New Steering Concepts in Public Management: Working towards Social Integration”
Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands June 28-30, 2010
Robert D. Behn
Steering With Comparative Data How the Bar Chart and “The List” Might Help to Steer Social Integration

The impact on organizational behavior of setting targets and monitoring progress has been well established (Latham, Borgogni, and Petitta 2008; Locke and Latham 1990; Latham and Pinder 2005; Duncan 1989, chap 7). Latham and Locke, perhaps the two most prominent scholars in this field, conclude that “the simplest and most direct motivational explanation of why some people perform better than others is because they have different performance goals” (1991, 213). Yet, the use of this not very complicated management strategy is underutilized. Rousseau observes that “sadly, there is poor uptake on management practices of known effectiveness”; for her example, Rousseau uses “goal setting and performance feedback” (2006, 258). And Rousseau is writing, primarily, about management in the private, not the public, sector.
Why is this uptake so poor? I’m not sure.1 In the public sector, however, perhaps three aspects of political and organizational judgments are important deterrents:...

A Paper for International Public Management Network (IPMN) Conference 2010, Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands, June 28 - 30, 2010
Draft 2010-5-30; Jiannan Wu, Yuqian Yang and Liang Ma
Public Service Outputs, Social Integration, and Households’ Support for Relocation Compensations: Evidence from a Hui Ethnic Community in Western China

Active enforcement of city renewal policies in local China today has constituted a source of social unrests, due to their adverse potentials on present and future lives of the uprooted households. While emerging theories on policy feedback propose that individuals formulate their policy preferences and participation choices based on personal stakes from public service outputs, the perspective of social integration implies that neighborhood connectedness and individual involvement in community are crucial for shaping their interpretation on and actions in policy enforcement. The article combines the two theoretical approaches in assessing what caused households to resist the compensation proposals in an urban renovation program in a Hui ethnicity community in Xi’an, a Chinese west city. It is found that first, higher level of public service outputs aimed on increasing households’ economic incomes caused inhabitants to be cautious of accepting the compensation proposals, in a fear that the economic gains would diminish due to decreased level of outputs after resettlement. Second, social integration moderates the associations between different types of public service outputs and agreement with the compensation offers. Third, the moderating effects by different types of social integrations vary by both pushing and impeding the perceived public service outputs to leading to support to the compensation solutions. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

Paper for the International Public network Conference at Department of Public Administration,
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 28-30 June 2010
E.H. Klijn, B. Steijn and J. Edelenbos
Steering for broad social outcomes in governance networks.
The effects of participation and network management

Governance networks are presented as one of the answers to fragmentation and specialization in modern public life. By improving horizontal cooperation and active management better (social) outcomes should be achieved in situations where integrated solutions are required and resource dependencies exist. Governance networks are especially said to be suitable for so called wicked problems. Wicked problems are also characterized by value conflicts. Environmental projects for instance often involve value struggles between ecological values, economic values transport values or ‘liveability’ values. In those situations governance networks should provide broad societal outcomes that are outcomes that can satisfy various values at stake.

CLAD (Latin American Centre for Development Administration), (1999),
A New Public Management for Latin America

State Reform has become the main topic on the world's political agenda. This process dates from the late seventies, with the onset of the crisis in the State model, which had been created by developed countries during the postwar and set off an unprecedented era of capitalist prosperity. The first response to the crisis was a neo-liberal-conservative reaction. Given the pressing need to reform the State, reestablish fiscal balance and the balance of payment of countries in crisis, it was felt advisable to simply propose State downsizing and total market predominance. The proposal, however, made little sense from the economic and political point of view. In fact, after some time, it was determined that rather than dismantling the State structure, the solution would lie in its reconstruction.
The object is to build a State that will be able to face the challenges of the post-industrial age. A State for the XXIst century, which will guarantee the performance of economic contracts, while also having the strength to guarantee social rights and competitiveness of each country on the international scene. Thus, a third way is being sought between neo-liberal laissez-faire and the former social-bureaucratic model of state intervention.

Behn, R. D. (1998)
The New Public Management Paradigm and the search for democratic accountability

Can we permit empowered, responsive civil servants to make decisions and be innovative and still have democratic accountability? This important question1 haunts those who would advocate a "new public management." The proponents of a new public-management paradigm emphasize performance the ability of their strategy to produce results. But they cannot ignore the troubling question of political accountability. They must develop a process that not only permits public managers to produce better results but also provides accountability to a democratic electorate.

Barzelay, M. (2001)
The New Public Management. Improving Research and Policy Dialogue
(University of California Press)

New Public Management is a field of discussion largely about policy interventions within executive government. The characteristic instruments of such policy interventions are institutional rules and organizational routines affecting expenditure planning and financial management, civil service and labor relations, procurement, organization and methods, and audit and evaluation. These instruments exercise pervasive influence over many kinds of decisions made within government. While they do not determine the scope or programmatic content of governmental activity, these government-wide institutional rules and organizational routines affect how government agencies are managed, operated, and overseen: they structure that part of the governmental process usefully described as public management.1 In recent years, political executives, central agency leaders, and legislators in numerous settings have demonstrated a sustained interest in policies affecting public management, the best-known cases of which are the United Kingdom, New Zealand, and Australia.

Batley, R. (1999)
Policy Arena: The NPM in Developing Countries – Implications for policy and organisational reform
Journal of International Development Vol. 11, pp. 761-765.

Governments of developing countries, often under pressure from donors as well as from internal forces for change, are re-thinking their service provision roles. The new conventional view is that, where possible, government should enable and regulate the private and community sectors or arms-length public agencies rather than directly provide services.
This sort of shift is supposed to have advantages in terms of promoting efficiency, reducing the burden on government and giving more choice to citizens. Our four year research programme on the 'changing roles of government in adjusting economies'...explored these issues in selected countries of Africa, Asia and South America... we focused on four sectors selected because they represent different theoretical (market failure) cases for government involvement in their provision - health care, urban water supply, agricultural marketing and business development services.

Boston, J. (2000)
Challenge of evaluating systemic change: the case of Public Management Reform

At what stage of reform in the public sector does it become possible to conduct a thorough appraisal of results and how does one know when this stage has been reached? How should such an assessment be undertaken? By what methods can comprehensive and far-reaching systemic reforms be evaluated in the arena of public management during recent decades, particularly in countries like Australia, Britain and New Zealand? Most assessments have focused upon specific changes in management practice including the introduction of performance pay, the move to accrual accounting, the growth of contracting-out, the separation of policy and operations or the devolution of human resource management responsibilities. Alternatively, they have dealt with management changes in particular policy domains –such as health care, education, community services or criminal justice –or within a particular organization (department, agency or private provider). By contrast, there have been relatively few macro evaluations –comprehensive assessments of the impact of root-and-branch changes to the system. The problems of evaluation in the arena of public management are inherently complex and the way ahead is by no means clear. This article offers some broad reflections on the limitations to policy evaluation in the field of public management, and more particularly explores the obstacles confronted when assessing the consequences of systemic management reforms. It focuses on recent changes in the New Zealand public sector to illustrate the general themes because these reforms constitute one of best examples of systemic change anywhere in the world. © 2000 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

Frant, H. (1999)
Useful to Whom? Why We Need a Link Between Social Science Research and Public Management Research
Public Management Research Methodology: identifying and integrating practitioner and academic perspectives

Paper prepared for the 1999 International Public Management Network Workshop, Siena, Italy

Eugene Bardach, 1999
Managerial Craftsmanship: A Framework for Reuniting Creativity and Causality"
Les Metcalfe, 1999
New Challenges in European Public Management; Designing Inter-organizational Networks as a Research Methodology

The last two decades have seen a remarkable and unexpected development of public management reforms. Public management has moved from being regarded as an alien idea of peripheral significance to be widely accepted as a key factor in improving governmental performance. Politicians and senior officials who used to disdain “management” as a subordinate function unworthy of their attention, now accord it high priority. Almost any new policy initiative is accompanied by an assurance that the management systems needed to guarantee success will be put in place. Public management reform has become a global growth industry based, paradoxically, on reducing the scope and scale of government. Many reforms have been sold as slimming cures. Whether leaner government is also fitter government is open to debate, but there is little doubt that there has been a cultural shift towards accepting management models and methods in government on an unprecedented scale.

Gray, J. (1999), "The New Zealand Experiment: a second Great Transformation in miniature", in Gray, J., False Dawn.

 The Delusions of Global Capitalism (Granta Books), pp. 39 - 44
Grindle, M.S. (ed) (1997) Getting good government: Capacity building in the public sector of developing countries (Harvard Institute of International Development).

International Public Management Network
Economic Commission for Africa - ECA/DPMD/PSM/TP/03/1
Development Policy Management Division (DPMD)
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia - December 2003
Public Sector Management Reforms in Africa: Lessons Learned

Since the 1980s, developed and developing countries have been embarking on public sector management reforms. The role and institutional character of the State has been questioned, and the public sector has been under pressure to adopt private sector orientations. The earlier reforms aimed at shaping a public administration that could lead national development, and was based on the same institutional peculiarities inherited from the colonial period. More recently, the World Bank and other donors in Africa have been concerned with finding alternative ways of organizing and managing the public services and redefining the role of the State to give more prominence to markets and competition, and to the private and voluntary sectors. The alternative vision, based on issues of efficiency, representation, participation and accountability, has sought to create a market-friendly, liberalized, lean, decentralized, customer-oriented, managerial and democratic State.

Schick, A (1998) "Why most developing countries should not try New Zealand’s reforms" World Bank Research Observer 13, pp. 23-31.
Walsh, K. (1995) Public services and market mechanisms: competition, contracting and the new public management (Macmillan)

The World Bank Group, (2002),
World Development Report 2002, Chapter 3:
Governance of firms,

Historically, two broad institutional approaches have been used to assure investors that their resources will be put to good use in firms: a private and sometimes informal approach, and a legal governance approach. Both approaches facilitate information flows and create incentives for investors to focus on firm efficiency and to monitor insiders. They aim to give resource providers the power to intervene without incurring heavy transaction costs when entrepreneurs and managers abuse their control.

World Bank Staff Training Course, (2000), The New Public Management. An Overview.

The New Public Management: a critique (presentation)
Róbinson Rojas - 2009
When national and local governments become big corporations forprofits and citizens are considered customers

Research Methodology for New Public Management
Nancy C. Roberts and Raymond Trevor Bradley

This paper summarizes the basic elements of New Public Management and, given its current stage of evolution, offers recommendations for improving research methodology. The recommendations are grouped within the five stages of the research process: Formulating the research question and specifying the units and levels of analysis; choosing the research design; gathering the data, coding and analyzing the data; and interpreting the results. Two ongoing programs of research (one on innovation and the other on the dynamics of social organization) demonstrate the efficacy of the recommendations.

The value of public management evaluations from an international perspective: best practice cases reconsidered
Elke Löffler

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the concept of “best practice” case studies from an internationally comparative perspective. The main issue under consideration is how to improve the methodology of “best practice” cases in such a way that they help decision-makers to make well-informed selections among “best-practice” case studies and to implement foreign “best practice” in a domestic political and administrative context.
With the rise of new public management in OECD Member countries there has been a new trend to diffuse innovations through “best practice” case studies. This body of knowledge is nourished from three main sources. First of all, practitioners have been disseminating their own public management reforms or other anecdotal pieces of empirical evidence which they considered to be successful enough to be labelled as “best practice” (see, for example, Osborne and Gaebler, 1992). This eclectic approach is quite consistent with the fact that new public management is largely a practice-driven movement in most countries. Secondly, the increasing number of public sector quality and innovations awards in various OECD Member countries (for an overview, see Löffler, 1999) has also allowed to identify cases of well-performing public service organisations. The resulting publications as well as “clearinghouses of information” largely draw from the self-assessment descriptions of finalists. Thirdly, international organisations like the OECD have informational advantages in getting information about innovative practices in the Member countries. As a result, PUMA has been in a stage to be at the forefront of the new public management movement in OECD Member countries.

The New Public Finance: Responding to Global Challenges
Briefing Note #2
The new intermediary state
Whose state: theirs or ours?
Today's states are intermediaries between domestic and external policy preferences

Do citizens feel that they are being well represented when governments adopt unpopular reforms to make their countries more competitive? Often times not. Just think of the protests in Europe against the reform of the welfare state. Or the fears that trade liberalization instills in workers in industries facing tougher international competition. Or the political outcries against financial liberalization. So, whose state is it? Electorates are national. But the policy demands that governments pay attention to come increasingly from outside. International market sentiments often make governments change earlier election promises. And what is the shape of the state today? Is it still the protective nation-state that enjoys exclusive territorial and policymaking sovereignty, aggregates national preferences and fights for the nation’s interests abroad through diplomatic and military means?

United Nations Public Administration Network
The Division for Public Administration and Development Management of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations was entrusted by the General Assembly in late 1999 to develop and implement an important programme entitled 'United Nations Public Administration Network (UNPAN)', (originally referred to as the United Nations Online Network in Public Administration and Finance).
UNPAN is designed to help countries, especially developing countries and countries in economic transition, to respond to the challenges that governments face in bridging the digital divide between the 'haves and have-nots' and to achieve their development goals.
The immediate objective of UNPAN is to establish an internet-based network that links regional and national institutions devoted to public administration, thereby facilitating information exchange, experience sharing, and training in the area of public sector policy and management. 
The long-term objective of UNPAN is to build the capacity of these regional and national institutions, so that they can access, process and disseminate relevant information by means of up-to-date information and communication technologies (ICTs) for the promotion of better public administration.
UN -Department of Economic and Social Affairs
World Public Sector Report 2005
Unlocking the Human Potential for Public Sector Performance

There has been a rediscovery in recent years of the critical role played by human resources in improving and sustaining institutional effectiveness and development performance. It is this realization that has provided the impetus to focus the World Public Sector Report on this important topic. Governments increasingly look at public administration reform as a key instrument to achieve important development goals and to catalyse wider transformation in society. At the same time, public administration will not be able to play this role effectively without competent and dedicated public servants. This means that the management of human resources has moved to the fore as a central concern of leaders in the public service.

NPM was essentially doctrine-driven, especially in its early years. A common phenomenon among the reform-minded progenitors of NPM was their rush to implement and extend their initiatives before evaluating the consequences. However, even if rigorous evaluations have been few and far between, the lessons of experience have pointed to some common trends in HRM due to the spread of NPM doctrine and practices:
• HRM in the public sector became similar to its private sector counterparts. Economic efficiency was one of the most important standards of reform, achieved, for instance, by reducing the size of the public sector;
• Many efforts were made to give line ministries and/or line managers greater flexibility and freedom in HRM through various decentralization and devolution policies; and
• In return for providing greater flexibility and freedom to agencies, governments tried to secure accountability of line ministries and/or line managers in HRM by stressing the performance and ethics of the civil service.

Ethics, Transparency and Accountability

From the World Bank Group        Publications and Documents
Public Sector and Governance
A fundamental role of the Bank is to help governments work better in our client countries. The Public Sector Group's objectives are based on the view that the Bank must focus more of its efforts on building efficient and accountable public sector institutions -- rather than simply providing discrete policy advice. A main lesson from East Asia (and to some extent Russia) is that good policies are not enough -- that the Bank cannot afford to look the other way when a country is plagued by deeply dysfunctional public institutions that limit accountability, set perverse rules of the game, and are incapable of sustaining development.
Overview of Governance & Public Sector Reform:
- Organization - Key Objectives - Areas of Responsibility - Knowledge Management - Professional Development - Quality Enhancements - Product Innovations - Key Partnerships

The New Public Management and its Legacy

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Nueva Gerencia Pública
Miguel Ángel Porrua - Gerencia cataláctica: anatomía de la nueva gerencia publica ... "
Subject: (Economía gerencial) (Administración pública) (Oferta y demanda). Co- editors: Instituto de Administración Pública del Estado de México (IAPEM).
Nueva Gerencia Pública (en inglés, NPM, New Public Management) y los. resultados de su implementación en la Administración Pública
by P. de Córdoba.
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Pertenece a: UCLA - Biblioteca de Administración y Contaduría 

Commerce exterieure
UNCTAD: Trade and development report 2001
                    Overview:   English
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    Panorama General:  Castellano
                     Part Two:  Reform of the international financial architecture
CNUCD: Conference des Nations Unies sur le Commerce et le Developpement