It seems to me that imagination and reasoning have reached magnificent heights with some writers, especially poets. Among them, I strongly believe, the highest ever was Edgar Allan Poe. With Baudelaire I state that "le poete est souverainement intelligent, qu'il est l'intelligence par excellence, -et que l'imagination est la plus scientifique des facultes, parce que seule elle comprend l'analogie universelle...". One of those poets was Edgar Allan Poe. I reproduce here "The Works of Edgar Allan Poe" as a gesture against what Baudelaire called "la ferocite de l'hypocrisie bourgeoise", and what I personally call mediocrity, imbecility, and comprehensive intellectual dishonesty, all of which is presented as "realistic thinking". And, as we know, contemporary development studies are full of  "realistic thinking". So, let us learn something from Edgar Allan Poe!.  (Róbinson Rojas - 1996)
The Project Gutenberg Etext of The Works of Edgar Allan Poe V. 1
Volume 1 of the Raven Edition  #6 in our series by Edgar Allan Poe

VOLUME I  Contents
Edgar Allan Poe, An Appreciation
Life of Poe, by James Russell Lowell
Death of Poe, by N. P. Willis
The Unparalled Adventures of One Hans Pfall
The Gold Bug
Four Beasts in One
The Murders in the Rue Morgue
The Mystery of Marie Rogêt
The Balloon Hoax
MS. Found in a Bottle
The Oval Portrait                          BACK TO MAIN INDEX

                        THE GOLD-BUG
     What ho! what ho! this fellow is dancing mad !
          He hath been bitten by the Tarantula.
               _--All in the Wrong._
    MANY years ago, I contracted an intimacy with a Mr. William 
Legrand. He was of an ancient Huguenot family, and had once been 
wealthy; but a series of misfortunes had reduced him to want. To 
avoid the mortification consequent upon his disasters, he left New 
Orleans, the city of his forefathers, and took up his residence at 
Sullivan's Island, near Charleston, South Carolina. This Island is a 
very singular one. It consists of little else than the sea sand, and 
is about three miles long. Its breadth at no point exceeds a quarter 
of a mile. It is separated from the main land by a scarcely 
perceptible creek, oozing its way through a wilderness of reeds and 
slime, a favorite resort of the marsh hen. The vegetation, as might 
be supposed, is scant, or at least dwarfish. No trees of any 
magnitude are to be seen. Near the western extremity, where Fort 
Moultrie stands, and where are some miserable frame buildings, 
tenanted, during summer, by the fugitives from Charleston dust and 
fever, may be found, indeed, the bristly palmetto; but the whole 
island, with the exception of this western point, and a line of hard, 
white beach on the seacoast, is covered with a dense undergrowth of 
the sweet myrtle, so much prized by the horticulturists of England. 
The shrub here often attains the height of fifteen or twenty feet, 
and forms an almost impenetrable coppice, burthening the air with its 
    In the inmost recesses of this coppice, not far from the eastern 
or more remote end of the island, Legrand had built himself a small 
hut, which he occupied when I first, by mere accident, made his 
acquaintance. This soon ripened into friendship - for there was much 
in the recluse to excite interest and esteem. I found him well 
educated, with unusual powers of mind, but infected with misanthropy, 
and subject to perverse moods of alternate enthusiasm and melancholy. 
He had with him many books, but rarely employed them. His chief 
amusements were gunning and fishing, or sauntering along the beach 
and through the myrtles, in quest of shells or entomological 
specimens; - his collection of the latter might have been envied by a 
Swammerdamm. In these excursions he was usually accompanied by an old 
negro, called Jupiter, who had been manumitted before the reverses of 
the family, but who could be induced, neither by threats nor by 
promises, to abandon what he considered his right of attendance upon 
the footsteps of his young "Massa Will." It is not improbable that 
the relatives of Legrand, conceiving him to be somewhat unsettled in 
intellect, had contrived to instil this obstinacy into Jupiter, with 
a view to the supervision and guardianship of the wanderer.
    The winters in the latitude of Sullivan's Island are seldom very 
severe, and in the fall of the year it is a rare event indeed when a 
fire is considered necessary. About the middle of October, 18-, there 
occurred, however, a day of remarkable chilliness. Just before sunset 
I scrambled my way through the evergreens to the hut of my friend, 
whom I had not visited for several weeks - my residence being, at 
that time, in Charleston, a distance of nine miles from the Island, 
while the facilities of passage and re-passage were very far behind 
those of the present day. Upon reaching the hut I rapped, as was my 
custom, and getting no reply, sought for the key where I knew it was 
secreted, unlocked the door and went in. A fine fire was blazing upon 
the hearth. It was a novelty, and by no means an ungrateful one. I 
threw off an overcoat, took an arm-chair by the crackling 
logs, and awaited patiently the arrival of my hosts.
    Soon after dark they arrived, and gave me a most cordial welcome. 
Jupiter, grinning from ear to ear, bustled about to prepare some 
marsh-hens for supper. Legrand was in one of his fits - how else 
shall I term them? - of enthusiasm. He had found an unknown bivalve, 
forming a new genus, and, more than this, he had hunted down and 
secured, with Jupiter's assistance, a scarabæus which he believed to 
be totally new, but in respect to which he wished to have my opinion 
on the morrow.
    "And why not to-night?" I asked, rubbing my hands over the blaze, 
and wishing the whole tribe of scarabæi at the devil.
    "Ah, if I had only known you were here!" said Legrand, "but it's 
so long since I saw you; and how could I foresee that you would pay 
me a visit this very night of all others? As I was coming home I met 
Lieutenant G--, from the fort, and, very foolishly, I lent him the 
bug; so it will be impossible for you to see it until the morning. 
Stay here to-night, and I will send Jup down for it at sunrise. It is 
the loveliest thing in creation!"
    "What? - sunrise?"
    "Nonsense! no! - the bug. It is of a brilliant gold color - about 
the size of a large hickory-nut - with two jet black spots near one 
extremity of the back, and another, somewhat longer, at the other. 
The antennæ are - "
    "Dey aint no tin in him, Massa Will, I keep a tellin on you," 
here interrupted Jupiter; "de bug is a goole bug, solid, ebery bit of 
him, inside and all, sep him wing - neber feel half so hebby a bug in 
my life."
    "Well, suppose it is, Jup," replied Legrand, somewhat more 
earnestly, it seemed to me, than the case demanded, "is that any 
reason for your letting the birds burn? The color" - here he turned 
to me - "is really almost enough to warrant Jupiter's idea. You never 
saw a more brilliant metallic lustre than the scales emit - but of 
this you cannot judge till tomorrow. In the mean time I can give you 
some idea of the shape." Saying this, he seated himself at a small 
table, on which were a pen and ink, but no paper. He looked for some 
in a drawer, but found none.
    "Never mind," said he at length, "this will answer;" and he 
drew from his waistcoat pocket a scrap of what I took to be very 
dirty foolscap, and made upon it a rough drawing with the pen. While 
he did this, I retained my seat by the fire, for I was still chilly. 
When the design was complete, he handed it to me without rising. As I 
received it, a loud growl was heard, succeeded by a scratching at the 
door. Jupiter opened it, and a large Newfoundland, belonging to 
Legrand, rushed in, leaped upon my shoulders, and loaded me with 
caresses; for I had shown him much attention during previous visits. 
When his gambols were over, I looked at the paper, and, to speak the 
truth, found myself not a little puzzled at what my friend had 
    "Well!" I said, after contemplating it for some minutes, "this is 
a strange scarabæus, I must confess: new to me: never saw anything 
like it before - unless it was a skull, or a death's-head - which it 
more nearly resembles than anything else that has come under my 
    "A death's-head!" echoed Legrand -"Oh - yes - well, it has 
something of that appearance upon paper, no doubt. The two upper 
black spots look like eyes, eh? and the longer one at the bottom like 
a mouth - and then the shape of the whole is oval."
    "Perhaps so," said I; "but, Legrand, I fear you are no artist. I 
must wait until I see the beetle itself, if I am to form any idea of 
its personal appearance."
    "Well, I don't know," said he, a little nettled, "I draw 
tolerably - should do it at least - have had good masters, and 
flatter myself that I am not quite a blockhead."
    "But, my dear fellow, you are joking then," said I, "this is a 
very passable skull - indeed, I may say that it is a very excellent 
skull, according to the vulgar notions about such specimens of 
physiology - and your scarabæus must be the queerest scarabæus in the 
world if it resembles it. Why, we may get up a very thrilling bit of 
superstition upon this hint. I presume you will call the bug 
scarabæus caput hominis, or something of that kind - there are many 
similar titles in the Natural Histories. But where are the antennæ 
you spoke of?"
    "The antennæ!" said Legrand, who seemed to be getting 
unaccountably warm upon the subject; "I am sure you must see the 
antennæ. I made them as distinct as they are in the original insect, 
and I presume that is sufficient."
    "Well, well," I said, "perhaps you have - still I don't see 
them;" and I handed him the paper without additional remark, not 
wishing to ruffle his temper; but I was much surprised at the turn 
affairs had taken; his ill humor puzzled me - and, as for the drawing 
of the beetle, there were positively no antennæ visible, and the 
whole did bear a very close resemblance to the ordinary cuts of a 
    He received the paper very peevishly, and was about to crumple 
it, apparently to throw it in the fire, when a casual glance at the 
design seemed suddenly to rivet his attention. In an instant his face 
grew violently red - in another as excessively pale. For some minutes 
he continued to scrutinize the drawing minutely where he sat. At 
length he arose, took a candle from the table, and proceeded to seat 
himself upon a sea-chest in the farthest corner of the room. Here 
again he made an anxious examination of the paper; turning it in all 
directions. He said nothing, however, and his conduct greatly 
astonished me; yet I thought it prudent not to exacerbate the growing 
moodiness of his temper by any comment. Presently he took from his 
coat pocket a wallet, placed the paper carefully in it, and deposited 
both in a writing-desk, which he locked. He now grew more composed in 
his demeanor; but his original air of enthusiasm had quite 
disappeared. Yet he seemed not so much sulky as abstracted. As the 
evening wore away he became more and more absorbed in reverie, from 
which no sallies of mine could arouse him. It had been my intention 
to pass the night at the hut, as I had frequently done before, but, 
seeing my host in this mood, I deemed it proper to take leave. He did 
not press me to remain, but, as I departed, he shook my hand with 
even more than his usual cordiality.
    It was about a month after this (and during the interval I had 
seen nothing of Legrand) when I received a visit, at Charleston, from 
his man, Jupiter. I had never seen the good old negro look so 
dispirited, and I feared that some serious disaster had befallen my 
    "Well, Jup," said I, "what is the matter now? - how is your 
    "Why, to speak de troof, massa, him not so berry well as mought 
    "Not well! I am truly sorry to hear it. What does he complain 
    "Dar! dat's it! - him neber plain of notin - but him berry sick 
for all dat."
    "Very sick, Jupiter! - why didn't you say so at once? Is he 
confined to bed?"
    "No, dat he aint! - he aint find nowhar - dat's just whar de shoe 
pinch - my mind is got to be berry hebby bout poor Massa Will."
    "Jupiter, I should like to understand what it is you are talking 
about. You say your master is sick. Hasn't he told you what ails 
    "Why, massa, taint worf while for to git mad about de matter - 
Massa Will say noffin at all aint de matter wid him - but den what 
make him go about looking dis here way, wid he head down and he 
soldiers up, and as white as a gose? And den he keep a syphon all de 
time - "
    "Keeps a what, Jupiter?"
    "Keeps a syphon wid de figgurs on de slate - de queerest figgurs 
I ebber did see. Ise gittin to be skeered, I tell you. Hab for to 
keep mighty tight eye pon him noovers. Todder day he gib me slip fore 
de sun up and was gone de whole ob de blessed day. I had a big stick 
ready cut for to gib him deuced good beating when he did come - but 
Ise sich a fool dat I hadn't de heart arter all - he look so berry 
    "Eh? - what? - ah yes! - upon the whole I think you had better 
not be too severe with the poor fellow - don't flog him, Jupiter - he 
can't very well stand it - but can you form no idea of what has 
occasioned this illness, or rather this change of conduct? Has 
anything unpleasant happened since I saw you?"
    "No, massa, dey aint bin noffin unpleasant since den - 'twas fore 
den I'm feared - 'twas de berry day you was dare."
    "How? what do you mean?"
    "Why, massa, I mean de bug - dare now."
    "The what?"
    "De bug, - I'm berry sartain dat Massa Will bin bit somewhere 
bout de head by dat goole-bug."
    "And what cause have you, Jupiter, for such a supposition?"
    "Claws enuff, massa, and mouth too. I nebber did see sick a 
deuced bug - he kick and he bite ebery ting what cum near him. Massa 
Will cotch him fuss, but had for to let him go gin mighty quick, I 
tell you - den was de time he must ha got de bite. I did n't like de 
look oh de bug mouff, myself, no how, so I would n't take hold ob him 
wid my finger, but I cotch him wid a piece ob paper dat I found. I 
rap him up in de paper and stuff piece ob it in he mouff - dat was de 
    "And you think, then, that your master was really bitten by the 
beetle, and that the bite made him sick?"
    "I do n't tink noffin about it - I nose it. What make him dream 
bout de goole so much, if taint cause he bit by de goole-bug? Ise 
heerd bout dem goole-bugs fore dis."
    "But how do you know he dreams about gold?"
    "How I know? why cause he talk about it in he sleep - dat's how I 
    "Well, Jup, perhaps you are right; but to what fortunate 
circumstance am I to attribute the honor of a visit from you to-day?"
    "What de matter, massa?"
    "Did you bring any message from Mr. Legrand "
    "No, massa, I bring dis here pissel;" and here Jupiter handed me 
a note which ran thus:
        MY DEAR --
    Why have I not seen you for so long a time? I hope you have not 
been so foolish as to take offence at any little _brusquerie_ of 
mine; but no, that is improbable. Since I saw you I have had great 
cause for anxiety. I have something to tell you, yet scarcely know 
how to tell it, or whether I should tell it at all.
    I have not been quite well for some days past, and poor old Jup 
annoys me, almost beyond endurance, by his well-meant attentions 
Would you believe it? - he had prepared a huge stick, the other day, 
with which to chastise me for giving him the slip, and spending the 
day, _solus_, among the hills on the main land. I verily believe that 
my ill looks alone saved me a flogging.
    I have made no addition to my cabinet since we met.
    If you can, in any way, make it convenient, come over with 
Jupiter. _Do_ come. I wish to see you to-_night_, upon business of 
importance. I assure you that it is of the _highest_ importance.
            Ever yours,                     WILLIAM LEGRAND.
    There was something in the tone of this note which gave me great 
uneasiness. Its whole style differed materially from that of Legrand. 
What could he be dreaming of? What new crotchet possessed his 
excitable brain? What "business of the highest importance" could he 
possibly have to transact? Jupiter's account of him boded no good. I 
dreaded lest the continued pressure of misfortune had, at length, 
fairly unsettled the reason of my friend. Without a moment's 
hesitation, therefore, I prepared to accompany the negro.
    Upon reaching the wharf, I noticed a scythe and three spades, all 
apparently new, lying in the bottom of the boat in which we were to 
    "What is the meaning of all this, Jup?" I inquired.
    "Him syfe, massa, and spade."
    "Very true; but what are they doing here?"
    "Him de syfe and de spade what Massa Will sis pon my buying for 
him in de town, and de debbils own lot of money I had to gib for em."
    "But what, in the name of all that is mysterious, is your 'Massa 
Will' going to do with scythes and spades?"
    "Dat's more dan I know, and debbil take me if I don't blieve 'tis 
more dan he know, too. But it's all cum ob do bug."
    Finding that no satisfaction was to be obtained of Jupiter, whose 
whole intellect seemed to be absorbed by "de bug," I now stepped into 
the boat and made sail. With a fair and strong breeze we soon ran 
into the little cove to the northward of Fort Moultrie, and a walk of 
some two miles brought us to the hut. It was about three in the 
afternoon when we arrived. Legrand had been awaiting us in eager 
expectation. He grasped my hand with a nervous empressement which 
alarmed me and strengthened the suspicions already entertained. His 
countenance was pale even to ghastliness, and his deep-set eyes 
glared with unnatural lustre. After some inquiries respecting his 
health, I asked him, not knowing what better to say, if he had yet 
obtained the scarabæus from Lieutenant G --.
    "Oh, yes," he replied, coloring violently, "I got it from him the 
next morning. Nothing should tempt me to part with that scarabæus. Do 
you know that Jupiter is quite right about it?"
    "In what way?" I asked, with a sad foreboding at heart.
    "In supposing it to be a bug of real gold." He said this with an 
air of profound seriousness, and I felt inexpressibly shocked.
    "This bug is to make my fortune," he continued, with a triumphant 
smile, "to reinstate me in my family possessions. Is it any wonder, 
then, that I prize it? Since Fortune has thought fit to bestow it 
upon me, I have only to use it properly and I shall arrive at the 
gold of which it is the index. Jupiter; bring me that scarabæus!"
    "What! de bug, massa? I'd rudder not go fer trubble dat bug - you 
mus git him for your own self." Hereupon Legrand arose, with a grave 
and stately air, and brought me the beetle from a glass case in which 
it was enclosed. It was a beautiful scarabæus, and, at that time, 
unknown to naturalists - of course a great prize in a scientific 
point of view. There were two round, black spots near one extremity 
of the back, and a long one near the other. The scales were 
exceedingly hard and glossy, with all the appearance of burnished 
gold. The weight of the insect was very remarkable, and, taking all 
things into consideration, I could hardly blame Jupiter for his 
opinion respecting it; but what to make of Legrand's concordance with 
that opinion, I could not, for the life of me, tell.
    "I sent for you," said he, in a grandiloquent tone, when I had 
completed my examination of the beetle, "I sent for you, that I might 
have your counsel and assistance in furthering the views of Fate and 
of the bug" -
    "My dear Legrand," I cried, interrupting him, "you are certainly 
unwell, and had better use some little precautions. You shall go to 
bed, and I will remain with you a few days, until you get over this. 
You are feverish and" -
    "Feel my pulse," said he.
    I felt it, and, to say the truth, found not the slightest 
indication of fever.
    "But you may be ill and yet have no fever. Allow me this once to 
prescribe for you. In the first place, go to bed. In the next" -
    "You are mistaken," he interposed, "I am as well as I can expect 
to be under the excitement which I suffer. If you really wish me 
well, you will relieve this excitement."
    "And how is this to be done?"
    "Very easily. Jupiter and myself are going upon an expedition 
into the hills, upon the main land, and, in this expedition we shall 
need the aid of some person in whom we can confide. You are the only 
one we can trust. Whether we succeed or fail, the excitement which 
you now perceive in me will be equally allayed."
    "I am anxious to oblige you in any way," I replied; "but do you 
mean to say that this infernal beetle has any connection with your 
expedition into the hills?"
    "It has."
    "Then, Legrand, I can become a party to no such absurd 
    "I am sorry - very sorry - for we shall have to try it by 
    "Try it by yourselves! The man is surely mad! - but stay! - how 
long do you propose to be absent?"
    "Probably all night. We shall start immediately, and be back, at 
all events, by sunrise."
    "And will you promise me, upon your honor, that when this freak 
of yours is over, and the bug business (good God!) settled to your 
satisfaction, you will then return home and follow my advice 
implicitly, as that of your physician?"
    "Yes; I promise; and now let us be off, for we have no time to 
    With a heavy heart I accompanied my friend. We started about four 
o'clock - Legrand, Jupiter, the dog, and myself. Jupiter had with him 
the scythe and spades - the whole of which he insisted upon carrying 
- more through fear, it seemed to me, of trusting either of the 
implements within reach of his master, than from any excess of 
industry or complaisance. His demeanor was dogged in the extreme, and 
"dat deuced bug" were the sole words which escaped his lips during 
the journey. For my own part, I had charge of a couple of dark 
lanterns, while Legrand contented himself with the scarabæus, which 
he carried attached to the end of a bit of whip-cord; twirling it to 
and fro, with the air of a conjuror, as he went. When I observed this 
last, plain evidence of my friend's aberration of mind, I could 
scarcely refrain from tears. I thought it best, however, to humor his 
fancy, at least for the present, or until I could adopt some more 
energetic measures with a chance of success. In the mean time I 
endeavored, but all in vain, to sound him in regard to the object of 
the expedition. Having succeeded in inducing me to accompany him, he 
seemed unwilling to hold conversation upon any topic of minor 
importance, and to all my questions vouchsafed no other reply than 
"we shall see!"
    We crossed the creek at the head of the island by means of a 
skiff; and, ascending the high grounds on the shore of the main land, 
proceeded in a northwesterly direction, through a tract of country 
excessively wild and desolate, where no trace of a human footstep was 
to be seen. Legrand led the way with decision; pausing only for an 
instant, here and there, to consult what appeared to be certain 
landmarks of his own contrivance upon a former occasion.
    In this manner we journeyed for about two hours, and the sun was 
just setting when we entered a region infinitely more dreary than any 
yet seen. It was a species of table land, near the summit of an 
almost inaccessible hill, densely wooded from base to pinnacle, and 
interspersed with huge crags that appeared to lie loosely upon the 
soil, and in many cases were prevented from precipitating themselves 
into the valleys below, merely by the support of the trees against 
which they reclined. Deep ravines, in various directions, gave an air 
of still sterner solemnity to the scene.
    The natural platform to which we had clambered was thickly 
overgrown with brambles, through which we soon discovered that it 
would have been impossible to force our way but for the scythe; and 
Jupiter, by direction of his master, proceeded to clear for us a path 
to the foot of an enormously tall tulip-tree, which stood, with some 
eight or ten oaks, upon the level, and far surpassed them all, and 
all other trees which I had then ever seen, in the beauty of its 
foliage and form, in the wide spread of its branches, and in the 
general majesty of its appearance. When we reached this tree, Legrand 
turned to Jupiter, and asked him if he thought he could climb it. The 
old man seemed a little staggered by the question, and for some 
moments made no reply. At length he approached the huge trunk, walked 
slowly around it, and examined it with minute attention. When he had 
completed his scrutiny, he merely said,
    "Yes, massa, Jup climb any tree he ebber see in he life."
    "Then up with you as soon as possible, for it will soon be too 
dark to see what we are about."
    "How far mus go up, massa?" inquired Jupiter.
    "Get up the main trunk first, and then I will tell you which way 
to go - and here - stop! take this beetle with you."
    "De bug, Massa Will! - de goole bug!" cried the negro, drawing 
back in dismay - "what for mus tote de bug way up de tree? - d-n if I 
    "If you are afraid, Jup, a great big negro like you, to take hold 
of a harmless little dead beetle, why you can carry it up by this 
string - but, if you do not take it up with you in some way, I shall 
be under the necessity of breaking your head with this shovel."
    "What de matter now, massa?" said Jup, evidently shamed into 
compliance; "always want for to raise fuss wid old nigger. Was only 
funnin any how. Me feered de bug! what I keer for de bug?" Here he 
took cautiously hold of the extreme end of the string, and, 
maintaining the insect as far from his person as circumstances would 
permit, prepared to ascend the tree.
    In youth, the tulip-tree, or Liriodendron Tulipferum, the most 
magnificent of American foresters, has a trunk peculiarly smooth, and 
often rises to a great height without lateral branches; but, in its 
riper age, the bark becomes gnarled and uneven, while many short 
limbs make their appearance on the stem. Thus the difficulty of 
ascension, in the present case, lay more in semblance than in 
reality. Embracing the huge cylinder, as closely as possible, with 
his arms and knees, seizing with his hands some projections, and 
resting his naked toes upon others, Jupiter, after one or two narrow 
escapes from falling, at length wriggled himself into the first great 
fork, and seemed to consider the whole business as virtually 
accomplished. The risk of the achievement was, in fact, now over, 
although the climber was some sixty or seventy feet from the ground.
    "Which way mus go now, Massa Will?" he asked.
    "Keep up the largest branch - the one on this side," said 
Legrand. The negro obeyed him promptly, and apparently with but 
little trouble; ascending higher and higher, until no glimpse of his 
squat figure could be obtained through the dense foliage which 
enveloped it. Presently his voice was heard in a sort of halloo.
    "How much fudder is got for go?"
    "How high up are you?" asked Legrand.
    "Ebber so fur," replied the negro; "can see de sky fru de top ob 
de tree."
    "Never mind the sky, but attend to what I say. Look down the 
trunk and count the limbs below you on this side. How many limbs have 
you passed?"
    "One, two, tree, four, fibe - I done pass fibe big limb, massa, 
pon dis side."
    "Then go one limb higher."
    In a few minutes the voice was heard again, announcing that the 
seventh limb was attained.
    "Now, Jup," cried Legrand, evidently much excited, "I want you to 
work your way out upon that limb as far as you can. If you see 
anything strange, let me know." By this time what little doubt I 
might have entertained of my poor friend's insanity, was put finally 
at rest. I had no alternative but to conclude him stricken with 
lunacy, and I became seriously anxious about getting him home. While 
I was pondering upon what was best to be done, Jupiter's voice was 
again heard.
    "Mos feerd for to ventur pon dis limb berry far - tis dead limb 
putty much all de way."
    "Did you say it was a dead limb, Jupiter?" cried Legrand in a 
quavering voice.
    "Yes, massa, him dead as de door-nail - done up for sartain - 
done departed dis here life."
    "What in the name heaven shall I do?" asked Legrand, seemingly in 
the greatest distress. "Do!" said I, glad of an opportunity to 
interpose a word, "why come home and go to bed. Come now! - that's a 
fine fellow. It's getting late, and, besides, you remember your 
    "Jupiter," cried he, without heeding me in the least, "do you 
hear me?"
    "Yes, Massa Will, hear you ebber so plain."
    "Try the wood well, then, with your knife, and see if you think 
it very rotten."
    "Him rotten, massa, sure nuff," replied the negro in a few 
moments, "but not so berry rotten as mought be. Mought ventur out 
leetle way pon de limb by myself, dat's true."
    "By yourself! - what do you mean?"
    "Why I mean de bug. 'Tis berry hebby bug. Spose I drop him down 
fuss, and den de limb won't break wid just de weight ob one nigger."
    "You infernal scoundrel!" cried Legrand, apparently much 
relieved, "what do you mean by telling me such nonsense as that? As 
sure as you drop that beetle I'll break your neck. Look here, 
Jupiter, do you hear me?"
    "Yes, massa, needn't hollo at poor nigger dat style."
    "Well! now listen! - if you will venture out on the limb as far 
as you think safe, and not let go the beetle, I'll make you a present 
of a silver dollar as soon as you get down."
    "I'm gwine, Massa Will - deed I is," replied the negro very 
promptly - "mos out to the eend now."
    "Out to the end!" here fairly screamed Legrand, "do you say you 
are out to the end of that limb?"
    "Soon be to de eend, massa, - o-o-o-o-oh! Lor-gol-a-marcy! what 
is dis here pon de tree?"
    "Well!" cried Legrand, highly delighted, "what is it?"
    "Why taint noffin but a skull - somebody bin lef him head up de 
tree, and de crows done gobble ebery bit ob de meat off."
    "A skull, you say! - very well! - how is it fastened to the limb? 
- what holds it on?"
    "Sure nuff, massa; mus look. Why dis berry curous sarcumstance, 
pon my word - dare's a great big nail in de skull, what fastens ob it 
on to de tree."
    "Well now, Jupiter, do exactly as I tell you - do you hear?"
    "Yes, massa."
    "Pay attention, then! - find the left eye of the skull."
    "Hum! hoo! dat's good! why dare aint no eye lef at all."
    "Curse your stupidity! do you know your right hand from your 
    "Yes, I nose dat - nose all bout dat - tis my lef hand what I 
chops de wood wid."
    "To be sure! you are left-handed; and your left. eye is on the 
same side as your left hand. Now, I suppose, you can find the left 
eye of the skull, or the place where the left eye has been. Have you 
found it?"
    Here was a long pause. At length the negro asked,
    "Is de lef eye of de skull pon de same side as de lef hand of de 
skull, too? - cause de skull aint got not a bit ob a hand at all - 
nebber mind! I got de lef eye now - here de lef eye! what mus do wid 
    "Let the beetle drop through it, as far as the string will reach 
- but he careful and not let go your hold of the string."
    "All dat done, Massa Will; mighty easy ting for to put de bug fru 
de hole - look out for him dare below!"
    During this colloquy no portion of Jupiter's person could be 
seen; but the beetle, which he had suffered to descend, was now 
visible at the end of the string, and glistened, like a globe of 
burnished gold, in the last rays of the setting sun, some of which 
still faintly illumined the eminence upon which we stood. The 
scarabæus hung quite clear of any branches, and, if allowed to fall, 
would have fallen at our feet. Legrand immediately took the scythe, 
and cleared with it a circular space, three or four yards in 
diameter, just beneath the insect, and, having accomplished this, 
ordered Jupiter to let go the string and come down from the tree.
    Driving a peg, with great nicety, into the ground, at the precise 
spot where the beetle fell, my friend now produced from his pocket a 
tape measure. Fastening one end of this at that point of the trunk, 
of the tree which was nearest the peg, he unrolled it till it reached 
the peg, and thence farther unrolled it, in the direction already 
established by the two points of the tree and the peg, for the 
distance of fifty feet - Jupiter clearing away the brambles with the 
scythe. At the spot thus attained a second peg was driven, and about 
this, as a centre, a rude circle, about four feet in diameter, 
described. Taking now a spade himself, and giving one to Jupiter and 
one to me, Legrand begged us to set about digging as quickly as 
    To speak the truth, I had no especial relish for such amusement 
at any time, and, at that particular moment, would most willingly 
have declined it; for the night was coming on, and I felt much 
fatigued with the exercise already taken; but I saw no mode of 
escape, and was fearful of disturbing my poor friend's equanimity by 
a refusal. Could I have depended, indeed, upon Jupiter's aid, I would 
have had no hesitation in attempting to get the lunatic home by 
force; but I was too well assured of the old negro's disposition, to 
hope that he would assist me, under any circumstances, in a personal 
contest with his master. I made no doubt that the latter had been 
infected with some of the innumerable Southern superstitions about 
money buried, and that his phantasy had received confirmation by the 
finding of the scarabæus, or, perhaps, by Jupiter's obstinacy in 
maintaining it to be "a bug of real gold." A mind disposed to lunacy 
would readily be led away by such suggestions - especially if chiming 
in with favorite preconceived ideas - and then I called to mind the 
poor fellow's speech about the beetle's being "the index of his 
fortune." Upon the whole, I was sadly vexed and puzzled, but, at 
length, I concluded to make a virtue of necessity - to dig with a 
good will, and thus the sooner to convince the visionary, by ocular 
demonstration, of the fallacy of the opinions he entertained.
    The lanterns having been lit, we all fell to work with a zeal 
worthy a more rational cause; and, as the glare fell upon our persons 
and implements, I could not help thinking how picturesque a group we 
composed, and how strange and suspicious our labors must have 
appeared to any interloper who, by chance, might have stumbled upon 
our whereabouts.
    We dug very steadily for two hours. Little was said; and our 
chief embarrassment lay in the yelpings of the dog, who took 
exceeding interest in our proceedings. He, at length, became so 
obstreperous that we grew fearful of his giving the alarm to some 
stragglers in the vicinity; - or, rather, this was the apprehension 
of Legrand; - for myself, I should have rejoiced at any interruption 
which might have enabled me to get the wanderer home. The noise was, 
at length, very effectually silenced by Jupiter, who, getting out of 
the hole with a dogged air of deliberation, tied the brute's mouth up 
with one of his suspenders, and then returned, with a grave chuckle, 
to his task.
    When the time mentioned had expired, we had reached a depth of 
five feet, and yet no signs of any treasure became manifest. A 
general pause ensued, and I began to hope that the farce was at an 
end. Legrand, however, although evidently much disconcerted, wiped 
his brow thoughtfully and recommenced. We had excavated the entire 
circle of four feet diameter, and now we slightly enlarged the limit, 
and went to the farther depth of two feet. Still nothing appeared. 
The gold-seeker, whom I sincerely pitied, at length clambered from 
the pit, with the bitterest disappointment imprinted upon every 
feature, and proceeded, slowly and reluctantly, to put on his coat, 
which he had thrown off at the beginning of his labor. In the mean 
time I made no remark. Jupiter, at a signal from his master, began to 
gather up his tools. This done, and the dog having been unmuzzled, we 
turned in profound silence towards home.
    We had taken, perhaps, a dozen steps in this direction, when, 
with a loud oath, Legrand strode up to Jupiter, and seized him by the 
collar. The astonished negro opened his eyes and mouth to the fullest 
extent, let fall the spades, and fell upon his knees.
    "You scoundrel," said Legrand, hissing out the syllables from 
between his clenched teeth - "you infernal black villain! - speak, I 
tell you! - answer me this instant, without prevarication! - which - 
which is your left eye?"
    "Oh, my golly, Massa Will! aint dis here my lef eye for sartain?" 
roared the terrified Jupiter, placing his hand upon his right organ 
of vision, and holding it there with a desperate pertinacity, as if 
in immediate dread of his master's attempt at a gouge.
    "I thought so! - I knew it! hurrah!" vociferated Legrand, letting 
the negro go, and executing a series of curvets and caracols, much to 
the astonishment of his valet, who, arising from his knees, looked, 
mutely, from his master to myself, and then from myself to his 
    "Come! we must go back," said the latter, "the game's not up 
yet;" and he again led the way to the tulip-tree.
    "Jupiter," said he, when we reached its foot, "come here! was the 
skull nailed to the limb with the face outwards, or with the face to 
the limb?"
    "De face was out, massa, so dat de crows could get at de eyes 
good, widout any trouble."
    "Well, then, was it this eye or that through which you dropped 
the beetle?" - here Legrand touched each of Jupiter's eyes.
    "Twas dis eye, massa - de lef eye - jis as you tell me," and here 
it was his right eye that the negro indicated.
    "That will do - must try it again."
    Here my friend, about whose madness I now saw, or fancied that I 
saw, certain indications of method, removed the peg which marked the 
spot where the beetle fell, to a spot about three inches to the 
westward of its former position. Taking, now, the tape measure from 
the nearest point of the trunk to the peg, as before, and continuing 
the extension in a straight line to the distance of fifty feet, a 
spot was indicated, removed, by several yards, from the point at 
which we had been digging.
    Around the new position a circle, somewhat larger than in the 
former instance, was now described, and we again set to work with the 
spades. I was dreadfully weary, but, scarcely understanding what had 
occasioned the change in my thoughts, I felt no longer any great 
aversion from the labor imposed. I had become most unaccountably 
interested - nay, even excited. Perhaps there was something, amid all 
the extravagant demeanor of Legrand - some air of forethought, or of 
deliberation, which impressed me. I dug eagerly, and now and then 
caught myself actually looking, with something that very much 
resembled expectation, for the fancied treasure, the vision of which 
had demented my unfortunate companion. At a period when such vagaries 
of thought most fully possessed me, and when we had been at work 
perhaps an hour and a half, we were again interrupted by the violent 
howlings of the dog. His uneasiness, in the first instance, had been, 
evidently, but the result of playfulness or caprice, but he now 
assumed a bitter and serious tone. Upon Jupiter's again attempting to 
muzzle him, he made furious resistance, and, leaping into the hole, 
tore up the mould frantically with his claws. In a few seconds he had 
uncovered a mass of human bones, forming two complete skeletons, 
intermingled with several buttons of metal, and what appeared to be 
the dust of decayed woollen. One or two strokes of a spade upturned 
the blade of a large Spanish knife, and, as we dug farther, three or 
four loose pieces of gold and silver coin came to light.
    At sight of these the joy of Jupiter could scarcely be 
restrained, but the countenance of his master wore an air of extreme 
disappointment He urged us, however, to continue our exertions, and 
the words were hardly uttered when I stumbled and fell forward, 
having caught the toe of my boot in a large ring of iron that lay 
half buried in the loose earth.
    We now worked in earnest, and never did I pass ten minutes of 
more intense excitement. During this interval we had fairly unearthed 
an oblong chest of wood, which, from its perfect preservation and 
wonderful hardness, had plainly been subjected to some mineralizing 
process - perhaps that of the Bi-chloride of Mercury. This box was 
three feet and a half long, three feet broad, and two and a half feet 
deep. It was firmly secured by bands of wrought iron, riveted, and 
forming a kind of open trelliswork over the whole. On each side of 
the chest, near the top, were three rings of iron - six in all - by 
means of which a firm hold could be obtained by six persons. Our 
utmost united endeavors served only to disturb the coffer very 
slightly in its bed. We at once saw the impossibility of removing so 
great a weight. Luckily, the sole fastenings of the lid consisted of 
two sliding bolts. These we drew back - trembling and panting with 
anxiety. In an instant, a treasure of incalculable value lay gleaming 
before us. As the rays of the lanterns fell within the pit, there 
flashed upwards a glow and a glare, from a confused heap of gold and 
of jewels, that absolutely dazzled our eyes.
    I shall not pretend to describe the feelings with which I gazed. 
Amazement was, of course, predominant. Legrand appeared exhausted 
with excitement, and spoke very few words. Jupiter's 
countenance wore, for some minutes, as deadly a pallor as it is 
possible, in nature of things, for any negro's visage to assume. He 
seemed stupified - thunderstricken. Presently he fell upon his knees 
in the pit, and, burying his naked arms up to the elbows in gold, let 
them there remain, as if enjoying the luxury of a bath. At length, 
with a deep sigh, he exclaimed, as if in a soliloquy,
    "And dis all cum ob de goole-bug! de putty goole bug! de poor 
little goole-bug, what I boosed in dat sabage kind ob style! Aint you 
shamed ob yourself, nigger? - answer me dat!"
    It became necessary, at last, that I should arouse both master 
and valet to the expediency of removing the treasure. It was growing 
late, and it behooved us to make exertion, that we might get every 
thing housed before daylight. It was difficult to say what should be 
done, and much time was spent in deliberation - so confused were the 
ideas of all. We, finally, lightened the box by removing two thirds 
of its contents, when we were enabled, with some trouble, to raise it 
from the hole. The articles taken out were deposited among the 
brambles, and the dog left to guard them, with strict orders from 
Jupiter neither, upon any pretence, to stir from the spot, nor to 
open his mouth until our return. We then hurriedly made for home with 
the chest; reaching the hut in safety, but after excessive toil, at 
one o'clock in the morning. Worn out as we were, it was not in human 
nature to do more immediately. We rested until two, and had supper; 
starting for the hills immediately afterwards, armed with three stout 
sacks, which, by good luck, were upon the premises. A little before 
four we arrived at the pit, divided the remainder of the booty, as 
equally as might be, among us, and, leaving the holes unfilled, again 
set out for the hut, at which, for the second time, we deposited our 
golden burthens, just as the first faint streaks of the dawn gleamed 
from over the tree-tops in the East.
    We were now thoroughly broken down; but the intense excitement of 
the time denied us repose. After an unquiet slumber of some three or 
four hours' duration, we arose, as if by preconcert, to make 
examination of our treasure.
    The chest had been full to the brim, and we spent the whole day, 
and the greater part of the next night, in a scrutiny of its 
contents. There had been nothing like order or arrangement. Every 
thing had been heaped in promiscuously. Having assorted all with 
care, we found ourselves possessed of even vaster wealth than we had 
at first supposed. In coin there was rather more than four hundred 
and fifty thousand dollars - estimating the value of the pieces, as 
accurately as we could, by the tables of the period. There was not a 
particle of silver. All was gold of antique date and of great variety 
- French, Spanish, and German money, with a few English guineas, and 
some counters, of which we had never seen specimens before. There 
were several very large and heavy coins, so worn that we could make 
nothing of their inscriptions. There was no American money. The value 
of the jewels we found more difficulty in estimating. There were 
diamonds - some of them exceedingly large and fine - a hundred and 
ten in all, and not one of them small; eighteen rubies of remarkable 
brilliancy; - three hundred and ten emeralds, all very beautiful; and 
twenty-one sapphires, with an opal. These stones had all been broken 
from their settings and thrown loose in the chest. The settings 
themselves, which we picked out from among the other gold, appeared 
to have been beaten up with hammers, as if to prevent identification. 
Besides all this, there was a vast quantity of solid gold ornaments; 
- nearly two hundred massive finger and earrings; - rich chains - 
thirty of these, if I remember; - eighty-three very large and heavy 
crucifixes; - five gold censers of great value; - a prodigious golden 
punch bowl, ornamented with richly chased vine-leaves and 
Bacchanalian figures; with two sword-handles exquisitely embossed, 
and many other smaller articles which I cannot recollect. The weight 
of these valuables exceeded three hundred and fifty pounds 
avoirdupois; and in this estimate I have not included one hundred and 
ninety-seven superb gold watches; three of the number being worth 
each five hundred dollars, if one. Many of them were very old, and as 
time keepers valueless; the works having suffered, more or less, from 
corrosion - but all were richly jewelled and in cases of great worth. 
We estimated the entire contents of the chest, that night, at a 
million and a half of dollars; and upon the subsequent disposal of 
the trinkets and jewels (a  few being retained for our own 
use), it was found that we had greatly undervalued the treasure. 
When, at length, we had concluded our examination, and the intense 
excitement of the time had, in some measure, subsided, Legrand, who 
saw that I was dying with impatience for a solution of this most 
extraordinary riddle, entered into a full detail of all the 
circumstances connected with it.
    "You remember;" said he, "the night when I handed you the rough 
sketch I had made of the scarabæus. You recollect also, that I became 
quite vexed at you for insisting that my drawing resembled a 
death's-head. When you first made this assertion I thought you were 
jesting; but afterwards I called to mind the peculiar spots on the 
back of the insect, and admitted to myself that your remark had some 
little foundation in fact. Still, the sneer at my graphic powers 
irritated me - for I am considered a good artist - and, therefore, 
when you handed me the scrap of parchment, I was about to crumple it 
up and throw it angrily into the fire."
    "The scrap of paper, you mean," said I.
    "No; it had much of the appearance of paper, and at first I 
supposed it to be such, but when I came to draw upon it, I discovered 
it, at once, to be a piece of very thin parchment. It was quite 
dirty, you remember. Well, as I was in the very act of crumpling it 
up, my glance fell upon the sketch at which you had been looking, and 
you may imagine my astonishment when I perceived, in fact, the figure 
of a death's-head just where, it seemed to me, I had made the drawing 
of the beetle. For a moment I was too much amazed to think with 
accuracy. I knew that my design was very different in detail from 
this - although there was a certain similarity in general outline. 
Presently I took a candle, and seating myself at the other end of the 
room, proceeded to scrutinize the parchment more closely. Upon 
turning it over, I saw my own sketch upon the reverse, just as I had 
made it. My first idea, now, was mere surprise at the really 
remarkable similarity of outline - at the singular coincidence 
involved in the fact, that unknown to me, there should have been a 
skull upon the other side of the parchment, immediately beneath my 
figure of the scarabæus, and that this skull, not only in outline, 
but in size, should so closely resemble my drawing. I say 
the singularity of this coincidence absolutely stupified me for a 
time. This is the usual effect of such coincidences. The mind 
struggles to establish a connexion - a sequence of cause and effect - 
and, being unable to do so, suffers a species of temporary paralysis. 
But, when I recovered from this stupor, there dawned upon me 
gradually a conviction which startled me even far more than the 
coincidence. I began distinctly, positively, to remember that there 
had been no drawing upon the parchment when I made my sketch of the 
scarabæus. I became perfectly certain of this; for I recollected 
turning up first one side and then the other, in search of the 
cleanest spot. Had the skull been then there, of course I could not 
have failed to notice it. Here was indeed a mystery which I felt it 
impossible to explain; but, even at that early moment, there seemed 
to glimmer, faintly, within the most remote and secret chambers of my 
intellect, a glow-worm-like conception of that truth which last 
night's adventure brought to so magnificent a demonstration. I arose 
at once, and putting the parchment securely away, dismissed all 
farther reflection until I should be alone.
    "When you had gone, and when Jupiter was fast asleep, I betook 
myself to a more methodical investigation of the affair. In the first 
place I considered the manner in which the parchment had come into my 
possession. The spot where we discovered the scarabaeus was on the 
coast of the main land, about a mile eastward of the island, and but 
a short distance above high water mark. Upon my taking hold of it, it 
gave me a sharp bite, which caused me to let it drop. Jupiter, with 
his accustomed caution, before seizing the insect, which had flown 
towards him, looked about him for a leaf, or something of that 
nature, by which to take hold of it. It was at this moment that his 
eyes, and mine also, fell upon the scrap of parchment, which I then 
supposed to be paper. It was lying half buried in the sand, a corner 
sticking up. Near the spot where we found it, I observed the remnants 
of the hull of what appeared to have been a ship's long boat. The 
wreck seemed to have been there for a very great while; for the 
resemblance to boat timbers could scarcely be traced.
    "Well, Jupiter picked up the parchment, wrapped the beetle in it, 
and gave it to me. Soon afterwards we turned to go home, and on the 
way met Lieutenant G-. I showed him the insect, and he begged me to 
let him take it to the fort. Upon my consenting, he thrust it 
forthwith into his waistcoat pocket, without the parchment in which 
it had been wrapped, and which I had continued to hold in my hand 
during his inspection. Perhaps he dreaded my changing my mind, and 
thought it best to make sure of the prize at once - you know how 
enthusiastic he is on all subjects connected with Natural History. At 
the same time, without being conscious of it, I must have deposited 
the parchment in my own pocket.
    "You remember that when I went to the table, for the purpose of 
making a sketch of the beetle, I found no paper where it was usually 
kept. I looked in the drawer, and found none there. I searched my 
pockets, hoping to find an old letter, when my hand fell upon the 
parchment. I thus detail the precise mode in which it came into my 
possession; for the circumstances impressed me with peculiar force.
    "No doubt you will think me fanciful - but I had already 
established a kind of connexion. I had put together two links of a 
great chain. There was a boat lying upon a sea-coast, and not far 
from the boat was a parchment - not a paper - with a skull depicted 
upon it. You will, of course, ask 'where is the connexion?' I reply 
that the skull, or death's-head, is the well-known emblem of the 
pirate. The flag of the death's head is hoisted in all engagements.
    "I have said that the scrap was parchment, and not paper. 
Parchment is durable - almost imperishable. Matters of little moment 
are rarely consigned to parchment; since, for the mere ordinary 
purposes of drawing or writing, it is not nearly so well adapted as 
paper. This reflection suggested some meaning - some relevancy - in 
the death's-head. I did not fail to observe, also, the form of the 
parchment. Although one of its corners had been, by some accident, 
destroyed, it could be seen that the original form was oblong. It was 
just such a slip, indeed, as might have been chosen for a memorandum 
- for a record of something to be long remembered and carefully 
    "But," I interposed, "you say that the skull was not upon the 
parchment when you made the drawing of the beetle. How then do you 
trace any connexion between the boat and the skull - since this 
latter, according to your own admission, must have been designed (God 
only knows how or by whom) at some period subsequent to your 
sketching the scarabæus?"
    "Ah, hereupon turns the whole mystery; although the secret, at 
this point, I had comparatively little difficulty in solving. My 
steps were sure, and could afford but a single result. I reasoned, 
for example, thus: When I drew the scarabæus, there was no skull 
apparent upon the parchment. When I had completed the drawing I gave 
it to you, and observed you narrowly until you returned it. You, 
therefore, did not design the skull, and no one else was present to 
do it. Then it was not done by human agency. And nevertheless it was 
done. "At this stage of my reflections I endeavored to remember, and 
did remember, with entire distinctness, every incident which occurred 
about the period in question. The weather was chilly (oh rare and 
happy accident!), and a fire was blazing upon the hearth. I was 
heated with exercise and sat near the table. You, however, had drawn 
a chair close to the chimney. Just as I placed the parchment in your 
hand, and as you were in the act of in. inspecting it, Wolf, the 
Newfoundland, entered, and leaped upon your shoulders. With your left 
hand you caressed him and kept him off, while your right, holding the 
parchment, was permitted to fall listlessly between your knees, and 
in close proximity to the fire. At one moment I thought the blaze had 
caught it, and was about to caution you, but, before I could speak, 
you had withdrawn it, and were engaged in its examination. When I 
considered all these particulars, I doubted not for a moment that 
heat had been the agent in bringing to light, upon the parchment, the 
skull which I saw designed upon it. You are well aware that chemical 
preparations exist, and have existed time out of mind, by means of 
which it is possible to write upon either paper or vellum, so that 
the characters shall become visible only when subjected to the action 
of fire. Zaffre, digested in aqua regia, and diluted with four times 
its weight of water, is sometimes employed; a green tint results. The 
regulus of cobalt, dissolved in spirit of nitre, gives a red. These 
colors disappear at longer or shorter intervals after the material 
written upon cools, but again become apparent upon the 
re-application of heat.
    "I now scrutinized the death's-head with care. Its outer edges - 
the edges of the drawing nearest the edge of the vellum - were far 
more distinct than the others. It was clear that the action of the 
caloric had been imperfect or unequal. I immediately kindled a fire, 
and subjected every portion of the parchment to a glowing heat. At 
first, the only effect was the strengthening of the faint lines in 
the skull; but, upon persevering in the experiment, there became 
visible, at the corner of the slip, diagonally opposite to the spot 
in which the death's-head was delineated, the figure of what I at 
first supposed to be a goat. A closer scrutiny, however, satisfied me 
that it was intended for a kid."
    "Ha! ha!" said I, "to be sure I have no right to laugh at you - a 
million and a half of money is too serious a matter for mirth - but 
you are not about to establish a third link in your chain - you will 
not find any especial connexion between your pirates and a goat - 
pirates, you know, have nothing to do with goats; they appertain to 
the farming interest."
    "But I have just said that the figure was not that of a goat."
    "Well, a kid then - pretty much the same thing."
    "Pretty much, but not altogether," said Legrand. "You may have 
heard of one Captain Kidd. I at once looked upon the figure of the 
animal as a kind of punning or hieroglyphical signature. I say 
signature; because its position upon the vellum suggested this idea. 
The death's-head at the corner diagonally opposite, had, in the same 
manner, the air of a stamp, or seal. But I was sorely put out by the 
absence of all else - of the body to my imagined instrument - of the 
text for my context."
    "I presume you expected to find a letter between the stamp and 
the signature."
    "Something of that kind. The fact is, I felt irresistibly 
impressed with a presentiment of some vast good fortune impending. I 
can scarcely say why. Perhaps, after all, it was rather a desire than 
an actual belief; - but do you know that Jupiter's silly words, about 
the bug being of solid gold, had a remarkable effect upon my fancy? 
And then the series of accidents and coincidences - these were so 
very extraordinary. Do you observe how mere an accident it was that 
these events should have occurred upon the sole day of all the year 
in which it has been, or may be, sufficiently cool for fire, and that 
without the fire, or without the intervention of the dog at the 
precise moment in which he appeared, I should never have become aware 
of the death's-head, and so never the possessor of the treasure?"
    "But proceed - I am all impatience."
    "Well; you have heard, of course, the many stories current - the 
thousand vague rumors afloat about money buried, somewhere upon the 
Atlantic coast, by Kidd and his associates. These rumors must have 
had some foundation in fact. And that the rumors have existed so long 
and so continuous, could have resulted, it appeared to me, only from 
the circumstance of the buried treasure still remaining entombed. Had 
Kidd concealed his plunder for a time, and afterwards reclaimed it, 
the rumors would scarcely have reached us in their present unvarying 
form. You will observe that the stories told are all about 
money-seekers, not about money-finders. Had the pirate recovered his 
money, there the affair would have dropped. It seemed to me that some 
accident - say the loss of a memorandum indicating its locality - had 
deprived him of the means of recovering it, and that this accident 
had become known to his followers, who otherwise might never have 
heard that treasure had been concealed at all, and who, busying 
themselves in vain, because unguided attempts, to regain it, had 
given first birth, and then universal currency, to the reports which 
are now so common. Have you ever heard of any important treasure 
being unearthed along the coast?"
    "But that Kidd's accumulations were immense, is well known. I 
took it for granted, therefore, that the earth still held them; and 
you will scarcely be surprised when I tell you that I felt a hope, 
nearly amounting to certainty, that the parchment so strangely found, 
involved a lost record of the place of deposit."
    "But how did you proceed?"
    "I held the vellum again to the fire, after increasing the heat; 
but nothing appeared. I now thought it possible that the coating of 
dirt might have something to do with the failure; so I carefully 
rinsed the parchment by pouring warm water over it, and, 
having done this, I placed it in a tin pan, with the skull downwards, 
and put the pan upon a furnace of lighted charcoal. In a few minutes, 
the pan having become thoroughly heated, I removed the slip, and, to 
my inexpressible joy, found it spotted, in several places, with what 
appeared to be figures arranged in lines. Again I placed it in the 
pan, and suffered it to remain another minute. Upon taking it off, 
the whole was just as you see it now." Here Legrand, having re-heated 
the parchment, submitted it to my inspection. The following 
characters were rudely traced, in a red tint, between the 
death's-head and the goat:
;46(;88*96*?;8)*‡(;485);5*†2:*‡(;4956*2(5*- 4)8¶8*;40692
    "But," said I, returning him the slip, "I am as much in the dark 
as ever. Were all the jewels of Golconda awaiting me upon my solution 
of this enigma, I am quite sure that I should be unable to earn 
    "And yet," said Legrand, "the solution is by no means so 
difficult as you might be lead to imagine from the first hasty 
inspection of the characters. These characters, as any one might 
readily guess, form a cipher - that is to say, they convey a meaning; 
but then, from what is known of Kidd, I could not suppose him capable 
of constructing any of the more abstruse cryptographs. I made up my 
mind, at once, that this was of a simple species - such, however, as 
would appear, to the crude intellect of the sailor, absolutely 
insoluble without the key."
    "And you really solved it?"
    "Readily; I have solved others of an abstruseness ten thousand 
times greater. Circumstances, and a certain bias of mind, have led me 
to take interest in such riddles, and it may well be doubted whether 
human ingenuity can construct an enigma of the kind which human 
ingenuity may not, by proper application, resolve. In fact, having 
once established connected and legible characters, I scarcely gave a 
thought to the mere difficulty of developing their import.
    "In the present case - indeed in all cases of secret writing - 
the first question regards the language of the cipher; for the 
principles of solution, so far, especially, as the more simple 
ciphers are concerned, depend upon, and are varied by, the genius of 
the particular idiom. In general, there is no alternative but 
experiment (directed by probabilities) of every tongue known to him 
who attempts the solution, until the true one be attained. But, with 
the cipher now before us, all difficulty was removed by the 
signature. The pun upon the word 'Kidd' is appreciable in no other 
language than the English. But for this consideration I should have 
begun my attempts with the Spanish and French, as the tongues in 
which a secret of this kind would most naturally have been written by 
a pirate of the Spanish main. As it was, I assumed the cryptograph to 
be English.
    "You observe there are no divisions between the words. Had there 
been divisions, the task would have been comparatively easy. In such 
case I should have commenced with a collation and analysis of the 
shorter words, and, had a word of a single letter occurred, as is 
most likely, (a or I, for example,) I should have considered the 
solution as assured. But, there being no division, my first step was 
to ascertain the predominant letters, as well as the least frequent. 
Counting all, I constructed a table, thus:
    Of the character          8 there are    33.
                              ;        "     26.
                              4        "     19.
                            ‡ )        "     16.
                              *        "     13.
                              5        "     12.
                              6        "     11.
                            † 1        "      8.
                              0        "      6.
                           9 2         "      5.
                            : 3        "      4.
                              ?        "      3.
                              ¶        "      2.
                              -.       "      1.
    "Now, in English, the letter which most frequently occurs is e. 
Afterwards, succession runs thus: _a o i d h n r s t u y c f g l m w 
b k p q x z_. _E_ predominates so remarkably that an individual 
sentence of any length is rarely seen, in which it is not the 
prevailing character.
    "Here, then, we leave, in the very beginning, the groundwork for 
something more than a mere guess. The general use which may be made 
of the table is obvious - but, in this particular cipher, we shall 
only very partially require its aid. As our predominant character is 
8, we will commence by assuming it as the _e_ of the natural 
alphabet. To verify the supposition, let us observe if the 8 be seen 
often in couples - for _e_ is doubled with great frequency in English 
- in such words, for example, as 'meet,' '.fleet,' 'speed,' 'seen,' 
been,' 'agree,' &c. In the present instance we see it doubled no less 
than five times, although the cryptograph is brief.
    "Let us assume 8, then, as _e_. Now, of all _words_ in the 
language, 'the' is most usual; let us see, therefore, whether there 
are not repetitions of any three characters, in the same order of 
collocation, the last of them being 8. If we discover repetitions of 
such letters, so arranged, they will most probably represent the word 
'the.' Upon inspection, we find no less than seven such arrangements, 
the characters being ;48. We may, therefore, assume that ; represents 
_t_, 4 represents _h_, and 8 represents _e_ - the last being now well 
confirmed. Thus a great step has been taken.
    "But, having established a single word, we are enabled to 
establish a vastly important point; that is to say, several 
commencements and terminations of other words. Let us refer, for 
example, to the last instance but one, in which the combination ;48 
occurs - not far from the end of the cipher. We know that the ; 
immediately ensuing is the commencement of a word, and, of the six 
characters succeeding this 'the,' we are cognizant of no less than 
five. Let us set these characters down, thus, by the letters we know 
them to represent, leaving a space for the unknown -
t eeth.
    "Here we are enabled, at once, to discard the 'th,' as forming no 
portion of the word commencing with the first t; since, by experiment 
of the entire alphabet for a letter adapted to the vacancy, we 
perceive that no word can be formed of which this _th_ can be a part. 
We are thus narrowed into
t ee,
and, going through the alphabet, if necessary, as before, we arrive 
at the word 'tree,' as the sole possible reading. We thus gain 
another letter, _r_, represented by (, with the words 'the tree' in 
    "Looking beyond these words, for a short distance, we again see 
the combination ;48, and employ it by way of _termination_ to what 
immediately precedes. We have thus this arrangement:
the tree ;4(‡?34 the,
or, substituting the natural letters, where known, it reads thus:
the tree thr‡?3h the.
    "Now, if, in place of the unknown characters, we leave blank 
spaces, or substitute dots, we read thus:
the tree thr...h the,
when the word '_through_' makes itself evident at once. But this 
discovery gives us three new letters, _o_, _u_ and _g_, represented 
by ‡ ? and 3.
    "Looking now, narrowly, through the cipher for combinations of 
known characters, we find, not very far from the beginning, this 
83(88, or egree,
which, plainly, is the conclusion of the word 'degree,' and gives us 
another letter, _d_, represented by †.
    "Four letters beyond the word 'degree,' we perceive the 
    "Translating the known characters, and representing the unknown 
by dots, as before, we read thus: th rtee. an arrangement immediately 
suggestive of the word 'thirteen,' and again furnishing us with two 
new characters, _i_ and _n_, represented by 6 and *.
    "Referring, now, to the beginning of the cryptograph, we find the 
    "Translating, as before, we obtain
which assures us that the first letter is _A_, and that the first two 
words are 'A good.'
    "It is now time that we arrange our key, as far as discovered, in 
a tabular form, to avoid confusion. It will stand thus:
                    5 represents      a
                    †       "         d
                    8       "         e
                    3       "         g
                    4       "         h
                    6       "         i
                    *       "         n
                    ‡       "         o
                    (        "         r
                    ;        "         t
    "We have, therefore, no less than ten of the most important 
letters represented, and it will be unnecessary to proceed with the 
details of the solution. I have said enough to convince you that 
ciphers of this nature are readily soluble, and to give you some 
insight into the rationale of their development. But be assured that 
the specimen before us appertains to the very simplest species of 
cryptograph. It now only remains to give you the full translation of 
the characters upon the parchment, as unriddled. Here it is:
    " '_A good glass in the bishop's hostel in the devil's seat 
forty-one degrees and thirteen minutes northeast and by north main 
branch seventh limb east side shoot from the left eye of the 
death's-head a bee line from the tree through the shot fifty feet 
out_.' "
    "But," said I, "the enigma seems still in as bad a condition as 
ever. How is it possible to extort a meaning from all this jargon 
about 'devil's seats,' 'death's heads,' and 'bishop's hotels?' "
    "I confess," replied Legrand, "that the matter still wears a 
serious aspect, when regarded with a casual glance. My first endeavor 
was to divide the sentence into the natural division intended by the 
    "You mean, to punctuate it?"
    "Something of that kind."
    "But how was it possible to effect this?"
    "I reflected that it had been a point with the writer to run his 
words together without division, so as to increase the difficulty of 
solution. Now, a not over-acute man, in pursuing such an object would 
be nearly certain to overdo the matter. When, in the course of his 
composition, he arrived at a break in his subject which would 
naturally require a pause, or a point, he would be exceedingly apt to 
run his characters, at this place, more than usually close together. 
If you will observe the MS., in the present instance, you will easily 
detect five such cases of unusual crowding. Acting upon this hint, I 
made the division thus: 'A good glass in the Bishop's hostel in the 
Devil's seat - forty-one degrees and thirteen minutes - northeast and 
by north - main branch seventh limb east side - shoot from the left 
eye of the death's-head - a bee-line from the tree through the shot 
fifty feet out.' "
    "Even this division," said I, "leaves me still in the dark."
    "It left me also in the dark," replied Legrand, "for a few days; 
during which I made diligent inquiry, in the neighborhood of 
Sullivan's Island, for any building which went by the name of the 
'Bishop's Hotel;' for, of course, I dropped the obsolete word 
'hostel.' Gaining no information on the subject, I was on the point 
of extending my sphere of search, and proceeding in a more systematic 
manner, when, one morning, it entered into my head, quite suddenly, 
that this 'Bishop's Hostel' might have some reference to an old 
family, of the name of Bessop, which, time out of mind, had held 
possession of an ancient manor-house, about four miles to the 
northward of the Island. I accordingly went over to the plantation, 
and re-instituted my inquiries among the older negroes of the place. 
At length one of the most aged of the women said that she had heard 
of such a place as Bessop's Castle, and thought that she could guide 
me to it, but that it was not a castle nor a tavern, but a high rock.
    "I offered to pay her well for her trouble, and, after some 
demur, she consented to accompany me to the spot. We found it without 
much difficulty, when, dismissing her, I proceeded to examine the 
place. The 'castle' consisted of an irregular assemblage of cliffs 
and rocks - one of the latter being quite remarkable for its height 
as well as for its insulated and artificial appearance I clambered to 
its apex, and then felt much at a loss as to what should be next 
    "While I was busied in reflection, my eyes fell upon a narrow 
ledge in the eastern face of the rock, perhaps a yard below the 
summit upon which I stood. This ledge projected about eighteen 
inches, and was not more than a foot wide, while a niche in the cliff 
just above it, gave it a rude resemblance to one of the hollow-backed 
chairs used by our ancestors. I made no doubt that here was the 
'devil's seat' alluded to in the MS., and now I seemed to grasp the 
full secret of the riddle.
    "The 'good glass,' I knew, could have reference to nothing but a 
telescope; for the word 'glass' is rarely employed in any other sense 
by seamen. Now here, I at once saw, was a telescope to be used, and a 
definite point of view, admitting no variation, from which to use it. 
Nor did I hesitate to believe that the phrases, "forty-one degrees 
and thirteen minutes,' and 'northeast and by north,' were intended as 
directions for the levelling of the glass. Greatly excited by these 
discoveries, I hurried home, procured a telescope, and returned to 
the rock.
    "I let myself down to the ledge, and found that it was impossible 
to retain a seat upon it except in one particular position. This fact 
confirmed my preconceived idea. I proceeded to use the glass. Of 
course, the 'forty-one degrees and thirteen minutes' could allude to 
nothing but elevation above the visible horizon, since the horizontal 
direction was clearly indicated by the words, 'northeast and by 
north.' This latter direction I at once established by means of a 
pocket-compass; then, pointing the glass as nearly at an angle of 
forty-one degrees of elevation as I could do it by guess, I moved it 
cautiously up or down, until my attention was arrested by a circular 
rift or opening in the foliage of a large tree that overtopped its 
fellows in the distance. In the centre of this rift I perceived a 
white spot, but could not, at first, distinguish what it was. 
Adjusting the focus of the telescope, I again looked, and now made it 
out to be a human skull.
    "Upon this discovery I was so sanguine as to consider the enigma 
solved; for the phrase 'main branch, seventh limb, east side,' could 
refer only to the position of the skull upon the tree, while 'shoot 
from the left eye of the death's head' admitted, also, of but one 
interpretation, in regard to a search for buried treasure. I 
perceived that the design was to drop a bullet from the left eye of 
the skull, and that a bee-line, or, in other words, a straight line, 
drawn from the nearest point of the trunk through 'the shot,' (or the 
spot where the bullet fell,) and thence extended to a distance of 
fifty feet, would indicate a definite point - and beneath this point 
I thought it at least possible that a deposit of value lay 
    "All this," I said, "is exceedingly clear, and, although 
ingenious, still simple and explicit. When you left the Bishop's 
Hotel, what then?"
    "Why, having carefully taken the bearings of the tree, I turned 
homewards. The instant that I left 'the devil's seat,' however, the 
circular rift vanished; nor could I get a glimpse of it afterwards, 
turn as I would. What seems to me the chief ingenuity in this whole 
business, is the fact (for repeated experiment has convinced me it is 
a fact) that the circular opening in question is visible from no 
other attainable point of view than that afforded by the narrow ledge 
upon the face of the rock.
    "In this expedition to the 'Bishop's Hotel' I had been attended 
by Jupiter, who had, no doubt, observed, for some weeks past, the 
abstraction of my demeanor, and took especial care not to leave me 
alone. But, on the next day, getting up very early, I contrived to 
give him the slip, and went into the hills in search of the tree. 
After much toil I found it. When I came home at night my valet 
proposed to give me a flogging. With the rest of the adventure I 
believe you are as well acquainted as myself."
    "I suppose," said I, "you missed the spot, in the first attempt 
at digging, through Jupiter's stupidity in letting the bug fall 
through the right instead of through the left eye of the skull."
    "Precisely. This mistake made a difference of about two inches 
and a half in the 'shot' - that is to say, in the position of the peg 
nearest the tree; and had the treasure been beneath the 'shot,' the 
error would have been of little moment; but 'the shot,' together with 
the nearest point of the tree, were merely two points for the 
establishment of a line of direction; of course the error, however 
trivial in the beginning, increased as we proceeded with the line, 
and by the time we had gone fifty feet, threw us quite off the scent. 
But for my deep-seated impressions that treasure was here somewhere 
actually buried, we might have had all our labor in vain."
    "But your grandiloquence, and your conduct in swinging the beetle 
- how excessively odd! I was sure you were mad. And why did you 
insist upon letting fall the bug, instead of a bullet, from the 
    "Why, to be frank, I felt somewhat annoyed by your evident 
suspicions touching my sanity, and so resolved to punish you quietly, 
in my own way, by a little bit of sober mystification. For this 
reason I swung the beetle, and for this reason I let it fall it from 
the tree. An observation of yours about its great weight suggested 
the latter idea."
    "Yes, I perceive; and now there is only one point which puzzles 
me. What are we to make of the skeletons found in the hole?"
    "That is a question I am no more able to answer than yourself. 
There seems, however, only one plausible way of accounting for them - 
and yet it is dreadful to believe in such atrocity as my suggestion 
would imply. It is clear that Kidd - if Kidd indeed secreted this 
treasure, which I doubt not - it is clear that he must have had 
assistance in the labor. But this labor concluded, he may have 
thought it expedient to remove all participants in his secret. 
Perhaps a couple of blows with a mattock were sufficient, while his 
coadjutors were busy in the pit; perhaps it required a dozen - who 
shall tell?"
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